Prostate Cancer malady

Genetic diseases, Rare diseases, Cancer diseases, Reproductive diseases categories

Aliases & Classifications for Prostate Cancer

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46OMIM, 30LifeMap Discovery®, 8Disease Ontology, 9diseasecard, 42NIH Rare Diseases, 20GeneTests, 10DISEASES, 44Novoseek, 48Orphanet, 22GTR, 32MedlinePlus, 2CDC, 61UMLS, 56SNOMED-CT, 33MeSH, 39NCIt, 34MESH via Orphanet, 26ICD10 via Orphanet, 62UMLS via Orphanet, 25ICD10
See all sources

Aliases & Descriptions for Prostate Cancer:

Name: Prostate Cancer 46 30 8 9 10 44 32 2
Prostate Cancer, Familial 46 8 42 61
Prostate Carcinoma 8 44 61
Malignant Tumor of the Prostate 8 22
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 5 46 9
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary 46 42
Hereditary Prostate Cancer 8 42
Familial Prostate Cancer 42 48
Carcinoma of Prostate 8 20
Prostate Cancer, Progression of 46
Malignant Neoplasm of Prostate 61
Ngp - New Growth of Prostate 8
Prostate Cancer, Somatic 46
Prostate Cancer Somatic 46
Tumor of the Prostate 8
Prostatic Neoplasms 61
Prostatic Neoplasm 8
Cancer of Prostate 8
Prostate Cancer 3 46
Prostate Cancer 4 46
Prostate Neoplasm 8
Prostatic Cancer 8


Characteristics (Orphanet epidemiological data):

familial prostate cancer:
Prevalence: 1-9/100000 (United States); Age of onset: Adult

External Ids:

OMIM46 176807
Disease Ontology8 DOID:10283, DOID:10286
NCIt39 C3343, C4863
Orphanet48 1331
MESH via Orphanet34 C537243
ICD10 via Orphanet26 C61
UMLS via Orphanet62 C2931456
ICD1025 C61

Summaries for Prostate Cancer

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MedlinePlus:32 The prostate is the gland below a man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. prostate cancer is common among older men. it is rare in men younger than 40. risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family history, and being african-american. symptoms of prostate cancer may include problems passing urine, such as pain, difficulty starting or stopping the stream, or dribbling low back pain pain with ejaculation to diagnose prostate cancer, you doctor may do a digital rectal exam to feel the prostate for lumps or anything unusual. you may also get a blood test for prostate-specific antigen (psa). these tests are also used in prostate cancer screening, which looks for cancer before you have symptoms. if your results are abnormal, you may need more tests, such as an ultrasound, mri, or biopsy. treatment often depends on the stage of the cancer. how fast the cancer grows and how different it is from surrounding tissue helps determine the stage. men with prostate cancer have many treatment options. the treatment that's best for one man may not be best for another. the options include watchful waiting, surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy. you may have a combination of treatments. nih: national cancer institute

MalaCards based summary: Prostate Cancer, also known as prostate cancer, familial, is related to adenocarcinoma and breast cancer, and has symptoms including autosomal dominant inheritanceand prostate cancer. An important gene associated with Prostate Cancer is AR (androgen receptor), and among its related pathways are Integrated Breast Cancer Pathway and Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway. The drugs aminoglutethimide and chlorotrianisene and the compounds testosterone and serine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include the prostate, prostate and bone, and related mouse phenotypes are endocrine/exocrine gland and reproductive system.

Disease Ontology:8 A male reproductive organ cancer that is located in the prostate.

CDC:2 Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among American men. Most prostate cancers grow slowly, and don’t cause any health problems in men who have them.

Novus Biologicals:45 Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer and second most deadly cancer for men in the United States. Prostate cancer occurs when cells within the prostate grow uncontrollably and create small tumors. If untreated, cells from these tumors can spread via metastasis. Metastasis transports prostate cancer cells through the lymphatic system and bloodstream to other parts of the body where they can grow into secondary tumors. PSA, a protein produced by the prostate, is released into the bloodstream in small amounts under normal conditions. However, PSA is released in increasing amounts when the prostate is malfunctioning, as is the case with prostate cancer.

Wikipedia:64 Prostate cancer, also known as carcinoma of the prostate, is the development of cancer in the prostate,... more...

Description from OMIM:46 176807

Related Diseases for Prostate Cancer

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Diseases in the Prostate Cancer family:

Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 12 Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 10
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 13 Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 14
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 7 Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 2
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 11 Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 9
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 15 Prostate Cancer 1
Prostate Carcinoma in Situ

Diseases related to Prostate Cancer via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 309)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1adenocarcinoma32.4MXI1, PTEN, CHEK2, AR, MSMB, CDH1
2breast cancer32.1AR, BRCA2, CDH1
3prostatic hypertrophy32.0AR, MXI1
4androgen insensitivity31.9AR, SRD5A2
5gynecomastia31.9SRD5A2, BRCA2, AR
6leukemia31.9MXI1, RNASEL, BRCA2, CHEK2, CD82
7retinoblastoma31.8CHEK2, AR, BRCA2, KLF6
8melanoma31.8CHEK2, MXI1, CD82, CDH1, PTEN, BRCA2
9colorectal cancer31.6KLF6, CD82, CDH1, PTEN
10glioblastoma31.5PTEN, MXI1, EPHB2, CHEK2, KLF6
11bilateral breast cancer31.3BRCA2, CHEK2
12hepatocellular carcinoma31.2CD82, PTEN, BRCA2, SRD5A2, KLF6, CDH1
13li-fraumeni syndrome31.0PTEN, BRCA2, CHEK2
14lung cancer30.9KLF6, CD82, CDH1, PTEN
17ovarian cancer, somatic10.9PTEN, BRCA2, RNASEL, EPHB2, CHEK2, MSR1
19insulin-like growth factor i10.8
20gastric cancer, somatic10.8CD82, PTEN, ZFHX3, BRCA2, EPHB2, CHEK2
21stomach cancer10.7CD82, PTEN, CHEK2, CDH1
22brain cancer10.7PTEN, MXI1, KLF6, EPHB2
23follicular adenoma10.7CDH1, PTEN, AR
24penis agenesis10.7SRD5A2, AR
25alopecia, androgenetic, 110.7AR, SRD5A2
27prostate disease10.6
28pseudohermaphroditism10.6SRD5A2, AR
29cowden disease10.6BRCA2, PTEN
30prostate cancer 110.6
32ductal carcinoma in situ10.6CDH1, BRCA2
33breast ductal carcinoma10.6CDH1, AR
35peutz-jeghers syndrome10.5PTEN, BRCA2
36hypospadias10.5AR, SRD5A2
39endometrial cancer10.5CDH1, PTEN
40chronic fatigue syndrome10.5
41disseminated intravascular coagulation10.5
43neuroectodermal tumor10.5
48radiation proctitis10.4
50herpes simplex10.4

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Prostate Cancer:

Diseases related to prostate cancer

Symptoms for Prostate Cancer

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Symptoms by clinical synopsis from OMIM:


Clinical features from OMIM:


HPO human phenotypes related to Prostate Cancer:

id Description Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 autosomal dominant inheritance HP:0000006
2 prostate cancer HP:0012125

Drugs & Therapeutics for Prostate Cancer

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FDA approved drugs:

(show all 15)
id Drug Name Active Ingredient(s)13 Pharmaceutical Company Approval Date
Degarelix13 38 degarelix Ferring Pharmaceuticals Approved December of 2008
FDA Label: -
Malady that Drug Treats: Prostate Cancer
Indications and Usage:13 -
DrugBank Targets:11 1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor
Action: antagonist
FDA: -
Eligard13 38 LEUPROLIDE ACETATE Atrix Laboratories Approved January 2002
FDA Label: Eligard
Malady that Drug Treats: Advanced prostate cancer
Indications and Usage:13 ELIGARD is a gonadatropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist indicated for; the palliative treatment of advanced prostate cancer (1) ;
DrugBank Targets:11 1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: gonadotropin secretion
Action: inhibitor
FDA: Leuprolide acetate, a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, acts as a potent inhibitor; of gonadotropin secretion when given continuously in therapeutic doses. Animal and human; studies indicate that after an initial stimulation, chronic administration of leuprolide acetate; results in suppression of testicular and ovarian steroidogenesis. This effect is reversible upon; discontinuation of drug therapy.; In humans, administration of leuprolide acetate results in an initial increase in circulating levels; of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leading to a transient; increase in levels of the gonadal steroids (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in males, and; estrone and estradiol in premenopausal females). However, continuous administration of; leuprolide acetate results in decreased levels of LH and FSH. In males, testosterone is reduced to; below castrate threshold (< 50 ng/dL). These decreases occur within two to four weeks after; initiation of treatment. Long-term studies have shown that continuation of therapy with; leuprolide acetate maintains testosterone below the castrate level for up to seven years.
Eulexin13 FLUTAMIDE Schering-Plough Approved June 1996
FDA Label: Eulexin
Malady that Drug Treats: prostate cancer
Indications and Usage:13 EULEXIN capsules are indicated for use in combination with LHRH agonists for the management of locally confined Stage B2C and Stage D2 metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. Stage B2C Prostatic Carcinoma: Treatment with EUlEXIN an the goserelin acetate implant shouls start 8 weeks prior to initiating radiation therapy and continue during radiation therapy. Stage D2 Metastatic Carcinoma: To acheive benefit from treatment, EULEXIN Capsules should be initiated with the LHRH-agonist and continued until progression.
DrugBank Targets:11 1. Androgen receptor; 2. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: androgen uptake and/or nuclear binding of angrogen in target tissues
Action: inhibitor
FDA: In animal studies, flutamide demonstrates potent anti-angrogenic effects. It exerts an antiandrogenic action by inhibiting angrogen uptake and/or by inhibiting nuclear binding of androgen in target tissues or both. Prostatic carcinoma is known to be androgen-sensitive and responds to treatment that counteracts the effect of androgen and/or removes the source of androgen, eg. castration. Elevations of plasma testosterone and estraidiol levels have been noted following flutamide administration.
Jevtana13 38 CABAZITAXEL sanofi aventis Approved June 2010
FDA Label: Jevtana
Malady that Drug Treats: prostate cancer
Indications and Usage:13 JEVTANA is a microtubule inhibitor indicated in combination with; prednisone for treatment of patients with hormone-refractory metastatic; prostate cancer previously treated with a docetaxel-containing treatment; regimen. (1)
DrugBank Targets:11 1. Tubulin alpha-4A chain; 2. Tubulin beta-1 chain
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: microtubule
Action: inhibitor
FDA: Cabazitaxel is a microtubule inhibitor. Cabazitaxel binds to tubulin and promotes its assembly; into microtubules while simultaneously inhibiting disassembly. This leads to the stabilization of; microtubules, which results in the inhibition of mitotic and interphase cellular functions.
Lupron Depot13 38 LEUPROLIDE ACETATE TAP Pharmaceuticals/ Abbott Laboratories Approved July 1997/ Approved January 1996
FDA Label: Lupron Depot
Malady that Drug Treats: prostate cancer
Indications and Usage:13 LUPRON DEPOT is a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist; indicated for:; palliative treatment of advanced prostatic cancer. (1)
DrugBank Targets:11 1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: GnRH
Action: agonist
FDA: Leuprolide acetate, a GnRH agonist, acts as an inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion. Animal; studies indicate that following an initial stimulation, continuous administration of leuprolide; acetate results in suppression of ovarian and testicular steroidogenesis. This effect was reversible; upon discontinuation of drug therapy.; Administration of leuprolide acetate has resulted in inhibition of the growth of certain hormone; dependent tumors (prostatic tumors in Noble and Dunning male rats and DMBA-induced; mammary tumors in female rats) as well as atrophy of the reproductive organs.
Plenaxis13 ABARELIX Praecis Pharmaceuticals Approved December 2003
FDA Label: Plenaxis
Malady that Drug Treats: Prostate Cancer
Indications and Usage:13 Plenaxis"! is indicated for the palliative treatment of men with advanced symptomatic; prostate cancer, in whom LHRH agonist therapy is not appropriate and who refuse; surgical castration, and have one or more of the following: (1) risk of neurological; compromise due to metastases, (2) ureteral or bladder outlet obstruction due to local; encroachment or metastatic disease, or (3) severe bone pain from skeletal metastases; persisting on narcotic analgesia.
DrugBank Targets:11 1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: GnRH receptors in the pituitary gland
Action: competitive blocker
FDA: -
Provenge13 38 sipuleucel-T Dendreon Approved May 2010
FDA Label: Provenge
Malady that Drug Treats: hormone refractory prostate cancer
Indications and Usage:13 PROVENGE is an autologous cellular; immunotherapy indicated for the treatment of; asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic; castrate resistant (hormone refractory) prostate; cancer. (1)
DrugBank Targets: -
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: PAP
Action: inducer of immune response against this antigen expressed in most prostate cancers
FDA: PROVENGE is classified as an autologous cellular immunotherapy. While the precise; mechanism of action is unknown, PROVENGE is designed to induce an immune response; targeted against PAP, an antigen expressed in most prostate cancers. During ex vivo culture; with PAP-GM-CSF, APCs take up and process the recombinant target antigen into small; peptides that are then displayed on the APC surface.; In Study 1, 237 out of the 512 patients randomized were evaluated for the development of; humoral and T cell immune responses (proliferative and gamma-interferon (³IFN) ELISPOT); to the target antigens at Baseline, and at Weeks 6, 14, and 26. Antibody (IgM and IgG); responses against PAP-GM-CSF and PAP antigen alone were observed through the; follow-up period in the PROVENGE group. Neutralizing antibody responses to GM-CSF; were transient. T cell proliferative and ³IFN ELISPOT responses to PAP-GM-CSF fusion; protein were observed in cells collected from peripheral blood of patients through the; follow-up period in the PROVENGE treatment group but not in controls. In some patients a; response to PAP antigen alone was observed. No conclusions could be made regarding the; clinical significance of the observed immune responses.
Taxotere13 38 DOCETAXEL Rhone Poulenc Rorer Approved May 1996
FDA Label: Taxotere
Malady that Drug Treats: breast cancer
Indications and Usage:13 TAXOTERE is a microtubule inhibitor indicated for:; Breast Cancer (BC): single agent for locally advanced or metastatic BC; after chemotherapy failure; and with doxorubicin and; cyclophosphamide as adjuvant treatment of operable node-positive BC; (1.1); Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): single agent for locally; ; advanced or metastatic NSCLC after platinum therapy failure; and; ; with cisplatin for unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic; untreated NSCLC (1.2); ; Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer (HRPC): with prednisone in; androgen independent (hormone refractory) metastatic prostate cancer; (1.3); Gastric Adenocarcinoma (GC): with cisplatin and fluorouracil for; untreated, advanced GC, including the gastroesophageal junction (1.4); Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Cancer (SCCHN):; with cisplatin and fluorouracil for induction treatment of locally; advanced SCCHN (1.5)
DrugBank Targets:11 1. Tubulin beta-1 chain; 2. Apoptosis regulator Bcl-2; 3. Microtubule-associated protein 2; 4. Microtubule-associated protein 4; 5. Microtubule-associated protein tau; 6. Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: free tubulin
Action: promoter of assembly
FDA: Docetaxel is an antineoplastic agent that acts by disrupting the microtubular network in cells that is; essential for mitotic and interphase cellular functions. Docetaxel binds to free tubulin and promotes the; assembly of tubulin into stable microtubules while simultaneously inhibiting their disassembly. This; leads to the production of microtubule bundles without normal function and to the stabilization of; microtubules, which results in the inhibition of mitosis in cells. Docetaxel s binding to microtubules; does not alter the number of protofilaments in the bound microtubules, a feature which differs from most; spindle poisons currently in clinical use.
Trelstar Depot/ Trelstar LA13 TRIPTORELIN PAMOATE Debio Rechereche Pharmaceutique, Target Research Associates/ Debiopharm Approved June 2000/ Approved June 2001
Malady that Drug Treats: advanced prostate cancer/ Prostate cancer
Indications and Usage:13 TRELSTAR is a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist indicated for the palliative treatment; of advanced prostate cancer. (1)
DrugBank Targets: -
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
Action: agonist
FDA: Triptorelin is a synthetic decapeptide agonist analog of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH).; Comparative in vitro studies showed that triptorelin was 100-fold more active than native GnRH in; stimulating luteinizing hormone release from monolayers of dispersed rat pituitary cells in culture and; 20-fold more active than native GnRH in displacing 125I-GnRH from pituitary receptor sites. In animal; studies, triptorelin pamoate was found to have 13 fold higher luteinizing hormone-releasing activity and; 21-fold higher follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing activity compared to the native GnRH.
Viadur13 38 LEUPROLIDE ACETATE Alza Approved March 2000
FDA Label: Viadur
Malady that Drug Treats: advanced prostate cancer
Indications and Usage:13 Viadur® is indicated in the palliative treatment of advanced prostate cancer.
DrugBank Targets:11 1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: gonadotropin; secretion
Action: inhibitor
FDA: Leuprolide acetate, an LH-RH agonist, acts as a potent inhibitor of gonadotropin; secretion when given continuously and in therapeutic doses. Animal and human studies indicate that after an initial stimulation, chronic administration of leuprolide acetate; results in suppression of ovarian and testicular steroidogenesis.; In humans, administration of leuprolide acetate results in an initial increase in circulating; levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), leading to a; transient increase in concentrations of gonadal steroids (testosterone and; dihydrotestosterone in males, and estrone and estradiol in premenopausal females).; However, continuous administration of leuprolide acetate results in decreased levels of; LH and FSH. In males, testosterone is reduced to castrate levels. These decreases; occur within 2 to 4 weeks after initiation of treatment.; One Viadur® Implant nominally delivers 120 micrograms of leuprolide acetate per day; over 12 months. Leuprolide acetate is not active when given orally.
Xofigo13 38 RADIUM RA-223 DICHLORIDE Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals Approved May 2013
FDA Label: Xofigo
Malady that Drug Treats: prostate cancer with bone metastases
Indications and Usage:13 Xofigo is an alpha particle-emitting radioactive therapeutic agent indicated for; the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, symptomatic; bone metastases and no known visceral metastatic disease. (1)
DrugBank Targets:11 -
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: bone mineral hydroxyapatite at areas of increased bone turnover
Action: forms complexes, destroys DNA
FDA: The active moiety of Xofigo is the alpha particle-emitting isotope radium-223 (as radium Ra 223 dichloride), which; mimics calcium and forms complexes with the bone mineral hydroxyapatite at areas of increased bone turnover, such as; bone metastases (see Table 2). The high linear energy transfer of alpha emitters (80 keV/micrometer) leads to a high; frequency of double-strand DNA breaks in adjacent cells, resulting in an anti-tumor effect on bone metastases. The alpha; particle range from radium-223 dichloride is less than 100 micrometers (less than 10 cell diameters) which limits damage; to the surrounding normal tissue.
Xtandi13 38 ENZALUTAMIDE Medivation Approved August 2012
FDA Label: Xtandi
Malady that Drug Treats: metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer
Indications and Usage:13 XTANDI is an androgen receptor inhibitor indicated for the treatment of; patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. (1)
DrugBank Targets:11 1. Androgen receptor
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: androgen receptor
Action: inhibitor
FDA: Enzalutamide is an androgen receptor inhibitor that acts on different steps in the androgen receptor; signaling pathway. Enzalutamide has been shown to competitively inhibit androgen binding to androgen; receptors and inhibit androgen receptor nuclear translocation and interaction with DNA. A major; metabolite, N-desmethyl enzalutamide, exhibited similar in vitro activity to enzalutamide. Enzalutamide; decreased proliferation and induced cell death of prostate cancer cells in vitro, and decreased tumor; volume in a mouse prostate cancer xenograft model.
Zoladex13 38 GOSERELIN ACETATE AstraZeneca Approved January 1996
FDA Label: Zoladex
Malady that Drug Treats: prostate cancer
Indications and Usage:13 ZOLADEX is a Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) agonist indicated; for:; Use in combination with flutamide for the management of locally confined; carcinoma of the prostate (1.1); Palliative treatment of advanced carcinoma of the prostate (1.2); The management of endometriosis (1.3); Use as an endometrial-thinning agent prior to endometrial ablation for; dysfunctional uterine bleeding (1.4); Use in the palliative treatment of advanced breast cancer in pre- and; perimenopausal women (1.5)
DrugBank Targets:11 1. Lutropin-choriogonadotropic hormone receptor; 2. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: pituitary gonadotropin; secretion
Action: inhibitor
FDA: ZOLADEX is a synthetic decapeptide analogue of GnRH. ZOLADEX acts as an inhibitor of pituitary gonadotropin; secretion when administered in the biodegradable formulation. In animal and in vitro studies, administration of goserelin; resulted in the regression or inhibition of growth of the hormonally sensitive dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced; rat mammary tumor and Dunning R3327 prostate tumor.
Zometa13 38 ZOLEDRONIC ACID Novartis Approved August 2001/ Approved February 2002
FDA Label: Zometa
Malady that Drug Treats: Hypercalcemia of malignancy/ Multiple myeloma; bone metastases from solid tumors
Indications and Usage:13 Zometa is a bisphosphonate indicated for the treatment of:; Hypercalcemia of malignancy. (1.1); Patients with multiple myeloma and patients with documented bone; metastases from solid tumors, in conjunction with standard antineoplastic; therapy. Prostate cancer should have progressed after treatment with at; least one hormonal therapy. (1.2); Important limitation of use: The safety and efficacy of Zometa has not been; established for use in hyperparathyroidism or nontumor-related; hypercalcemia. (1.3)
DrugBank Targets:11 1. Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase; 2. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase; 3. Hydroxylapatite
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: bone resorption
Action: inhibitor
FDA: The principal pharmacologic action of zoledronic acid is inhibition of bone resorption. Although the; antiresorptive mechanism is not completely understood, several factors are thought to contribute to this action.; In vitro, zoledronic acid inhibits osteoclastic activity and induces osteoclast apoptosis. Zoledronic acid also; blocks the osteoclastic resorption of mineralized bone and cartilage through its binding to bone. Zoledronic acid; inhibits the increased osteoclastic activity and skeletal calcium release induced by various stimulatory factors; released by tumors.
Zytiga13 38 ABIRATERONE ACETATE Centocor Ortho Biotech Approved May 2011
FDA Label: Zytiga
Malady that Drug Treats: prostate cancer
Indications and Usage:13 ZYTIGA is a CYP17 inhibitor indicated in combination with prednisone for; the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.; (1)
DrugBank Targets:11 1. Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: 17 ±-hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase (CYP17)
Action: inhibitor
FDA: Abiraterone acetate (ZYTIGA) is converted in vivo to abiraterone, an androgen biosynthesis; inhibitor, that inhibits 17 ±-hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase (CYP17). This enzyme is expressed in; testicular, adrenal, and prostatic tumor tissues and is required for androgen biosynthesis.; CYP17 catalyzes two sequential reactions: 1) the conversion of pregnenolone and; progesterone to their 17±-hydroxy derivatives by 17±-hydroxylase activity and 2) the; subsequent formation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione,; respectively, by C17, 20 lyase activity. DHEA and androstenedione are androgens and are; precursors of testosterone. Inhibition of CYP17 by abiraterone can also result in increased; mineralocorticoid production by the adrenals [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].; Androgen sensitive prostatic carcinoma responds to treatment that decreases androgen; levels. Androgen deprivation therapies, such as treatment with GnRH agonists or; orchiectomy, decrease androgen production in the testes but do not affect androgen; production by the adrenals or in the tumor. ZYTIGA decreased serum testosterone and other androgens in patients in the; placebo-controlled Phase 3 clinical trial. It is not necessary to monitor the effect of ZYTIGA; on serum testosterone levels.; Changes in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels may be observed but have not been; shown to correlate with clinical benefit in individual patients.

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Prostate Cancer

Search NIH Clinical Center for Prostate Cancer

Inferred drug relations via UMLS61/NDF-RT40:

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Cell-based therapeutics:

LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Prostate Cancer cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.
Stem-cell-based therapeutic approaches for Prostate Cancer:
Alescat, autologous lymphocyte-based therapy for the treatment of solid cancers

Genetic Tests for Prostate Cancer

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Genetic tests related to Prostate Cancer:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Prostate Cancer20 SRD5A2
2 Malignant Tumor of Prostate22

Anatomical Context for Prostate Cancer

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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Prostate Cancer:

Prostate, Bone, Breast, Endothelial, Lymph node, Testes, Skin, T cells, Bone marrow, Lung, Pituitary, Liver, Testis, Colon, Brain, Kidney, Monocytes, Heart, Myeloid, Nk cells, B cells, Adipocyte, Placenta, Spinal cord, Eye, Whole blood, Pancreas, Thyroid, Salivary gland, Ovary, Cervix, Tongue, Pineal

FMA organs/tissues related to Prostate Cancer:

The prostate

Animal Models for Prostate Cancer or affiliated genes

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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Prostate Cancer:

idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:000537911.7AR, HOXB13, PTEN, ZFHX3, BRCA2, EPHB2
2MP:000538911.7HOXB13, PTEN, ZFHX3, BRCA2, EPHB2, MSMB
3MP:000538411.6RNASEL, BRCA2, PTEN, HOXB13, EPHB2, CHEK2
4MP:001076811.6EPHB2, BRCA2, ZFHX3, PTEN, CHEK2, MSR1
5MP:000200611.5PTEN, ZFHX3, BRCA2, CHEK2, MSMB, MAD1L1
7MP:000539711.1PTEN, BRCA2, RNASEL, CHEK2, MSR1, KLF6
8MP:000538011.0AR, CDH1, KLF6, BRCA2, PTEN, HOXB13
9MP:001077110.7HOXB13, PTEN, BRCA2, KLF6, CDH1, AR

Publications for Prostate Cancer

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Articles related to Prostate Cancer:

(show top 50)    (show all 11015)
Re: Effect of Soy Protein Isolate Supplementation on Biochemical Recurrence ofA Prostate Cancer after Radical Prostatectomy: A Randomized Trial. (24331479)
Lumican expression, localization and antitumor activity in prostate cancer. (23399832)
Long non-coding RNA GAS5 regulates apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines. (23676682)
Pre-prostatic tissue removed in robotic assisted lymph node dissection for prostate cancer contains lymph nodes. (24311906)
Pre-chemotherapy Abiraterone Acetate. A Proposal of a Treatment Algorithm in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer. (24342031)
No evidence of FGFR3 mutations in prostate cancer. (20957671)
PPARI^ disease gene network and identification of therapeutic targets for prostate cancer. (21780947)
Association of HLA class I antigen abnormalities with disease progression and early recurrence in prostate cancer. (19820934)
Clusterin facilitates COMMD1 and I-kappaB degradation to enhance NF- kappaB activity in prostate cancer cells. (20068069)
CYP17 polymorphisms and prostate cancer outcomes. (20503394)
Promising tumor-associated antigens for future prostate cancer therapy. (19536865)
Other biomarkers for detecting prostate cancer. (19930175)
Investigative clinical study on prostate cancer part III: exploring total PSA and free testosterone distributions and linear correlations in groups and subgroups of operated prostate cancer patients according to the total PSA/FT ratio. (20948186)
Biopsy tissue microarray study of Ki-67 expression in untreated, localized prostate cancer managed by active surveillance. (18762814)
Y chromosome haplotypes and prostate cancer in Sweden. (18927315)
A feedback loop between the androgen receptor and a NEDD4-binding protein, PMEPA1, in prostate cancer cells. (18703514)
Sequence variants of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase are associated with prostate cancer risk: a replication study in an ethnically homogeneous population. (18537123)
ABCB1 genetic variation influences the toxicity and clinical outcome of patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer treated with docetaxel. (18628469)
P2Y purinergic receptor activated PI-3K/Akt signaling pathway in regulation of growth and invasion of prostatic cancer]. (18194602)
Locally advanced prostate cancer: biochemical results from a prospective phase II study of intermittent androgen suppression for men with evidence of prostate-specific antigen recurrence after radiotherapy. (17559131)
Phase II study evaluating oral triamcinolone in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer. (16698360)
Sprouty4, a suppressor of tumor cell motility, is down regulated by DNA methylation in human prostate cancer. (16388505)
Characterization of frequently deleted 6q locus in prostate cancer. (17132090)
Cyclin D1b variant influences prostate cancer growth through aberrant androgen receptor regulation. (16461912)
Cyclin G-associated kinase: a novel androgen receptor-interacting transcriptional coactivator that is overexpressed in hormone refractory prostate cancer. (16161052)
Targeting stathmin in prostate cancer. (16373697)
A novel knock-in prostate cancer model demonstrates biology similar to that of human prostate cancer and suitable for preclinical studies. (15727931)
Diverse signaling pathways through the SDF-1/CXCR4 chemokine axis in prostate cancer cell lines leads to altered patterns of cytokine secretion and angiogenesis. (16005185)
An antagonist of retinoic acid receptors more effectively inhibits growth of human prostate cancer cells than normal prostate epithelium. (15266311)
Epidermal growth factor, neurotrophins and the metastatic cascade in prostate cancer. (15280008)
Microarray analysis of prostate cancer progression to reduced androgen dependence: studies in unique models contrasts early and late molecular events. (15390081)
Deregulation of p73 isoform equilibrium in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. (15492805)
Vitamin D receptor gene Bsm I polymorphism and the susceptibility to prostate cancer in northern Chinese Han population]. (14574802)
A comparative study of prostate specific antigen (PSA), C-terminal propeptide of blood type I procollagen (PICP) and urine type I collagen-crosslinked N telopeptide (NTx) levels using bone scintigraphy in prostate cancer patients. (12932112)
Metastatic prostate cancer with normal level of serum prostate-specific antigen. (15072491)
A candidate prostate cancer susceptibility gene encodes tRNA 3' processing endoribonuclease. (12711671)
Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 is required for progression of autochthonous prostate cancer: evidence from the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate system. (14695191)
Differential activation of the IGF binding protein-3 promoter by butyrate in prostate cancer cells. (11956160)
Inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB induces apoptosis following treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha and an antioxidant in human prostate cancer cells. (12269771)
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligand 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 induces vascular endothelial growth factor in the hormone-independent prostate cancer cell line PC 3 and the urinary bladder carcinoma cell line 5637. (12239635)
Induction of apoptosis by green tea catechins in human prostate cancer DU145 cells. (11228105)
Endothelin-1 production by prostate cancer cell lines is up-regulated by factors involved in cancer progression and down-regulated by androgens. (11746273)
A novel human cancer culture model for the study of prostate cancer. (11753687)
Contrasting effects of aspirin on prostate cancer cells: suppression of proliferation and induction of drug resistance . (10639187)
BRCA1 and BRCA2 have a limited role in familial prostate cancer. (10728701)
Plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor are increased in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. (10475365)
The combination of human glandular kallikrein and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) enhances discrimination between prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients with moderately increased total PSA. (10545066)
Clinical pharmacokinetics of the antiandrogens and their efficacy in prostate cancer. (9592622)
NGF-beta, NE-cells and prostatic cancer cell lines. A study of neuroendocrine expression in the human prostatic cancer cell lines DU-145, PC-3, LNCaP, and TSU-pr1 following stimulation of the nerve growth factor-beta. (9561567)
Free and total serum PSA values in patients with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), prostate cancer and BPH. Is F/T PSA a potential probe for dormant and manifest cancer? (9179191)

Variations for Prostate Cancer

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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for Prostate Cancer:

63 (show all 22)
id Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID

Clinvar genetic disease variations for Prostate Cancer:

5 (show all 28)
id Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1RNASELNM_021133.3(RNASEL): c.793G> T (p.Glu265Ter)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs74315364GRCh37Chr 1, 182555149: 182555149
2RNASELNM_021133.3(RNASEL): c.3G> A (p.Met1Ile)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs74315365GRCh37Chr 1, 182555939: 182555939
3EHBP1NM_001142615.2(EHBP1): c.1185+30064G> Asingle nucleotide variantPathogenicrs721048GRCh37Chr 2, 63131731: 63131731
4MSMBNM_002443.3(MSMB): c.-89T=single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs10993994GRCh37Chr 10, 51549496: 51549496
5MSR1NM_138715.2(MSR1): c.877C> T (p.Arg293Ter)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs41341748GRCh37Chr 8, 16012594: 16012594
6MSR1NM_138715.2(MSR1): c.520G> T (p.Asp174Tyr)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs72552387GRCh37Chr 8, 16026077: 16026077
7ZFHX3ZFHX3, 24-BP DEL, NT10814deletionPathogenic
8ELAC2NM_018127.6(ELAC2): c.650C> T (p.Ser217Leu)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs4792311GRCh37Chr 17, 12915009: 12915009
9ELAC2NM_018127.6(ELAC2): c.1621G> A (p.Ala541Thr)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs5030739GRCh37Chr 17, 12899902: 12899902
10ELAC2NM_018127.6(ELAC2): c.1641dupG (p.His548Alafs)duplicationPathogenicrs387906327GRCh37Chr 17, 12899881: 12899882
11ELAC2NM_018127.6(ELAC2): c.2342G> A (p.Arg781His)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs119484086GRCh37Chr 17, 12896274: 12896274
12ELAC2NM_018127.6(ELAC2): c.1865A> T (p.Glu622Val)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs119484087GRCh37Chr 17, 12898323: 12898323
13EPHB2NM_004442.6(EPHB2): c.2167C> T (p.Gln723Ter)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121912582GRCh37Chr 1, 23234473: 23234473
14EPHB2NM_004442.6(EPHB2): c.835G> T (p.Ala279Ser)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs35882952GRCh37Chr 1, 23189553: 23189553
15EPHB2NM_004442.6(EPHB2): c.2035G> A (p.Asp679Asn)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs28936395GRCh37Chr 1, 23233346: 23233346
16EPHB2NM_004442.6(EPHB2): c.*187A> Tsingle nucleotide variantrisk factorrs76826147GRCh37Chr 1, 23240250: 23240250
17BRCA2BRCA2, 1-BP DEL, 6051AdeletionPathogenic
18BRCA2BRCA2, 1-BP INS, 2558AinsertionPathogenic
19MXI1MXI1, 1-BP DEL, A, CODON 140 OR 141deletionPathogenic
20MXI1NM_130439.3(MXI1): c.552+2T> Csingle nucleotide variantPathogenicrs387906417GRCh37Chr 10, 112039054: 112039054
21MXI1NM_130439.3(MXI1): c.656A> C (p.Glu219Ala)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs137852603GRCh37Chr 10, 112039775: 112039775
22ARNM_000044.3(AR): c.1943G> A (p.Ser648Asn)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs137852584GRCh37Chr X, 66931301: 66931301
23ARNM_000044.3(AR): c.2191G> A (p.Val731Met)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs137852571GRCh37Chr X, 66937337: 66937337
24ARNM_000044.3(AR): c.2632A> G (p.Thr878Ala)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs137852578GRCh37Chr X, 66943552: 66943552
25ARNM_000044.3(AR): c.2633C> G (p.Thr878Ser)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs137852580GRCh37Chr X, 66943553: 66943553
26ARNM_000044.3(AR): c.2623C> T (p.His875Tyr)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs137852581GRCh37Chr X, 66943543: 66943543
27ARNM_000044.3(AR): c.2708A> G (p.Gln903Arg)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs137852582GRCh37Chr X, 66943628: 66943628
28ARNM_000044.3(AR): c.2164G> A (p.Ala722Thr)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs137852583GRCh37Chr X, 66931522: 66931522

Cosmic variations for Prostate Cancer:

id Cosmic Mut ID Gene Symbol COSMIC Disease Classification
(Primary site, Site subtype, Primary histology, Histology subtype)
1763PIK3CAskin,back,carcinoma,basal cell carcinoma1

Expression for genes affiliated with Prostate Cancer

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Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Prostate Cancer.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Prostate Cancer

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Pathways related to Prostate Cancer according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
211.0AR, CD82, CHEK2, BRCA2, PTEN
Show member pathways
Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma36
410.9PTEN, BRCA2, CDH1, AR
Show member pathways
Prostate Cancer36
Integrated Cancer pathway36
Steroid Biosynthesis36
Show member pathways
Cell cycle36
10.8CDH1, MAD1L1, CHEK2
Show member pathways
Translation Non genomic rapid action of Androgen Receptor59
10.8AR, SRD5A2, PTEN
Show member pathways
DNA damage response36
10.8PTEN, CHEK2, CD82

Compounds for genes affiliated with Prostate Cancer

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Compounds related to Prostate Cancer according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 39)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1testosterone44 60 24 1114.7AR, PTEN, BRCA2, RNASEL, MSR1, MSMB
2serine4411.6PTEN, EPHB2, CHEK2, ELAC2, MAD1L1, KLF6
3tyrosine4411.5PTEN, EPHB2, CHEK2, MSR1, MSMB, CD82
4arginine4411.4PTEN, RNASEL, EPHB2, SRD5A2, CDH1, AR
5phosphatidylinositol4411.4PTEN, BRCA2, EPHB2, CHEK2, CDS1, CDH1
6estrogen4411.4PTEN, BRCA2, SRD5A2, KLF6, CDH1, AR
7retinoic acid44 2412.4PTEN, BRCA2, EPHB2, CHEK2, CDH1, AR
8etoposide44 50 60 1114.4PTEN, BRCA2, CHEK2, CDH1, AR
9genistein44 28 60 1 24 1116.4PTEN, BRCA2, CHEK2, CDH1, AR
10paraffin4411.4PTEN, BRCA2, CD82, CDH1, AR
11progesterone44 28 60 24 1115.3PTEN, BRCA2, SRD5A2, CDH1, AR
12steroid4411.3AR, SRD5A2, MSMB, BRCA2, PTEN
13indole-3-carbinol4411.3PTEN, BRCA2, CDH1, AR
14adenine44 24 1113.3RNASEL, SRD5A2, CDH1, AR
15n acetylcysteine4411.2CHEK2, MSR1, CDH1, AR
16tamoxifen44 50 28 1114.2AR, CDH1, BRCA2, PTEN
17vitamin d4411.2PTEN, SRD5A2, CDH1, AR
18paclitaxel44 50 1113.2PTEN, BRCA2, MAD1L1, CDH1
19rapamycin4411.2PTEN, CHEK2, CDH1, AR
20doxorubicin44 50 1113.2PTEN, CHEK2, CDH1, AR
21estradiol44 24 1113.2PTEN, BRCA2, SRD5A2, AR
22glutamine4411.1AR, CDH1, SRD5A2, BRCA2
23nocodazole44 1112.1CDH1, MAD1L1, CHEK2
24adriamycin4411.1CDH1, CHEK2, BRCA2
25troglitazone44 28 60 1114.1PTEN, CDH1, AR
26dutasteride44 1112.0AR, SRD5A2
27cisplatin44 50 60 1114.0CDH1, CHEK2, BRCA2, PTEN
28docetaxel44 50 60 1114.0BRCA2, CDH1, AR
29leucine4411.0PTEN, SRD5A2, MXI1, CDH1
30mg 13244 6012.0PTEN, CDH1, AR
31dihydrotestosterone44 28 24 1114.0SRD5A2, CDH1, AR
32sodium bisulfite4410.9AR, CDH1
33finasteride44 60 24 1113.9SRD5A2, AR
345-aza-2deoxycytidine4410.9AR, CDH1, PTEN
35adenylate4410.9RNASEL, KLF6, CDH1, AR
36calcitriol44 60 24 1113.8AR, CDH1, PTEN
37danazol44 24 1112.7AR, CDH1
38o6-methylguanine4410.6CDH1, BRCA2
39cycloheximide4410.6PTEN, BRCA2, RNASEL, AR

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Prostate Cancer

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Cellular components related to Prostate Cancer according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1nucleusGO:000563411.4PTEN, ZFHX3, BRCA2, ELAC2, MSMB, MAD1L1
2Schmidt-Lanterman incisureGO:004322010.4CDH1, PTEN

Biological processes related to Prostate Cancer according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templatedGO:004589311.0AR, CDH1, KLF6, CHEK2, BRCA2
2response to gamma radiationGO:001033210.7CHEK2, BRCA2
3dendritic spine morphogenesisGO:006099710.6PTEN, EPHB2
4negative regulation of axonogenesisGO:005077110.4EPHB2, PTEN

Sources for Prostate Cancer

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26ICD10 via Orphanet
34MESH via Orphanet
47OMIM via Orphanet
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
62UMLS via Orphanet