PEM
MCID: PRT038
MIFTS: 53

Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM) malady

Metabolic diseases category

Summaries for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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63Wikipedia, 32MalaCards
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Wikipedia:63 Protein–energy malnutrition (or protein–calorie malnutrition) refers to a form of malnutrition where... more...

MalaCards: Protein-Energy Malnutrition, also known as PEM, is related to malaria and hepatitis. An important gene associated with Protein-Energy Malnutrition is PIGR (polymeric immunoglobulin receptor), and among its related pathways are FOXA2 and FOXA3 transcription factor networks and Platelet degranulation . The compounds uric acid and estrogen have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone, liver and testes, and related mouse phenotypes are endocrine/exocrine gland and homeostasis/metabolism.

Aliases & Classifications for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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8Disease Ontology, 10DISEASES, 44Novoseek, 60UMLS, 38NCBI Bookshelf, 56SNOMED-CT, 27ICD9CM, 39NCIt, 34MeSH, 25ICD10
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Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Global: Metabolic diseases


Aliases & Descriptions:

protein-energy malnutrition 8 10 44 60
pem 38


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:11801
ICD9CM27 263.9
NCIt39 C34952
MeSH34 D011502
ICD1025 E46

Related Diseases for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
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Diseases related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 228)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1malaria30.8GSR, ALB, HP, RBP4, H6PD
2hepatitis30.7GSR, ALB, GGT1, RBP4, TF
3peritonitis30.7ALB
4marasmus30.7ALB, TF, LSL
5ischemia30.7GSR, HP
6pancreatitis30.7ALB, GGT1, CCK, H6PD
7liver cirrhosis30.7ALB, GGT1, RBP4, TF, CSN1S1, LSL
8arthritis30.6ALB, LEP, IL1RAPL2, HP, CSN1S1
9lactose intolerance30.4CSN1S1
10protein-losing enteropathy30.4ALB, TF
11rheumatoid arthritis30.4IL1RAPL2, HP, CSN1S1
12leukemia30.4TTR, IL1RAPL2, HP, EPHX1, IGFBP1, RBP4
13cystic fibrosis30.4ALB, SI, HP, EPHX1, ANXA6, RBP4
14tuberculosis30.4GSR, ALB, IL1RAPL2, HP, LSL, H6PD
15crohn's disease30.2ALB
16viral hepatitis30.2GGT1
17iron deficiency anemia30.2TF
18hypervitaminosis a30.2TTR, RBP4
19eating disorder30.2LEP, LSL, CCK
20hyperinsulinism30.2LEP, IGF1, IGFBP1, LSL
21alcoholic liver cirrhosis30.2ALB, GGT1, TF, LSL
22diarrhea30.2ALB, TTR, SI, CSN1S1
23hypertension30.2ALB, GGT1, LEP, IGF1
24anorexia nervosa30.2TTR, LEP, IGF1, IGFBP1, LSL, CCK
25deficiency anemia30.2GSR, ALB, TTR, HP, TF, LSL
26alzheimer's disease30.2GSR, TTR, ANXA6, RBP4, CSN1S1, CCK
27obesity30.2GGT1, LEP, PC, IGF1, IGFBP1, RBP4
28kwashiorkor10.6
29thyroiditis10.6
30cerebritis10.4
31measles10.4
32biotin deficiency10.3
33cerebral malaria10.3
34acute leukemia10.3
35neuroblastoma10.3
36burns10.2
37acute diarrhea10.2
38visceral leishmaniasis10.2
39giardiasis10.2
40intestinal impaction10.2
41ariboflavinosis10.2
42juvenile rheumatoid arthritis10.2
43paracoccidioidomycosis10.2
44adult syndrome10.2
45alcoholic hepatitis10.2
46congestive heart failure10.2
47dental caries10.2
48dilated cardiomyopathy10.2
49esophagitis10.2
50food allergy10.2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition:



Diseases related to protein-energy malnutrition

Clinical Features for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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Drugs & Therapeutics for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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Sources:
5CenterWatch, 41NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 60UMLS, 40NDF-RT
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Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Drug clinical trials:

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Search NIH Clinical Center for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Search CenterWatch for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Genetic Tests for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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Anatomical Context for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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32MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition:

32
Bone, Liver, Testes, Brain, Thyroid, Bone marrow, Thymus, Small intestine, T cells, Skeletal muscle, Heart, Skin, Kidney, B cells, Pituitary, Colon, Pancreas, Placenta

Animal Models for Protein-Energy Malnutrition or affiliated genes

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36MGI
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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition:

36
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:000537910.0RBP4, CCK, H6PD
2MP:00053768.3ALB, H6PD, CCK, TF, PIGR, RBP4

Publications for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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50PubMed
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Articles related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition:

(show top 50)    (show all 500)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
A narrative review of recent progress in understanding the relationship between tuberculosis and protein energy malnutrition. (23942176)
2013
2
Protein-energy malnutrition alters IgA responses to rotavirus vaccination and infection but does not impair vaccine efficacy in mice. (24200975)
2013
3
Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in protein energy malnutrition induced liver and kidney damage. (24174819)
2013
4
Protein-energy malnutrition during early gestation in sheep blunts fetal renal vascular and nephron development and compromises adult renal function. (22106177)
2012
5
Study of lymphocyte subpopulations in bone marrow in a model of protein-energy malnutrition. (20036516)
2010
6
INCAP studies of hematologic and gastrointestinal function in healthy individuals and those with protein-energy malnutrition and infection. (20461910)
2010
7
Identification and treatment of protein-energy malnutrition in renal disease. (20205975)
2010
8
Protein energy malnutrition in goitrous schoolchildren of Ahwaz, Iran. (19996628)
2010
9
Serum ghrelin levels in children with primary protein-energy malnutrition. (18937750)
2008
10
Protein-energy malnutrition modifies the production of interleukin-10 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a murine model. (19001768)
2008
11
N-acetyl-L-glutamine, a liquid-stable source of glutamine, partially prevents changes in body weight and on intestinal immunity induced by protein energy malnutrition in pigs. (17253138)
2007
12
Cognitive functions in protein-energy malnutrition: in relation to long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids. (19086537)
2007
13
Auditory brainstem potentials in children with protein energy malnutrition. (15911010)
2005
14
A randomized controlled study of the impact of dietary zinc supplementation in the management of children with protein-energy malnutrition in Lesotho. II: Special investigations. (14725412)
2003
15
The acute-phase protein response to infection in edematous and nonedematous protein-energy malnutrition. (12450910)
2002
16
Response of splanchnic and whole-body leucine kinetics to treatment of children with edematous protein-energy malnutrition accompanied by infection. (12198011)
2002
17
Evaluation of erythropoiesis in protein energy malnutrition. (15339115)
2002
18
Treatment of protein-energy malnutrition in chronic nonmalignant disorders. (11451713)
2001
19
A new classification of acute protein-energy malnutrition. (10822936)
2000
20
A study of prevalence of protein energy malnutrition among 0-5 years in rural Benue State, Nigeria. (10768411)
2000
21
Plasma fatty acids in children with grade III protein-energy malnutrition in its different clinical forms: marasmus, marasmic kwashiorkor, and kwashiorkor. (10341499)
1999
22
Protein-energy malnutrition in urban children: prevalence and determinants. (10214456)
1998
23
Study of plasma albumin, transferrin, and fibronectin in children with mild to moderate protein-energy malnutrition. (9972082)
1998
24
Risk factors for protein-energy malnutrition in pre-school shantytown children in SALo Paulo, Brazil. (9778884)
1998
25
Haemostatic status of children with protein-energy malnutrition. (9538610)
1998
26
Zinc and rehabilitation from severe protein-energy malnutrition: higher-dose regimens are associated with increased mortality. (9734756)
1998
27
Relationship of childhood protein-energy malnutrition and parasite infections in an urban African setting. (9171847)
1997
28
Significance of very low retinol levels during severe protein-energy malnutrition. (8699583)
1996
29
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with severe protein-energy malnutrition with and without human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection. (7491893)
1995
30
Outcome of protein-energy malnutrition in elderly medical patients. (7825621)
1995
31
Direct evidence that primary acquired cell-mediated immunity is less resistant than is primary thymus-dependent humoral immunity to the depressive influence of wasting protein-energy malnutrition in weanling mice. (1595591)
1992
32
Nosocomial bacterial infections among children with severe protein energy malnutrition. (1396209)
1992
33
Combating protein-energy-malnutrition in a rural/peri-urban southern African black population. (1795353)
1991
34
Prenatal protein-energy malnutrition alters various biochemical components of the membranous bones in fetal rats. (3147723)
1988
35
Iron, folate and vitamin B12 in severe protein-energy malnutrition. (3149208)
1988
36
Protein-energy malnutrition in northern Sudan: prevalence, socio-economic factors and family background. (2456738)
1988
37
Skin in protein energy malnutrition. (3120652)
1987
38
The bioenergetics of protein-energy malnutrition syndrome. (3126605)
1987
39
Disposition of chloramphenicol in young rhesus monkeys with protein-energy malnutrition. (3098540)
1986
40
Short- and long-term effectiveness of enteral and parenteral nutrition in reversing or preventing protein-energy malnutrition in advanced neuroblastoma. A prospective randomized study. (3931899)
1985
41
Anemia in protein-energy malnutrition. (3939235)
1985
42
The ongoing evaluation of protein-energy malnutrition. (12339813)
1984
43
Protein-energy malnutrition during pregnancy alters caffeine's effect on brain tissue of neonate rats. (6083428)
1984
44
Correlation between protein-energy malnutrition and vitamin-mineral deficiencies in the young. (6434480)
1984
45
Leucocyte ascorbic acid levels in Nigerian children with protein-energy malnutrition. (6197023)
1983
46
Longitudinal study of growth and development of young Jamaican children recovering from severe protein-energy malnutrition. (6178640)
1982
47
Causes of protein energy malnutrition as viewed by the clients' mother. (6820807)
1982
48
Leucocyte protein and free alpha-amino nitrogen alterations in children in different grades of protein energy malnutrition. (6806183)
1981
49
Growth hormone secretion in protein energy malnutrition. (6797233)
1981
50
Thymus-derived lymphocyte levels in children with protein-energy-malnutrition (kwashiorkor). (6972299)
1980

Genetic Variations for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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Expression for genes affiliated with Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Protein-Energy Malnutrition.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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Sources:
37NCBI BioSystems Database, 53Reactome
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Pathways related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
110.1ALB, TTR, IGFBP1
2
Hide members
10.0TF, IGF1, ALB
310.0LEP, IGFBP1, TF
49.9GSR, ALB, GGT1

Compounds for genes affiliated with Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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44Novoseek, 24HMDB, 11DrugBank, 49PharmGKB, 28IUPHAR, 59Tocris Bioscience
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Compounds related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 206)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1uric acid44 2411.8TTR
2estrogen4410.6SI, TTR
3alpha tocopherol4410.5RBP4, TTR, TF
4vitamin a44 11 2412.1CSN1S1, PIGR, HP, RBP4, IGFBP1
5dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate4410.1RBP4, LSL, IGFBP1
6glutamate4410.1PC, IL1RAPL2, ANXA6, CCK
7tocopherol4410.0TTR, HP, GSR, TF, RBP4
8rosiglitazone44 49 28 11 2414.0IGFBP1, LSL, RBP4, LEP
9norepinephrine44 11 2412.0IL1RAPL2, CCK, TTR
10beta-hydroxybutyrate4410.0LEP, IGFBP1, LSL, PC, HP
11cellulose acetate449.9HP, RBP4, ALB, TTR, IL1RAPL2
12glutaraldehyde449.9H6PD, TF, CSN1S1, TTR, ALB
13prednisolone44 28 1111.8IGFBP1, LSL, CSN1S1, IL1RAPL2
14betacarotene449.8RBP4, TF, TTR, GGT1, GSR, LEP
15starch449.8SI, HP, IGF1, TF, CSN1S1, H6PD
16dexamethasone44 49 28 1112.7RBP4, PC, GGT1, SI, IL1RAPL2, CCK
17triiodothyronine449.7LEP, SI, LSL, RBP4, IGFBP1, IGF1
18aspartate449.7RBP4, CSN1S1, LSL, TTR, SI, ALB
19fatty acid449.7RBP4, H6PD, LSL, PC, IGFBP1, SI
20vitamin b12449.6CSN1S1, ALB, IGF1, HP, TTR, GGT1
21polysaccharide449.6CCK, CSN1S1, HP, SI
22polyethylene glycol449.6IL1RAPL2, IGFBP1, TF, HP, ALB, CSN1S1
23malondialdehyde449.6SI, GGT1, LSL, H6PD, GSR, HP
24glycerol44 11 2411.6CCK, CSN1S1, IGFBP1, PC, LSL, LEP
25tamoxifen44 49 28 1112.6EPHX1, IGF1, IGFBP1, LSL, GGT1
26valproate449.6LSL, IGFBP1, IGF1, GGT1, GSR
27heparin44 28 11 2412.5CSN1S1, HP, IL1RAPL2
28acth449.5CCK, LSL, LEP, IGFBP1, HP, IL1RAPL2
29polyacrylamide449.5SI, HP, PC, RBP4, CSN1S1, H6PD
30glucose449.5H6PD, SI, IL1RAPL2, PC, IGF1, RBP4
31folate449.4HP, TTR, RBP4, TF, CSN1S1, CCK
32carbohydrates449.4IGFBP1, SI, LEP, TTR, HP, TF
33epinephrine44 11 2411.3LSL, TF, PIGR, IL1RAPL2, IGFBP1, HP
34h2o2449.3SI, H6PD, CSN1S1, ANXA6, IL1RAPL2, LEP
35methotrexate44 49 1111.3SI, LSL, IL1RAPL2, LEP, TF, ALB
36urea44 11 2411.3ALB, H6PD, CSN1S1, GGT1, TTR, HP
37fibrinogen449.3TTR, ALB, LEP, IL1RAPL2, LSL, CSN1S1
38iron44 2410.2GGT1, TTR, IL1RAPL2, HP, RBP4, TF
39glutamine449.2PC, H6PD, CCK, CSN1S1, TF, TTR
40ascorbic acid44 2410.2LEP, HP, RBP4, TF, CSN1S1, H6PD
41steroid449.1LSL, RBP4, LEP, IL1RAPL2, HP, IGFBP1
42cysteine449.0RBP4, CSN1S1, H6PD, HP, SI, LEP
43arginine448.9CSN1S1, IGFBP1, EPHX1, CCK, LSL, GSR
44thyroxine44 249.8TF, IGF1, HP, LEP, TTR, GGT1
45alanine448.8GSR, HP, PC, RBP4, PIGR, TF
46testosterone44 59 11 2411.6IGFBP1, GGT1, TTR, LEP, IL1RAPL2, HP
47lipid448.6ALB, GSR, GGT1, LEP, SI, HP
48creatinine448.4CSN1S1, LSL, H6PD, TF, RBP4, IGFBP1
49lactate448.4HP, IL1RAPL2, SI, H6PD, LSL, CSN1S1
50cholesterol44 28 11 2410.9TF, LSL, CCK, H6PD, CSN1S1, TTR

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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16Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1extracellular spaceGO:0056159.3RBP4, IGFBP1, IGF1, HP, LEP, TTR
2extracellular regionGO:0055768.5ALB, CCK, CSN1S1, TF, PIGR, RBP4

Biological processes related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1bone mineralization involved in bone maturationGO:03563010.0LEP, IGF1
2platelet degranulationGO:00257610.0ALB, IGF1, TF
3negative regulation of appetiteGO:0320999.9LEP, CCK

Molecular functions related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1hormone activityGO:0051799.9TTR, LEP, IGF1, CCK

Products for genes affiliated with Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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  • Antibodies
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  • Antibodies

Sources for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
50PubMed
51QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
60UMLS
61UMLS via Orphanet