MCID: PLY006
MIFTS: 56

Polydactyly malady

Categories: Rare diseases, Bone diseases, Fetal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Polydactyly

Aliases & Descriptions for Polydactyly:

Name: Polydactyly 12 50 29 52 42 14
Polydactyly, Postaxial 52 42 69
Postaxial Polydactyly 12 29
Supernumerary Digits 50
Supernumerary Digit 12
Polydactylism 50
Extra Digits 50
Hyperdactyly 50
Polydactylia 50

Classifications:



Summaries for Polydactyly

NIH Rare Diseases : 50 polydactyly is a condition in which a person has more than five fingers per hand or five toes per foot. it is the most common birth defect of the hand and foot. polydactyly can occur as an isolated finding such that the person has no other physical anomalies or intellectual impairment. however, it can occur in association with other birth defects and cognitive abnormalities as part of a genetic syndrome. in some cases, the extra digits may be well-formed and functional. surgery may be considered especially for poorly formed digits or very large extra digits. surgical management depends greatly on the complexity of the deformity. last updated: 5/8/2015

MalaCards based summary : Polydactyly, also known as polydactyly, postaxial, is related to hypoplastic or aplastic tibia with polydactyly and polydactyly, postaxial, types a1 and b. An important gene associated with Polydactyly is MKS1 (Meckel Syndrome, Type 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Signaling by Hedgehog and Organelle biogenesis and maintenance. The drugs Menthol and Liver Extracts have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include heart, kidney and bone, and related phenotypes are Increased vaccinia virus (VACV) infection and cellular

Wikipedia : 71 Polydactyly or polydactylism (from Greek πολύς (polys), meaning \'many\', and δάκτυλος... more...

Related Diseases for Polydactyly

Diseases in the Polydactyly family:

Central Polydactyly of Toes

Diseases related to Polydactyly via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 361)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hypoplastic or aplastic tibia with polydactyly 33.3 LMBR1 SHH
2 polydactyly, postaxial, types a1 and b 33.2 GLI2 GLI3 MKKS SHH
3 postaxial polydactyly type a, bilateral 32.9 LMBR1 SHH
4 postaxial polydactyly of toes, unilateral 32.9 LMBR1 SHH
5 laurin-sandrow syndrome 32.1 LMBR1 SHH
6 syndactyly, type iv 31.1 LMBR1 SHH
7 short-rib thoracic dysplasia 3 with or without polydactyly 12.3
8 short-rib thoracic dysplasia 6 with or without polydactyly 12.1
9 polydactyly, preaxial type ii 12.1
10 short-rib thoracic dysplasia 7 with or without polydactyly 12.0
11 short-rib thoracic dysplasia 8 with or without polydactyly 12.0
12 polydactyly, preaxial, type iv 12.0
13 short-rib thoracic dysplasia 10 with or without polydactyly 12.0
14 short-rib thoracic dysplasia 11 with or without polydactyly 12.0
15 short-rib thoracic dysplasia 14 with polydactyly 12.0
16 megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome 1 12.0
17 short-rib thoracic dysplasia 5 with or without polydactyly 11.9
18 short-rib thoracic dysplasia 4 with or without polydactyly 11.9
19 short-rib thoracic dysplasia 2 with or without polydactyly 11.9
20 short-rib thoracic dysplasia 9 with or without polydactyly 11.9
21 megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome 2 11.9
22 megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome 3 11.9
23 polydactyly, postaxial, with progressive myopia 11.9
24 short-rib thoracic dysplasia 13 with or without polydactyly 11.9
25 clubfoot, congenital, with or without deficiency of long bones and/or mirror-image polydactyly 11.9
26 short-rib thoracic dysplasia 1 with or without polydactyly 11.9
27 short-rib thoracic dysplasia 15 with polydactyly 11.9
28 short-rib thoracic dysplasia 16 with or without polydactyly 11.9
29 polydactyly, postaxial, type a6 11.9
30 polydactyly, preaxial i 11.8
31 split-foot malformation with mesoaxial polydactyly 11.8
32 polydactyly, preaxial iii 11.8
33 dandy-walker malformation with postaxial polydactyly 11.8
34 chondrodysplasia situs inversus imperforate anus polydactyly 11.7
35 central polydactyly of fingers 11.7
36 central polydactyly of toes 11.7
37 postaxial polydactyly of toes 11.7
38 preaxial polydactyly of toes 11.7
39 polydactyly of a biphalangeal thumb, unilateral 11.7
40 central polydactyly of fingers, bilateral 11.7
41 polydactyly of a biphalangeal thumb, bilateral 11.7
42 central polydactyly of toes, bilateral 11.7
43 polydactyly of a triphalangeal thumb, unilateral 11.7
44 central polydactyly of toes, unilateral 11.7
45 polydactyly of a triphalangeal thumb, bilateral 11.7
46 polydactyly of an index finger, unilateral 11.7
47 polydactyly of an index finger, bilateral 11.7
48 central polydactyly of fingers, unilateral 11.7
49 preaxial hallucal polydactyly 11.7
50 brachyphalangy, polydactyly, and tibial aplasia/hypoplasia 11.7

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Polydactyly:



Diseases related to Polydactyly

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Polydactyly

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Polydactyly according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
id Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased vaccinia virus (VACV) infection GR00249-S 9.6 GLI3 LMBR1 MIPOL1 MKKS MKS1 NEK1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Polydactyly:

44 (show all 18)
id Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular MP:0005384 10.35 GLI2 GLI3 MKKS MKS1 SHH WDR35
2 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.32 BBS1 BBS2 BBS4 DYNC2H1 DYNC2LI1 EVC
3 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.28 LMBR1 MKKS MKS1 NEK1 SHH WDR35
4 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.27 BBS1 BBS4 CCND2 DYNC2H1 DYNC2LI1 GLI3
5 craniofacial MP:0005382 10.26 BBS1 BBS4 DYNC2H1 EVC GLI2 GLI3
6 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.26 BBS1 BBS2 BBS4 CCND2 DYNC2LI1 GLI2
7 limbs/digits/tail MP:0005371 10.23 MKKS MKS1 SHH WDR35 BBS1 BBS2
8 nervous system MP:0003631 10.22 BBS1 BBS2 BBS4 CCND2 DYNC2H1 DYNC2LI1
9 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.15 BBS2 BBS4 DYNC2H1 GLI2 GLI3 MKS1
10 embryo MP:0005380 10.14 BBS4 DYNC2H1 DYNC2LI1 GLI2 GLI3 MKS1
11 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.13 MKS1 NEK1 SHH BBS2 BBS4 CCND2
12 reproductive system MP:0005389 10.06 BBS1 BBS2 BBS4 CCND2 EVC GLI2
13 hearing/vestibular/ear MP:0005377 10.04 BBS1 BBS4 GLI2 GLI3 MKKS MKS1
14 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.97 GLI3 MKS1 NEK1 SHH BBS1 BBS2
15 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.91 DYNC2H1 GLI2 GLI3 MKKS MKS1 SHH
16 skeleton MP:0005390 9.81 NEK1 SHH WDR35 DYNC2H1 EVC GLI2
17 taste/olfaction MP:0005394 9.43 BBS1 BBS2 BBS4 GLI3 MKKS SHH
18 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.36 MKS1 SHH BBS1 BBS2 BBS4 CCND2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Polydactyly

Drugs for Polydactyly (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):


id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Menthol Approved 2216-51-5 16666
2 Liver Extracts
3 insulin
4 Insulin, Globin Zinc

Interventional clinical trials:


id Name Status NCT ID Phase
1 Triphalangeal Thumbs in the Pediatric Population: Long Term Outcomes Following Surgical Intervention Completed NCT01409980
2 Phenotype and Etiology of Pallister-Hall Syndrome Completed NCT00001404
3 Bardet-Biedl Syndrome Study: Clinical and Genetic Epidemiology Study in Adults Completed NCT00213811
4 Clinical and Molecular Investigations Into Ciliopathies Active, not recruiting NCT00068224
5 Genetics and Clinical Characteristics of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome Terminated NCT00078091

Search NIH Clinical Center for Polydactyly

Cochrane evidence based reviews: polydactyly

Genetic Tests for Polydactyly

Genetic tests related to Polydactyly:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Postaxial Polydactyly 29
2 Polydactyly 29

Anatomical Context for Polydactyly

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Polydactyly:

39
Heart, Kidney, Bone, Tongue, Brain, Skin, Pituitary

Publications for Polydactyly

Articles related to Polydactyly:

(show top 50) (show all 681)
id Title Authors Year
1
Girl with polydactyly and pigmentary retinopathy. ( 28370859 )
2017
2
Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in a Female Child With Polydactyly and a Pelvic Mass: Consider the McKusick-Kaufman Syndrome. ( 28153592 )
2017
3
Reconstruction of Wassel Type VI Radial Polydactyly with Triphalangeal Thumb Using an On-top Osteotomy. ( 28280661 )
2017
4
GLI3-related polydactyly: a review. ( 28224613 )
2017
5
Genetic pattern and gene localization of polydactyly in Beijing fatty chicken. ( 28489934 )
2017
6
Complex postaxial polydactyly types A and B with camptodactyly, hypoplastic third toe, zygodactyly and other digit anomalies caused by a novel GLI3 mutation. ( 28315472 )
2017
7
Exome sequencing revealed a splice site variant in the IQCE gene underlying post-axial polydactyly type A restricted to lower limb. ( 28488682 )
2017
8
Jejunal atresia and unilateral postaxial polydactyly: second report of a rare association. ( 28059850 )
2017
9
Girl with polydactyly and pigmentary retinopathy. ( 28370861 )
2017
10
Achondroplasia with Polydactyly: A Case Report. ( 28511523 )
2017
11
Reply: Office-Based Postaxial Polydactyly Excision in Neonates, Infants, and Children. ( 28027268 )
2017
12
Self-Amputation of the Extra Digit in a Fetus with Polydactyly: First Ultrasound Demonstration. ( 28391260 )
2017
13
Mutations in IFT-A satellite core component genes IFT43 and IFT121 produce short rib polydactyly syndrome with distinctive campomelia. ( 28400947 )
2017
14
Mutational screening of GLI3, SHH, preZRS, and ZRS in 102 Chinese children with nonsyndromic polydactyly. ( 28127823 )
2017
15
Polydactyly suggesting local husbandry of Pre-Columbian camelids: A case from Castillo de Huarmey archaeological site, northern coast of Peru. ( 28290309 )
2017
16
Clinical Presentation, Surgical Treatment, and Outcome in Radial Polydactyly. ( 26895514 )
2016
17
An increased duplication of ZRS region that caused more than one supernumerary digits preaxial polydactyly in a large Chinese family. ( 27922091 )
2016
18
Mutations in DYNC2H1, the cytoplasmic dynein 2, heavy chain 1 motor protein gene, cause short-rib polydactyly type I, Saldino-Noonan type. ( 27925158 )
2016
19
Novel frameshift mutation in the CHD7 gene associated with CHARGE syndrome with preaxial polydactyly. ( 26901670 )
2016
20
Classifications in Brief: The Wassel Classification for Radial Polydactyly. ( 27613532 )
2016
21
The Rotterdam Foot Classification: A Classification System for Medial Polydactyly of the Foot. ( 27489321 )
2016
22
Postoperative Growth in Radial Polydactyly: A Clinical Study. ( 27475961 )
2016
23
Polydactyly and obesity - the clinical manifestation of ciliopathy: a boy with Bardet-Biedl syndrome. ( 27442694 )
2016
24
Two cases of polydactyly in wild brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans). ( 26689726 )
2016
25
Preaxial polydactyly following early gestational exposure to the smoothened agonist, SAG, in C57BL/6J mice. ( 27801979 )
2016
26
Office-Based Post-Axial Polydactyly Excision in Neonates, Infants, and Children. ( 26818291 )
2016
27
Parallel Evolution of Polydactyly Traits in Chinese and European Chickens. ( 26859147 )
2016
28
Polydactyly: A Review. ( 27194607 )
2016
29
Fanconi Anemia Concurrent with an Unusual Thumb Polydactyly: A Case Report. ( 27200401 )
2016
30
An unusual presentation of postaxial polydactyly of the foot. ( 27910230 )
2016
31
A novel H395R mutation in MKKS/BBS6 causes retinitis pigmentosa and polydactyly without other findings of Bardet-Biedl or McKusick-Kaufman syndrome. ( 26900326 )
2016
32
Intranatal Torsion of Polydactyly: A Rare Event. ( 26828689 )
2016
33
Clinical characterisation of polydactyly in Maine Coon cats. ( 26862149 )
2016
34
Retraction notice to "The identification of loci for polydactyly in chickens using a genome-wide association study" [GENE 568/2 (2015) 176-180]. ( 27049671 )
2016
35
Exome sequencing reveals a novel nonsense mutation of GLI3 in a Chinese family with 'non-syndromic' pre-axial polydactyly. ( 27305983 )
2016
36
Prenatal Diagnosis of Short Rib-Polydactyly Type II by Ultrasound in Three Consecutive Pregnancies. ( 27803525 )
2016
37
Destabilization of the IFT-B cilia core complex due to mutations in IFT81 causes a Spectrum of Short-Rib Polydactyly Syndrome. ( 27666822 )
2016
38
Inactivation of Sonic Hedgehog Signaling and Polydactyly in Limbs of Hereditary Multiple Malformation, a Novel Type of Talpid Mutant. ( 28083533 )
2016
39
IFT52 mutations destabilize anterograde complex assembly, disrupt ciliogenesis and result in short rib polydactyly syndrome. ( 27466190 )
2016
40
Exome sequencing identifies a mutation in OFD1 in a male with Joubert syndrome, orofaciodigital spectrum anomalies and complex polydactyly. ( 27081566 )
2016
41
Reply to correspondence: Office-Based Post-Axial Polydactyly Excision in Neonates, Infants, and Children. ( 27643419 )
2016
42
Mechanism of pancreatic and liver malformations in human fetuses with short-rib polydactyly syndrome. ( 26970085 )
2016
43
A Matched Comparative Study of the Bilhaut Procedure Versus Resection and Reconstruction for Treatment of Radial Polydactyly Types II and IV. ( 26880498 )
2016
44
An inactivating mutation in intestinal cell kinase, ICK, impairs hedgehog signalling and causes short rib-polydactyly syndrome. ( 27466187 )
2016
45
Decision-making and Management of Ulnar Polydactyly of the Newborn: Outcomes and Satisfaction. ( 27595947 )
2016
46
Clinical study of 459 polydactyly cases in China, 2010 to 2014. ( 26953323 )
2016
47
Identification of novel DYNC2H1 mutations associated with short rib-polydactyly syndrome type III using next-generation panel sequencing. ( 27323140 )
2016
48
Rare case of tibial hemimelia, preaxial polydactyly, and club foot. ( 28035313 )
2016
49
A Novel ZRS Mutation in a Chinese Patient with Preaxial Polydactyly and Triphalangeal Thumb. ( 27592358 )
2016
50
The syndrome dysmorphic facies, renal agenesis, ambiguous genitalia, microcephaly, polydactyly and lissencephaly (DREAM-PL): Report of two additional patients. ( 27480277 )
2016

Variations for Polydactyly

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Polydactyly:

6
id Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 MKS1 NM_017777.3(MKS1): c.1115_1117delCCT (p.Ser372del) deletion Pathogenic rs754279998 GRCh37 Chromosome 17, 56285514: 56285516
2 HOXD13 NM_000523.3(HOXD13): c.820C> T (p.Arg274Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs200750564 GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 176959246: 176959246

Copy number variations for Polydactyly from CNVD:

7
id CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 97909 16 14700000 16700000 Duplication or delet ion polydactyly

Expression for Polydactyly

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Polydactyly.

Pathways for Polydactyly

GO Terms for Polydactyly

Cellular components related to Polydactyly according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 17)
id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 motile cilium GO:0031514 9.85 BBS2 BBS4 DYNC2H1 DYNC2LI1 GLI2 MKKS
2 ciliary membrane GO:0060170 9.81 BBS1 BBS2 BBS4 EVC
3 axoneme GO:0005930 9.8 BBS1 DYNC2H1 DYNC2LI1 GLI2 GLI3 WDR34
4 cytoplasmic dynein complex GO:0005868 9.78 DYNC2H1 DYNC2LI1 WDR34 WDR60
5 centriole GO:0005814 9.74 BBS4 MKS1 WDR34
6 ciliary base GO:0097546 9.72 GLI2 GLI3 WDR60
7 ciliary transition zone GO:0035869 9.71 BBS4 DYNC2LI1 MKS1
8 pericentriolar material GO:0000242 9.7 BBS4 NEK1 WDR60
9 ciliary tip GO:0097542 9.7 DYNC2H1 DYNC2LI1 GLI2 GLI3 WDR34 WDR35
10 BBSome GO:0034464 9.67 BBS1 BBS2 BBS4
11 ciliary basal body GO:0036064 9.61 BBS1 BBS2 BBS4 DYNC2LI1 EVC MKKS
12 cilium GO:0005929 9.4 BBS1 BBS2 BBS4 DYNC2H1 DYNC2LI1 EVC
13 cytoplasm GO:0005737 10.4 BBS1 BBS2 BBS4 CCND2 DYNC2H1 DYNC2LI1
14 cytoskeleton GO:0005856 10.17 BBS1 BBS2 BBS4 DYNC2H1 DYNC2LI1 EVC
15 centrosome GO:0005813 10.06 BBS1 BBS4 DYNC2LI1 MKKS MKS1 NEK1
16 cell projection GO:0042995 10.06 BBS1 BBS2 BBS4 DYNC2H1 DYNC2LI1 EVC
17 microtubule organizing center GO:0005815 10.01 BBS1 BBS2 BBS4 DYNC2LI1 MKKS MKS1

Biological processes related to Polydactyly according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 68)
id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 visual perception GO:0007601 9.99 BBS1 BBS2 BBS4 MKKS
2 negative regulation of gene expression GO:0010629 9.98 BBS2 BBS4 MKKS SHH WDR35
3 kidney development GO:0001822 9.9 GLI2 GLI3 SHH
4 smoothened signaling pathway GO:0007224 9.9 EVC GLI2 GLI3 SHH
5 lung development GO:0030324 9.89 GLI2 GLI3 SHH
6 anterior/posterior pattern specification GO:0009952 9.89 GLI2 GLI3 SHH
7 fat cell differentiation GO:0045444 9.88 BBS2 BBS4 MKKS
8 cartilage development GO:0051216 9.88 BBS2 EVC MKKS
9 hippocampus development GO:0021766 9.88 BBS2 BBS4 GLI3 MKKS
10 forebrain development GO:0030900 9.87 DYNC2H1 GLI3 SHH
11 cerebral cortex development GO:0021987 9.87 BBS2 BBS4 MKKS
12 odontogenesis of dentin-containing tooth GO:0042475 9.85 GLI2 GLI3 SHH
13 heart looping GO:0001947 9.85 BBS4 MKKS SHH
14 embryonic limb morphogenesis GO:0030326 9.85 DYNC2H1 GLI3 SHH
15 pattern specification process GO:0007389 9.85 GLI2 GLI3 SHH
16 positive regulation of multicellular organism growth GO:0040018 9.84 BBS2 BBS4 MKKS
17 dorsal/ventral pattern formation GO:0009953 9.84 DYNC2H1 GLI2 GLI3 SHH
18 photoreceptor cell maintenance GO:0045494 9.83 BBS1 BBS2 BBS4 MKKS
19 developmental growth GO:0048589 9.81 GLI2 GLI3 SHH
20 positive regulation of smoothened signaling pathway GO:0045880 9.81 DYNC2H1 EVC SHH
21 melanosome transport GO:0032402 9.8 BBS2 BBS4 MKKS
22 determination of left/right symmetry GO:0007368 9.8 DYNC2H1 DYNC2LI1 MKKS MKS1 SHH
23 brain morphogenesis GO:0048854 9.79 BBS2 BBS4 MKKS
24 anatomical structure formation involved in morphogenesis GO:0048646 9.79 GLI2 GLI3 SHH
25 protein localization to cilium GO:0061512 9.78 BBS1 BBS4 WDR35
26 branching morphogenesis of an epithelial tube GO:0048754 9.78 GLI2 GLI3 MKS1 SHH
27 anatomical structure development GO:0048856 9.77 GLI2 GLI3 SHH
28 hindbrain development GO:0030902 9.74 GLI2 SHH
29 regulation of smoothened signaling pathway GO:0008589 9.74 GLI2 MKS1
30 positive regulation of neuroblast proliferation GO:0002052 9.74 GLI3 SHH
31 embryonic digestive tract morphogenesis GO:0048557 9.74 GLI3 SHH
32 striatum development GO:0021756 9.74 BBS2 BBS4 MKKS
33 osteoblast development GO:0002076 9.73 GLI2 SHH
34 embryonic digestive tract development GO:0048566 9.73 GLI2 GLI3
35 face development GO:0060324 9.73 BBS4 MKKS
36 positive regulation of protein import into nucleus GO:0042307 9.73 GLI3 SHH
37 regulation of stress fiber assembly GO:0051492 9.73 BBS4 MKKS
38 response to leptin GO:0044321 9.73 BBS2 BBS4 MKKS
39 embryonic morphogenesis GO:0048598 9.72 GLI3 SHH
40 protein localization to organelle GO:0033365 9.72 BBS2 BBS4
41 head development GO:0060322 9.72 GLI2 MKS1
42 leptin-mediated signaling pathway GO:0033210 9.72 BBS2 BBS4 MKKS
43 embryonic digit morphogenesis GO:0042733 9.72 GLI2 GLI3 LMBR1 MKS1 SHH
44 negative regulation of actin filament polymerization GO:0030837 9.71 BBS4 MKKS
45 dorsal/ventral neural tube patterning GO:0021904 9.71 GLI2 SHH
46 negative thymic T cell selection GO:0045060 9.71 GLI3 SHH
47 positive regulation of T cell differentiation in thymus GO:0033089 9.71 GLI2 SHH
48 positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell differentiation GO:0046638 9.71 GLI3 SHH
49 intraciliary retrograde transport GO:0035721 9.7 DYNC2H1 WDR35
50 artery smooth muscle contraction GO:0014824 9.69 BBS2 MKKS

Molecular functions related to Polydactyly according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 patched binding GO:0005113 9.26 BBS1 SHH
2 ATP-dependent microtubule motor activity, minus-end-directed GO:0008569 9.16 DYNC2H1 DYNC2LI1
3 dynein light chain binding GO:0045503 8.96 WDR34 WDR60
4 RNA polymerase II repressing transcription factor binding GO:0001103 8.92 BBS1 BBS2 BBS4 MKKS

Sources for Polydactyly

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 MedGen
42 MeSH
43 MESH via Orphanet
44 MGI
46 NCI
47 NCIt
48 NDF-RT
51 NINDS
52 Novoseek
54 OMIM
55 OMIM via Orphanet
59 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....