PEM
MCID: PRT038
MIFTS: 53

Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM) malady

Metabolic diseases category

Summaries for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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63Wikipedia, 32MalaCards
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Wikipedia:63 Protein–energy malnutrition (or protein–calorie malnutrition) refers to a form of malnutrition where... more...

MalaCards: Protein-Energy Malnutrition, also known as PEM, is related to malaria and hepatitis. An important gene associated with Protein-Energy Malnutrition is PIGR (polymeric immunoglobulin receptor), and among its related pathways are FOXA2 and FOXA3 transcription factor networks and Platelet degranulation . The compounds uric acid and estrogen have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone, liver and testes, and related mouse phenotypes are endocrine/exocrine gland and homeostasis/metabolism.

Aliases & Classifications for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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8Disease Ontology, 10DISEASES, 44Novoseek, 60UMLS, 38NCBI Bookshelf, 56SNOMED-CT, 27ICD9CM, 39NCIt, 34MeSH, 25ICD10
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Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Global: Metabolic diseases


Aliases & Descriptions:

protein-energy malnutrition 8 10 44 60
pem 38


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:11801
ICD9CM27 263.9
NCIt39 C34952
MeSH34 D011502
ICD1025 E46

Related Diseases for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
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Diseases related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 228)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1malaria30.8GSR, ALB, HP, RBP4, H6PD
2hepatitis30.7GSR, ALB, GGT1, RBP4, TF
3peritonitis30.7ALB
4marasmus30.7ALB, TF, LSL
5ischemia30.7GSR, HP
6pancreatitis30.7ALB, GGT1, CCK, H6PD
7liver cirrhosis30.7ALB, GGT1, RBP4, TF, CSN1S1, LSL
8arthritis30.6ALB, LEP, IL1RAPL2, HP, CSN1S1
9lactose intolerance30.4CSN1S1
10protein-losing enteropathy30.4ALB, TF
11rheumatoid arthritis30.4IL1RAPL2, HP, CSN1S1
12leukemia30.4TTR, IL1RAPL2, HP, EPHX1, IGFBP1, RBP4
13cystic fibrosis30.4ALB, SI, HP, EPHX1, ANXA6, RBP4
14tuberculosis30.4GSR, ALB, IL1RAPL2, HP, LSL, H6PD
15crohn's disease30.2ALB
16viral hepatitis30.2GGT1
17iron deficiency anemia30.2TF
18hypervitaminosis a30.2TTR, RBP4
19eating disorder30.2LEP, LSL, CCK
20hyperinsulinism30.2LEP, IGF1, IGFBP1, LSL
21alcoholic liver cirrhosis30.2ALB, GGT1, TF, LSL
22diarrhea30.2ALB, TTR, SI, CSN1S1
23hypertension30.2ALB, GGT1, LEP, IGF1
24anorexia nervosa30.2TTR, LEP, IGF1, IGFBP1, LSL, CCK
25deficiency anemia30.2GSR, ALB, TTR, HP, TF, LSL
26alzheimer's disease30.2GSR, TTR, ANXA6, RBP4, CSN1S1, CCK
27obesity30.2GGT1, LEP, PC, IGF1, IGFBP1, RBP4
28kwashiorkor10.6
29thyroiditis10.6
30cerebritis10.4
31measles10.4
32biotin deficiency10.3
33cerebral malaria10.3
34acute leukemia10.3
35neuroblastoma10.3
36burns10.2
37acute diarrhea10.2
38visceral leishmaniasis10.2
39giardiasis10.2
40intestinal impaction10.2
41ariboflavinosis10.2
42juvenile rheumatoid arthritis10.2
43paracoccidioidomycosis10.2
44adult syndrome10.2
45alcoholic hepatitis10.2
46congestive heart failure10.2
47dental caries10.2
48dilated cardiomyopathy10.2
49esophagitis10.2
50food allergy10.2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition:



Diseases related to protein-energy malnutrition

Clinical Features for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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Drugs & Therapeutics for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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Sources:
5CenterWatch, 41NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 60UMLS, 40NDF-RT
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Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Drug clinical trials:

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Search NIH Clinical Center for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Search CenterWatch for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Genetic Tests for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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Anatomical Context for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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32MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition:

32
Bone, Liver, Testes, Brain, Thyroid, Bone marrow, Thymus, Small intestine, T cells, Skeletal muscle, Heart, Skin, Kidney, B cells, Pituitary, Colon, Pancreas, Placenta

Animal Models for Protein-Energy Malnutrition or affiliated genes

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36MGI
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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition:

36
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:000537910.0RBP4, CCK, H6PD
2MP:00053768.3ALB, H6PD, CCK, TF, PIGR, RBP4

Publications for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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Sources:
50PubMed
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Articles related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition:

(show top 50)    (show all 500)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Protein energy malnutrition decreases immunity and increases susceptibility to influenza infection in mice. (22949306)
2013
2
High burden of protein-energy malnutrition in Nigeria: beyond the health care setting. (23209994)
2012
3
Protein-energy malnutrition alters hippocampal plasticity-associated protein expression following global ischemia in the gerbil. (20883206)
2010
4
Effects of protein-energy malnutrition on NF-kappaB signalling in murine peritoneal macrophages. (19876726)
2010
5
Protein energy malnutrition revealing an esophageal foreign body. (20864188)
2010
6
Biochemical nutritional indicators in children with protein energy malnutrition attending Kanti Children Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. (20071845)
2009
7
Protein-energy malnutrition decreases immune response to Leishmania chagasi vaccine in BALB/c mice. (19121082)
2009
8
Protein energy malnutrition. (19931063)
2009
9
Cognitive development in children with chronic protein energy malnutrition. (18652660)
2008
10
Protein-energy malnutrition among preschool children in Oman: results of a national survey. (18290394)
2007
11
Protein-energy malnutrition decreases the expression of TLR-4/MD-2 and CD14 receptors in peritoneal macrophages and reduces the synthesis of TNF-alpha in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. (17950615)
2007
12
A pilot study on the effects of curd (dahi) & leaf protein concentrate in children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM). (18037713)
2007
13
Risk factors for protein-energy malnutrition in children under 5 years: study from Luangprabang province, Laos. (17445054)
2007
14
Impact of nutritional rehabilitation on enzymatic antioxidant levels in protein energy malnutrition. (15339116)
2002
15
What are the causes of protein-energy malnutrition in chronic renal insufficiency? (11840387)
2002
16
Effect of protein-energy malnutrition in early life on the dimensions and bone quality of the adult rat mandible. (11743931)
2002
17
Lysosomal enzymuria in protein energy malnutrition. (9481433)
1998
18
Mid arm circumference as an index of protein energy malnutrition between 6 to 12 months age. (10216724)
1998
19
Mortality in severe protein-energy malnutrition at Nchelenge, Zambia. (9718906)
1998
20
An evaluation of the protein energy malnutrition scheme in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. (20593614)
1998
21
Vitamin E deficiency and associated neurological deficits in children with protein-energy malnutrition. (9819493)
1998
22
Effects of protein-energy malnutrition on muscarinic receptor density and acetylcholinesterase activity in rat brain. (9195001)
1997
23
Immune responses during recovery from protein-energy malnutrition. (16844619)
1997
24
Assessment of potential indicators for protein-energy malnutrition in the algorithm for integrated management of childhood illness. (9529721)
1997
25
Protein energy malnutrition and cerebral malaria in Nigerian children. (9283124)
1997
26
Study of oxidative-stress in rifampicin-induced hepatic injury in growing rats with and without protein-energy malnutrition. (9219027)
1997
27
Effect of protein energy malnutrition on the lipid composition and leucine uptake of small intestinal brush border vesicles of growing rhesus monkeys. (8067690)
1994
28
Protein-losing enteropathy in Transkeian children with morbid protein-energy malnutrition. (8211522)
1993
29
Clinical and radiologic study of the frequency and presentation of chest infection in children with severe protein energy malnutrition. (1294687)
1992
30
Insulin action in cirrhosis. The importance of protein-energy malnutrition. (1412139)
1992
31
Platelet function tests in protein energy malnutrition. (1592507)
1992
32
Impaired macrophage function in severe protein-energy malnutrition. (1847038)
1991
33
Refeeding enhances intestinal repair during an acute enteritis in infant rabbits subjected to protein-energy malnutrition. (1907731)
1991
34
A prospective study of outcome from protein-energy malnutrition in nursing home residents. (1910102)
1991
35
Impact of refeeding on intestinal development and function in infant rabbits subjected to protein-energy malnutrition. (2108426)
1990
36
Renal tubular function in protein energy malnutrition. (2121644)
1990
37
Survival and growth of severe protein-energy-malnutrition (PEM) children 2 years after nutrition rehabilitation in an urban nutrition centre in Bangladesh. (2502638)
1989
38
Hair root morphology as an index of protein energy malnutrition. (3149675)
1988
39
Effect of zinc supplementation on the dietary intake and weight gain of Bangladeshi children recovering from protein-energy malnutrition. (3141143)
1988
40
Polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency in liver cirrhosis: its relation to associated protein-energy malnutrition (preliminary report). (3132851)
1988
41
Separation from mother at time of weaning. A rarely discussed aspect of the aetiology of protein energy malnutrition. (3095961)
1986
42
What do mothers with children admitted with protein-energy malnutrition think are the causes of the condition? (3933207)
1985
43
Plasma lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol in undernourished diabetic subjects and adults with protein energy malnutrition. (6439533)
1984
44
Protein-energy malnutrition in Nigerian children in Savanna belt. (6429350)
1984
45
The effect of dietary lactose on the early recovery from protein-energy malnutrition. II. Indices of nutrient absorption. (6433695)
1984
46
Protein-energy malnutrition and associated variables among Indian pre-school children in a selected area of Natal. (6422566)
1984
47
Transcobalamin II in protein-energy malnutrition among residents of the Kivu area. (7139939)
1982
48
Muscle mass: reliable indicator of protein-energy malnutrition severity and outcome. (6805298)
1982
49
A post-mortem study of the thymolymphatic system in protein energy malnutrition. (6808150)
1982
50
Outcome of children with severe grades of protein energy malnutrition in an I.C.D.S. block. (6797942)
1981

Genetic Variations for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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Expression for genes affiliated with Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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Sources:
1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Protein-Energy Malnutrition.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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Sources:
37NCBI BioSystems Database, 53Reactome
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Pathways related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
110.1ALB, TTR, IGFBP1
2
Hide members
10.0TF, IGF1, ALB
310.0LEP, IGFBP1, TF
49.9GSR, ALB, GGT1

Compounds for genes affiliated with Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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Sources:
44Novoseek, 24HMDB, 11DrugBank, 49PharmGKB, 28IUPHAR, 59Tocris Bioscience
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Compounds related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 206)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1uric acid44 2411.8TTR
2estrogen4410.6SI, TTR
3alpha tocopherol4410.5RBP4, TTR, TF
4vitamin a44 11 2412.1CSN1S1, PIGR, HP, RBP4, IGFBP1
5dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate4410.1RBP4, LSL, IGFBP1
6glutamate4410.1PC, IL1RAPL2, ANXA6, CCK
7tocopherol4410.0TTR, HP, GSR, TF, RBP4
8rosiglitazone44 49 28 11 2414.0IGFBP1, LSL, RBP4, LEP
9norepinephrine44 11 2412.0IL1RAPL2, CCK, TTR
10beta-hydroxybutyrate4410.0LEP, IGFBP1, LSL, PC, HP
11cellulose acetate449.9HP, RBP4, ALB, TTR, IL1RAPL2
12glutaraldehyde449.9H6PD, TF, CSN1S1, TTR, ALB
13prednisolone44 28 1111.8IGFBP1, LSL, CSN1S1, IL1RAPL2
14betacarotene449.8RBP4, TF, TTR, GGT1, GSR, LEP
15starch449.8SI, HP, IGF1, TF, CSN1S1, H6PD
16dexamethasone44 49 28 1112.7RBP4, PC, GGT1, SI, IL1RAPL2, CCK
17triiodothyronine449.7LEP, SI, LSL, RBP4, IGFBP1, IGF1
18aspartate449.7RBP4, CSN1S1, LSL, TTR, SI, ALB
19fatty acid449.7RBP4, H6PD, LSL, PC, IGFBP1, SI
20vitamin b12449.6CSN1S1, ALB, IGF1, HP, TTR, GGT1
21polysaccharide449.6CCK, CSN1S1, HP, SI
22polyethylene glycol449.6IL1RAPL2, IGFBP1, TF, HP, ALB, CSN1S1
23malondialdehyde449.6SI, GGT1, LSL, H6PD, GSR, HP
24glycerol44 11 2411.6CCK, CSN1S1, IGFBP1, PC, LSL, LEP
25tamoxifen44 49 28 1112.6EPHX1, IGF1, IGFBP1, LSL, GGT1
26valproate449.6LSL, IGFBP1, IGF1, GGT1, GSR
27heparin44 28 11 2412.5CSN1S1, HP, IL1RAPL2
28acth449.5CCK, LSL, LEP, IGFBP1, HP, IL1RAPL2
29polyacrylamide449.5SI, HP, PC, RBP4, CSN1S1, H6PD
30glucose449.5H6PD, SI, IL1RAPL2, PC, IGF1, RBP4
31folate449.4HP, TTR, RBP4, TF, CSN1S1, CCK
32carbohydrates449.4IGFBP1, SI, LEP, TTR, HP, TF
33epinephrine44 11 2411.3LSL, TF, PIGR, IL1RAPL2, IGFBP1, HP
34h2o2449.3SI, H6PD, CSN1S1, ANXA6, IL1RAPL2, LEP
35methotrexate44 49 1111.3SI, LSL, IL1RAPL2, LEP, TF, ALB
36urea44 11 2411.3ALB, H6PD, CSN1S1, GGT1, TTR, HP
37fibrinogen449.3TTR, ALB, LEP, IL1RAPL2, LSL, CSN1S1
38iron44 2410.2GGT1, TTR, IL1RAPL2, HP, RBP4, TF
39glutamine449.2PC, H6PD, CCK, CSN1S1, TF, TTR
40ascorbic acid44 2410.2LEP, HP, RBP4, TF, CSN1S1, H6PD
41steroid449.1LSL, RBP4, LEP, IL1RAPL2, HP, IGFBP1
42cysteine449.0RBP4, CSN1S1, H6PD, HP, SI, LEP
43arginine448.9CSN1S1, IGFBP1, EPHX1, CCK, LSL, GSR
44thyroxine44 249.8TF, IGF1, HP, LEP, TTR, GGT1
45alanine448.8GSR, HP, PC, RBP4, PIGR, TF
46testosterone44 59 11 2411.6IGFBP1, GGT1, TTR, LEP, IL1RAPL2, HP
47lipid448.6ALB, GSR, GGT1, LEP, SI, HP
48creatinine448.4CSN1S1, LSL, H6PD, TF, RBP4, IGFBP1
49lactate448.4HP, IL1RAPL2, SI, H6PD, LSL, CSN1S1
50cholesterol44 28 11 2410.9TF, LSL, CCK, H6PD, CSN1S1, TTR

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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16Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1extracellular spaceGO:0056159.3RBP4, IGFBP1, IGF1, HP, LEP, TTR
2extracellular regionGO:0055768.5ALB, CCK, CSN1S1, TF, PIGR, RBP4

Biological processes related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1bone mineralization involved in bone maturationGO:03563010.0LEP, IGF1
2platelet degranulationGO:00257610.0ALB, IGF1, TF
3negative regulation of appetiteGO:0320999.9LEP, CCK

Molecular functions related to Protein-Energy Malnutrition according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1hormone activityGO:0051799.9TTR, LEP, IGF1, CCK

Products for genes affiliated with Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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Sources for Protein-Energy Malnutrition

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3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
50PubMed
51QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
60UMLS
61UMLS via Orphanet