MCID: PRD006
MIFTS: 66

Prader-Willi Syndrome

Categories: Genetic diseases, Rare diseases, Neuronal diseases, Reproductive diseases, Endocrine diseases, Fetal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Prader-Willi Syndrome

MalaCards integrated aliases for Prader-Willi Syndrome:

Name: Prader-Willi Syndrome 53 12 72 23 49 24 55 36 28 13 51 40 41 14
Prader-Labhart-Willi Syndrome 53 23 49 24 55
Pws 53 23 49 24
Willi-Prader Syndrome 49 24 55
Prader Willi Syndrome 12

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

55
prader-willi syndrome
Inheritance: Not applicable; Prevalence: 1-9/100000 (Europe); Age of onset: Antenatal,Neonatal; Age of death: normal life expectancy;

OMIM:

53
Miscellaneous:
temperature instability
high pain threshold
excessive skin picking of sores
food related behavioral problems include excessive appetite and obsession with eating
decreased fetal activity
breech position
behavioral problems including stubbornness and rage
sleep disturbance or sleep apnea (obstructive, central, or mixed)
unusual skill with jigsaw puzzle

Inheritance:
isolated cases


HPO:

31
prader-willi syndrome:
Inheritance sporadic


GeneReviews:

23
Penetrance Penetrance is complete...

Classifications:



Summaries for Prader-Willi Syndrome

MedlinePlus : 40 Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder. It causes poor muscle tone, low levels of sex hormones and a constant feeling of hunger. The part of the brain that controls feelings of fullness or hunger does not work properly in people with PWS. They overeat, leading to obesity. Babies with PWS are usually floppy, with poor muscle tone, and have trouble sucking. Boys may have undescended testicles. Later, other signs appear. These include Short stature Poor motor skills Weight gain Underdeveloped sex organs Mild intellectual and learning disabilities There is no cure for PWS. Growth hormone, exercise, and dietary supervision can help build muscle mass and control weight. Other treatments may include sex hormones and behavior therapy. Most people with PWS will need specialized care and supervision throughout their lives. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

MalaCards based summary : Prader-Willi Syndrome, also known as prader-labhart-willi syndrome, is related to prader-willi syndrome due to maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 and prader-willi syndrome due to imprinting mutation, and has symptoms including ataxia, seizures and obesity. An important gene associated with Prader-Willi Syndrome is NDN (Necdin, MAGE Family Member), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Adipogenesis and Circadian rythm related genes. The drugs Fentanyl and Propofol have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, testes and skin, and related phenotype is adipose tissue.

Genetics Home Reference : 24 Prader-Willi syndrome is a complex genetic condition that affects many parts of the body. In infancy, this condition is characterized by weak muscle tone (hypotonia), feeding difficulties, poor growth, and delayed development. Beginning in childhood, affected individuals develop an insatiable appetite, which leads to chronic overeating (hyperphagia) and obesity. Some people with Prader-Willi syndrome, particularly those with obesity, also develop type 2 diabetes (the most common form of diabetes).

NIH Rare Diseases : 49 Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic condition that affects many parts of the body. Infants with PWS have severe hypotonia (low muscle tone), feeding difficulties, and slow growth. In later infancy or early childhood, affected children typically begin to eat excessively and become obese. Other signs and symptoms often include short stature, hypogonadism, developmental delays, cognitive impairment, and distinctive behavioral characteristics such as temper tantrums, stubbornness, and obsessive-compulsive tendencies. PWS is caused by missing or non-working genes on chromosome 15. Most cases are not inherited and occur randomly. Rarely, a genetic change responsible for PWS can be inherited. Management of PWS generally depends on the affected person's age and symptoms. Last updated: 7/7/2016

OMIM : 53 Prader-Willi syndrome is characterized by diminished fetal activity, obesity, muscular hypotonia, mental retardation, short stature, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and small hands and feet. It can be considered to be an autosomal dominant disorder and is caused by deletion or disruption of a gene or several genes on the proximal long arm of the paternal chromosome 15 or maternal uniparental disomy 15, because the gene(s) on the maternal chromosome(s) 15 are virtually inactive through imprinting. Horsthemke and Wagstaff (2008) provided a detailed review of the mechanisms of imprinting of the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome (105830) region. See also the chromosome 15q11-q13 duplication syndrome (608636), which shows overlapping clinical features. (176270)

GeneReviews: NBK1330

Related Diseases for Prader-Willi Syndrome

Diseases in the Prader-Willi Syndrome family:

Prader-Willi Syndrome Due to Paternal Deletion of 15q11q13 Type 1 Prader-Willi Syndrome Due to Paternal Deletion of 15q11q13 Type 2
Prader-Willi Syndrome Due to Translocation Prader-Willi Syndrome Due to Imprinting Mutation
Prader-Willi-Like Syndrome Due to a Point Mutation Prader-Willi Syndrome Due to Paternal 15q11q13 Deletion
Prader-Willi Syndrome Due to Maternal Uniparental Disomy of Chromosome 15

Diseases related to Prader-Willi Syndrome via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(showing 146, show less)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 prader-willi syndrome due to maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 34.7 MAGEL2 NDN SNRPN
2 prader-willi syndrome due to imprinting mutation 34.4 MAGEL2 NDN SNRPN
3 prader-willi syndrome due to paternal deletion of 15q11q13 type 1 34.4 MAGEL2 NDN SNRPN
4 prader-willi syndrome due to paternal deletion of 15q11q13 type 2 34.4 MAGEL2 NDN SNRPN
5 angelman syndrome 33.2 GABRA5 GABRB3 MAGEL2 NDN NIPA2 NPAP1
6 autism 31.5 GABRA5 GABRB3 MAGEL2 NDN SNRPN UBE3A
7 autism spectrum disorder 31.4 GABRA5 GABRB3 MAGEL2 UBE3A
8 sleep apnea 31.4 GHRL IGF1 LEP
9 central precocious puberty 31.2 IGF1 LEP MKRN3
10 schaaf-yang syndrome 12.3
11 prader-willi syndrome due to translocation 12.2
12 prader-willi syndrome due to paternal 15q11q13 deletion 12.2
13 hypotonia 11.6
14 parkes weber syndrome 11.4
15 prader-willi habitus, osteopenia, and camptodactyly 11.3
16 childhood apraxia of speech 11.3
17 floppy infant syndrome 11.3
18 infantile hypotonia 11.3
19 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 10.9
20 body mass index quantitative trait locus 9 10.9
21 body mass index quantitative trait locus 8 10.9
22 body mass index quantitative trait locus 7 10.9
23 body mass index quantitative trait locus 12 10.9
24 body mass index quantitative trait locus 14 10.9
25 body mass index quantitative trait locus 18 10.9
26 body mass index quantitative trait locus 4 10.9
27 body mass index quantitative trait locus 10 10.9
28 chromosome 15q13.3 deletion syndrome 10.8 NPAP1 UBE3A
29 angelman syndrome due to imprinting defect in 15q11-q13 10.7 SNRPN UBE3A
30 nutritional deficiency disease 10.6 GHRL IGF1 LEP
31 bulimia nervosa 2 10.6 GHRL IGF1 LEP
32 overnutrition 10.6 GHRL IGF1 LEP
33 glucose metabolism disease 10.6 GHRL IGF1 LEP
34 acquired metabolic disease 10.6 GHRL IGF1 LEP
35 chromosomal disease 10.6 GABRB3 IPW MAGEL2 MKRN3 NDN SNRPN
36 childhood absence epilepsy 10.5 GABRA5 GABRB3 NIPA2
37 aging 10.5
38 obesity, hyperphagia, and developmental delay 10.5
39 hyperinsulinism 10.5 GHRL IGF1 LEP
40 scoliosis 10.5
41 idiopathic central precocious puberty 10.5 IGF1 MKRN3
42 glucose intolerance 10.5 GHRL IGF1 LEP
43 morbid obesity 10.5
44 diabetes mellitus 10.4
45 sleep disorder 10.4
46 neuronitis 10.4
47 body mass index quantitative trait locus 1 10.4
48 hypogonadism 10.4
49 polycystic ovary syndrome 10.4 GHRL IGF1 LEP
50 williams-beuren syndrome 10.3
51 thyroiditis 10.3
52 growth hormone deficiency 10.3
53 abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome 1 10.3 GHRL LEP
54 apnea, obstructive sleep 10.3
55 down syndrome 10.3
56 epilepsy 10.3
57 precocious puberty 10.3
58 hypersomnia 10.3
59 fragile x syndrome 10.2
60 alacrima, achalasia, and mental retardation syndrome 10.2
61 cerebritis 10.2
62 mosaic trisomy 15 10.2
63 arteries, anomalies of 10.1
64 sotos syndrome 1 10.1
65 cryptorchidism, unilateral or bilateral 10.1
66 insulin-like growth factor i 10.1
67 microcephaly, epilepsy, and diabetes syndrome 10.1
68 coronary artery anomaly 10.1
69 glomerulonephritis 10.1
70 oculocutaneous albinism 10.1
71 respiratory failure 10.1
72 hypothyroidism 10.1
73 panniculitis 10.1
74 gastric dilatation 10.1
75 polyhydramnios 10.1
76 albinism 10.1
77 alzheimer disease 10.0
78 cataract 32, multiple types 10.0
79 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 1 10.0
80 kleine-levin hibernation syndrome 10.0
81 systemic lupus erythematosus 10.0
82 moebius syndrome 10.0
83 obsessive-compulsive disorder 10.0
84 osteoporosis 10.0
85 palatopharyngeal incompetence 10.0
86 polydactyly, postaxial, with progressive myopia 10.0
87 smith-magenis syndrome 10.0
88 thrombophilia due to thrombin defect 10.0
89 lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia 10.0
90 cerebellar hypoplasia 10.0
91 charge syndrome 10.0
92 cohen syndrome 10.0
93 complement hyperactivation, angiopathic thrombosis, and protein-losing enteropathy 10.0
94 tay-sachs disease 10.0
95 hypomelanosis of ito 10.0
96 muscular dystrophy, duchenne type 10.0
97 norrie disease 10.0
98 transsexuality 10.0
99 trimethylaminuria 10.0
100 bone mineral density quantitative trait locus 8 10.0
101 factor xi deficiency 10.0
102 microvascular complications of diabetes 5 10.0
103 bone mineral density quantitative trait locus 15 10.0
104 episodic pain syndrome, familial, 1 10.0
105 temple syndrome 10.0
106 arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, neurogenic, with myelin defect 10.0
107 dilated cardiomyopathy 10.0
108 hepatitis 10.0
109 lymphedema 10.0
110 spinal cord injury 10.0
111 congenital hypothyroidism 10.0
112 ocular albinism 10.0
113 distal arthrogryposis 10.0
114 fetal alcohol syndrome 10.0
115 metabolic acidosis 10.0
116 thrombosis 10.0
117 hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 10.0
118 transsexualism 10.0
119 ovarian disease 10.0
120 cardiac tamponade 10.0
121 intermittent explosive disorder 10.0
122 dementia 10.0
123 ectropion 10.0
124 hypothalamic disease 10.0
125 constipation 10.0
126 membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis 10.0
127 periodontal disease 10.0
128 craniopharyngioma 10.0
129 pancreatitis 10.0
130 infertility 10.0
131 compartment syndrome 10.0
132 periodontitis 10.0
133 lupus erythematosus 10.0
134 muscular dystrophy 10.0
135 isodicentric 15 10.0
136 congenital hepatic fibrosis 10.0
137 47, xxy 10.0
138 chromosome 15q deletion 10.0
139 chromosome 9p duplication 10.0
140 slipped capital femoral epiphysis 10.0
141 seizure disorder 10.0
142 endotheliitis 10.0
143 xp22.13p22.2 duplication syndrome 10.0
144 xq12-q13.3 duplication syndrome 10.0
145 epiphysiolysis of the hip 10.0
146 congenital ectropion uveae 10.0

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Prader-Willi Syndrome:



Diseases related to Prader-Willi Syndrome

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Prader-Willi Syndrome

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

53
Neurologic Central Nervous System:
sleep disturbances
seizures
global developmental delay
poor fine motor coordination
poor gross motor coordination
more
Skeletal:
osteopenia
osteoporosis

Head And Neck Eyes:
strabismus
myopia
hyperopia
upslanting palpebral fissures
almond-shaped eyes

Genitourinary Internal Genitalia Male:
cryptorchidism

Endocrine Features:
hyperinsulinemia
growth hormone deficiency
hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

Genitourinary External Genitalia Male:
scrotal hypoplasia
hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
small penis

Genitourinary External Genitalia Female:
hypoplastic labia minora
hypoplastic clitoris

Head And Neck Mouth:
thin upper lip
small-appearing mouth
down-turned corners of mouth
thick, viscous saliva

Voice:
hypernasal speech
weak or squeaky cry in infancy

Head And Neck Face:
narrow bitemporal diameter

Abdomen Gastroin testinal:
feeding problems in infancy requiring gavage feeds
decreased vomiting

Skin Nails Hair Hair:
blonde to light brown hair
frontal hair upsweep

Skeletal Hands:
clinodactyly
syndactyly
small hands (<25th percentile for height age)
narrow hands with straight ulnar border

Skeletal Spine:
scoliosis
kyphosis

Head And Neck Head:
dolichocephaly

Growth Weight:
failure to thrive in infancy
onset of obesity from 6 months to 6 years
central obesity

Respiratory:
hypoventilation
hypoxia

Genitourinary Internal Genitalia Female:
amenorrhea
oligomenorrhea

Growth Height:
normal birth length
length deceleration in first few months
mean adult male height, 155 cm
mean adult female height, 147 cm
steady childhood growth
more
Skin Nails Hair Skin:
fair skin
sun sensitivity

Skin Nails Hair:
hypopigmentation

Head And Neck Teeth:
early dental caries

Skeletal Feet:
small feet (<10th percentile for height age)


Clinical features from OMIM:

176270

Human phenotypes related to Prader-Willi Syndrome:

55 31 (showing 93, show less)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 ataxia 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001251
2 seizures 55 31 very rare (1%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001250
3 obesity 55 31 hallmark (90%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001513
4 high palate 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000218
5 intellectual disability 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001249
6 muscular hypotonia 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001252
7 scoliosis 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002650
8 behavioral abnormality 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000708
9 global developmental delay 55 31 hallmark (90%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001263
10 delayed skeletal maturation 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002750
11 microcephaly 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000252
12 short stature 55 31 hallmark (90%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0004322
13 type i diabetes mellitus 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0100651
14 strabismus 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000486
15 short palm 55 31 hallmark (90%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0004279
16 cryptorchidism 55 31 very rare (1%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000028
17 intrauterine growth retardation 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001511
18 specific learning disability 55 31 hallmark (90%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001328
19 hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism 55 31 hallmark (90%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000044
20 glomerulopathy 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0100820
21 telecanthus 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000506
22 clinodactyly of the 5th finger 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0004209
23 hypoplasia of the ear cartilage 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0100720
24 downslanted palpebral fissures 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000494
25 brachydactyly 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001156
26 downturned corners of mouth 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002714
27 bilateral single transverse palmar creases 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0007598
28 abnormality of dental enamel 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000682
29 hypoplasia of penis 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0008736
30 abnormal hair pattern 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0010720
31 clinodactyly 31 HP:0030084
32 precocious puberty 31 very rare (1%) HP:0000826
33 osteopenia 31 occasional (7.5%) HP:0000938
34 kyphosis 31 frequent (33%) HP:0002808
35 sleep apnea 31 frequent (33%) HP:0010535
36 hip dysplasia 31 very rare (1%) HP:0001385
37 recurrent respiratory infections 31 frequent (33%) HP:0002205
38 type ii diabetes mellitus 31 very rare (1%) HP:0005978
39 carious teeth 31 occasional (7.5%) HP:0000670
40 delayed speech and language development 31 hallmark (90%) HP:0000750
41 feeding difficulties in infancy 31 HP:0008872
42 delayed puberty 31 frequent (33%) HP:0000823
43 osteoporosis 31 occasional (7.5%) HP:0000939
44 decreased muscle mass 31 frequent (33%) HP:0003199
45 dolichocephaly 31 HP:0000268
46 short foot 31 hallmark (90%) HP:0001773
47 autism 31 very rare (1%) HP:0000717
48 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 31 frequent (33%) HP:0007018
49 primary amenorrhea 31 very rare (1%) HP:0000786
50 failure to thrive in infancy 31 hallmark (90%) HP:0001531
51 myopia 31 occasional (7.5%) HP:0000545
52 hyperinsulinemia 31 HP:0000842
53 poor fine motor coordination 31 occasional (7.5%) HP:0007010
54 ventriculomegaly 31 frequent (33%) HP:0002119
55 hypogonadism 31 HP:0000135
56 hypopigmentation of hair 31 very rare (1%) HP:0005599
57 psychosis 31 very rare (1%) HP:0000709
58 small hand 31 HP:0200055
59 upslanted palpebral fissure 31 occasional (7.5%) HP:0000582
60 impaired pain sensation 31 frequent (33%) HP:0007328
61 nasal speech 31 frequent (33%) HP:0001611
62 thin upper lip vermilion 31 frequent (33%) HP:0000219
63 generalized hypopigmentation 31 HP:0007513
64 narrow nasal bridge 31 frequent (33%) HP:0000446
65 cutaneous photosensitivity 31 frequent (33%) HP:0000992
66 decreased fetal movement 31 HP:0001558
67 polyphagia 31 hallmark (90%) HP:0002591
68 infertility 31 hallmark (90%) HP:0000789
69 iris hypopigmentation 31 very rare (1%) HP:0007730
70 motor delay 31 hallmark (90%) HP:0001270
71 hypoventilation 31 HP:0002791
72 scrotal hypoplasia 31 very rare (1%) HP:0000046
73 truncal obesity 31 HP:0001956
74 micropenis 31 frequent (33%) HP:0000054
75 poor suck 31 hallmark (90%) HP:0002033
76 almond-shaped palpebral fissure 31 frequent (33%) HP:0007874
77 generalized hypotonia 31 hallmark (90%) HP:0001290
78 adrenal insufficiency 31 very rare (1%) HP:0000846
79 hypopigmentation of the skin 31 very rare (1%) HP:0001010
80 esotropia 31 occasional (7.5%) HP:0000565
81 radial deviation of finger 31 occasional (7.5%) HP:0009466
82 clitoral hypoplasia 31 frequent (33%) HP:0000060
83 syndactyly 31 occasional (7.5%) HP:0001159
84 growth hormone deficiency 31 hallmark (90%) HP:0000824
85 hypermetropia 31 HP:0000540
86 hypoplastic labia minora 31 frequent (33%) HP:0000064
87 narrow forehead 31 frequent (33%) HP:0000341
88 oligomenorrhea 31 frequent (33%) HP:0000876
89 abdominal obesity 31 HP:0012743
90 poor gross motor coordination 31 HP:0007015
91 temperature instability 31 occasional (7.5%) HP:0005968
92 frontal upsweep of hair 31 occasional (7.5%) HP:0002236
93 narrow palm 31 hallmark (90%) HP:0004283

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Prader-Willi Syndrome:

43 (showing 1, show less)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 adipose tissue MP:0005375 9.1 GHRL HERC2 IGF1 LEP MAGEL2 SNRPN

Drugs & Therapeutics for Prader-Willi Syndrome

Drugs for Prader-Willi Syndrome (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(showing 253, show less)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 1 437-38-7 3345
2
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 1 2078-54-8 4943
3
Rocuronium Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2 119302-91-9, 143558-00-3 441290
4
Sevoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 28523-86-6 5206
5
Dopamine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
6
Topiramate Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 97240-79-4 5284627
7
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
8
Hydromorphone Approved, Illicit Phase 4 466-99-9 5284570
9
Orphenadrine Approved Phase 4 83-98-7 4601
10
Oxycodone Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 76-42-6 5284603
11
Succinylcholine Approved Phase 4 306-40-1 5314
12
Atropine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 5908-99-6, 51-55-8 174174
13
Neostigmine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2 59-99-4 4456
14
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 19982-08-2 4054
15
Liraglutide Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 204656-20-2 44147092
16
Norepinephrine Approved Phase 4 51-41-2 439260
17
Orlistat Approved, Investigational Phase 4 96829-58-2 3034010
18
Fluoxetine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 54910-89-3 3386
19
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 1 137-58-6 3676
20 Adjuvants, Anesthesia Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
21 Analgesics Phase 4,Phase 2
22 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 4,Phase 2
23 Anesthetics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
24 Anesthetics, General Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
25 Anesthetics, Inhalation Phase 4
26 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
27 Anticonvulsants Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
28 Bromides Phase 4
29 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
30 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 4,Phase 2
31 Narcotics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
32 Neuromuscular Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
33 Neuromuscular Blocking Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
34 Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
35 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
36 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 4
37 Anticholesteremic Agents Phase 4
38 Antimetabolites Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
39 Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Phase 4
40 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
41 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
42 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3
43 Hormones Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
44 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3
45 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
46 Anti-Obesity Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
47 Dopamine Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
48 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
49 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
50 Incretins Phase 4,Phase 3
51 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
52 Protective Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
53 Acetaminophen, hydrocodone drug combination Phase 4
54 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
55 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
56 Antipyretics Phase 4
57 Autonomic Agents Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
58 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
59 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 4
60 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
61 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 4
62 Parasympatholytics Phase 4
63 Neuromuscular Depolarizing Agents Phase 4
64 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
65 Anti-Asthmatic Agents Phase 4
66 Bronchodilator Agents Phase 4
67 Cholinesterase Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
68 Mydriatics Phase 4
69 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
70 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
71 Appetite Depressants Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
72 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
73 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3
74 Excitatory Amino Acids Phase 4,Phase 3
75 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1
76 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride Phase 4
77 Duloxetine Hydrochloride Phase 4
78
Serotonin Phase 4,Phase 2 50-67-9 5202
79 Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors Phase 4
80 Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
81 Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
82 Serotonin Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
83 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2
84 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 4,Phase 3
85 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 4,Phase 3
86 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4
87
Rimonabant Approved, Investigational Phase 3 168273-06-1, 158681-13-1 104850
88
Naloxone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 465-65-6 5284596
89
Sodium oxybate Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 502-85-2 5360545
90
Acamprosate Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 77337-76-9 71158
91
Ethanol Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 64-17-5 702
92
Armodafinil Approved, Investigational Phase 3 112111-43-0
93
Modafinil Approved, Investigational Phase 3 68693-11-8 4236
94
Bupropion Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 34911-55-2, 34841-39-9 444
95
Lamotrigine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 84057-84-1 3878
96
Zonisamide Approved, Investigational Phase 3 68291-97-4 5734
97
Oxytocin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1 50-56-6 53477758 439302
98
Naltrexone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 16590-41-3 5360515
99
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
100
Octreotide Approved, Investigational Phase 3 83150-76-9 6400441 383414
101
Phenol Approved, Experimental Phase 3 108-95-2 996
102
Somatostatin Approved, Investigational Phase 3 38916-34-6, 51110-01-1 53481605
103
Aripiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 3 129722-12-9 60795
104
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 616-91-1 12035
105 tannic acid Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 2, Phase 3
106 Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists Phase 3
107 Narcotic Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
108 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
109 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 3,Phase 2
110 Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Phase 3,Phase 2
111 Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Phase 3
112 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
113 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers Phase 3
114 Wakefulness-Promoting Agents Phase 3
115 calcium channel blockers Phase 3
116 Calcium, Dietary Phase 3,Phase 1
117 Antioxidants Phase 3
118 Oxytocics Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
119 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 3
120 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
121 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 3
122 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
123 glucagon Phase 3
124 Expectorants Phase 3,Phase 2
125 Antidotes Phase 3
126 Antiviral Agents Phase 3
127 N-monoacetylcystine Phase 3
128
Sulfamethoxazole Approved Phase 2 723-46-6 5329
129
Diazoxide Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 364-98-7 3019
130 Cisatracurium Approved, Experimental Phase 2 96946-41-7
131
Remifentanil Approved Phase 2 132875-61-7 60815
132
Chromium Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 7440-47-3 27668
133
Iron Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 7439-89-6 23925
134
Erythromycin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2 114-07-8 12560
135
Phentermine Approved, Illicit Phase 2,Phase 1 122-09-8 4771
136
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 2 20748-11-2, 113-45-1 4158
137
Metoprolol Approved, Investigational Phase 2 51384-51-1, 37350-58-6 4171
138
Vortioxetine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 508233-74-7 9966051
139
Ephedrine Approved Phase 2 299-42-3 9294
140
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2 93-14-1 3516
141
Pseudoephedrine Approved Phase 2 90-82-4 7028
142 Acipimox Approved, Investigational Phase 2 51037-30-0
143
Amphetamine Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 2 300-62-9 3007 5826
144
Dextroamphetamine Approved, Illicit Phase 2 51-64-9 5826
145
Choline Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 1, Phase 2 62-49-7 305
146 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
147 Nootropic Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
148 Vasodilator Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
149 Chelating Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
150 Iron Chelating Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
151 Micronutrients Phase 1, Phase 2
152
Picolinic acid Phase 1, Phase 2 98-98-6 1018
153 Trace Elements Phase 1, Phase 2
154 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 2
155 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 2
156 Erythromycin Estolate Phase 2
157 Erythromycin Ethylsuccinate Phase 2
158 Erythromycin stearate Phase 2
159 ALKS-33 Phase 2
160 Anti-Infective Agents, Local Phase 2
161 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 2
162 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 2
163 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 2
164 Vasoconstrictor Agents Phase 2
165 Adrenergic Antagonists Phase 2
166 Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists Phase 2
167 Adrenergic beta-Antagonists Phase 2
168 Sympatholytics Phase 2
169 Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists Phase 2
170 Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists Phase 2
171 Serotonin Antagonists Phase 2
172
Chlorpheniramine Phase 2 113-92-8, 132-22-9 2725
173 Chlorpheniramine, phenylpropanolamine drug combination Phase 2
174 Nasal Decongestants Phase 2
175 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2
176 methionine Nutraceutical Phase 2
177
Citric Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 1 77-92-9 311
178
Glutamic Acid Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 1 56-86-0 33032
179
Ornithine Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 1 70-26-8, 3184-13-2 6262
180 Anticoagulants Phase 1
181 Liver Extracts Phase 1
182 Citrate Nutraceutical Phase 1
183 glutamine Nutraceutical Phase 1
184
Exenatide Approved, Investigational 141758-74-9 15991534
185
Menthol Approved 2216-51-5 16666
186
Hydrocortisone Approved, Vet_approved 50-23-7 657311 5754
187
Cosyntropin Approved 16960-16-0 16129617
188
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved 51-43-4 5816