COPD
MCID: PLM129
MIFTS: 63

Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive (COPD) malady

Categories: Genetic diseases, Respiratory diseases, Blood diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

Aliases & Descriptions for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive:

Name: Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive 54 66 42 38
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 38 29 3
Copd 66 41 3
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive, Severe Early-Onset 13
Severe Early-Onset Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 66
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease of Horses 69
Copd, Rate of Decline of Lung Function in 54
Pulmonary Disease Chronic Obstructive 52
Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease 69
Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 66

Classifications:



External Ids:

OMIM 54 606963
MeSH 42 D029424
ICD10 33 J44.0 J44.8

Summaries for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

MedlinePlus : 41 copd (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) makes it hard for you to breathe. the two main types are chronic bronchitis and emphysema. the main cause of copd is long-term exposure to substances that irritate and damage the lungs. this is usually cigarette smoke. air pollution, chemical fumes, or dust can also cause it. at first, copd may cause no symptoms or only mild symptoms. as the disease gets worse, symptoms usually become more severe. they include a cough that produces a lot of mucus shortness of breath, especially with physical activity wheezing chest tightness doctors use lung function tests, imaging tests, and blood tests to diagnose copd. there is no cure. treatments may relieve symptoms. they include medicines, oxygen therapy, surgery, or a lung transplant. quitting smoking is the most important step you can take to treat copd. nih: national heart, lung, and blood institute

MalaCards based summary : Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive, also known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is related to respiratory failure and aspergillosis, and has symptoms including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, angina pectoris and coughing. An important gene associated with Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive is HMOX1 (Heme Oxygenase 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Folate Metabolism and IL-17 Family Signaling Pathways. The drugs Advair and Anoro Ellipta have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include lung, heart and testes, and related phenotypes are homeostasis/metabolism and cardiovascular system

OMIM : 54 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, complex disorder associated with substantial morbidity and... (606963) more...

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 66 Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive: A common, complex disorder defined by irreversible airflow obstruction due to chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and/or small airways disease. Airflow obstruction is typically determined by reductions in quantitative spirometric indices, including forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC).

Wikipedia : 71 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by... more...

Related Diseases for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

Diseases related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 150)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 respiratory failure 11.3
2 aspergillosis 11.3
3 hypoxia 11.3
4 multifocal atrial tachycardia 11.2
5 nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease 10.9
6 emphysema due to aat deficiency 10.9
7 bloom syndrome 10.9
8 lung disease 10.8
9 asthma 10.6
10 pulmonary hypertension 10.3
11 chromoblastomycosis 10.3 ELANE HMOX1 TNF
12 bardet-biedl syndrome 8 10.2 ELANE ELN SERPINA1
13 benign focal seizures of adolescence 10.2 ELANE ELN MMP12
14 nasal cavity cancer 10.2 CXCL8 PTGS1 TNF
15 chronic conjunctivitis 10.2
16 calpainopathy 10.2 CXCL8 ELANE RNASE3
17 childhood central nervous system mixed germ cell tumor 10.2 CXCL8 PTGS1 TNF
18 cardiomyopathy diabetes deafness 10.2 CRP CXCL8 ELANE
19 mycoplasmal pneumonia 10.2 CXCL8 HMOX1 SERPINA1 TNF
20 tetanus 10.2 ELANE ELN TNF
21 vps11-related autosomal recessive hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 10.2 IL6 TNF
22 vitreoretinopathy, neovascular inflammatory 10.2 CXCL8 IL6 MMP1
23 acquired polycythemia 10.2 CXCL8 RNASE3 TNF
24 optic nerve glioma 10.2 ELANE ELN RNASE3
25 fasciitis 10.2 CXCL8 ELANE SERPINA1 TNF
26 tracheitis 10.2 CXCL8 RNASE3 TNF
27 ovarian mucinous adenocarcinoma 10.2 EPHX1 HMOX1 TNF
28 strawberry gallbladder 10.2 CRP CXCL8 TNF
29 xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis 10.2 CXCL8 RNASE3 TNF
30 infectious anterior uveitis 10.2 ADRB2 CXCL8 ELANE RNASE3
31 cholera 10.2 ELANE IL6 MMP1
32 angiomatosis, diffuse corticomeningeal, of divry and van bogaert 10.2 IL6 SERPINA1 TNF
33 wilkes stevenson syndrome 10.2 CRP CXCL8 RNASE3
34 thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma 10.2 CXCL8 IL6 TNF
35 uterine corpus dissecting leiomyoma 10.1 ADRB2 CXCL8 IL6
36 hereditary night blindness 10.1 IL6 MMP1 TNF
37 esophagus lymphoma 10.1 CXCL8 IL6 TNF
38 trichomalacia 10.1 CXCL8 IL6 TNF
39 acute dacryoadenitis 10.1 ELANE RNASE3 TNF
40 gastric dilatation 10.1 CXCL8 IL6 TNF
41 scalp dermatosis 10.1 CRP RNASE3 TNF
42 unilateral hypoactive labyrinth 10.1 CRP CXCL8 TNF
43 bile duct signet ring cell carcinoma 10.1 CRP RNASE3 TNF
44 orthostatic proteinuria 10.1 CXCL8 IL6 TNF
45 erb-duchenne and dejerine-klumpke palsies 10.1 CXCL8 IL6 TNF
46 pyelonephritis 10.1 CRP CXCL8 TNF
47 inappropriate adh syndrome 10.1 CXCL8 IL6 TNF
48 labyrinthitis 10.1 CXCL8 IL6 TNF
49 bladder signet ring cell adenocarcinoma 10.1 IL6 PTGS1 TNF
50 nasopharyngitis 10.1 CXCL8 IL6 TNF

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive:



Diseases related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

Clinical features from OMIM:

606963

Human phenotypes related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive:

32
id Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 32 HP:0006510

UMLS symptoms related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive:


angina pectoris, coughing, snoring, tremor, equilibration disorder

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive:

44
id Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.07 ADRB2 CHRM3 CRP CXCR2 ELANE EPHX1
2 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.02 PTGS1 TNF ADRB2 CHRM3 CRP CXCR2
3 immune system MP:0005387 9.9 ADRB2 CRP CXCR2 ELANE HMOX1 IL6
4 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.5 CXCR2 ELANE EPHX1 IL6 MMP1 PTGS1
5 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.17 CHRM3 CXCR2 HMOX1 IL6 MMP12 PTGS1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

FDA approved drugs:

(show all 16)
id Drug Name Active Ingredient(s) 17 Company Approval Date
1
Advair 17 FLUTICASONE PROPIONATE; SALMETEROL XINAFOATE GlaxoSmithKline Approved August 2000
2
Anoro Ellipta 17 UMECLIDINIUM BROMIDE; VILANTEROL TRIFENATATE GlaxoSmithKline Approved December of 2013
3
Arcapta 17 INDACATEROL MALEATE Novartis Approved July 2011
4
Breo Ellipta 17 FLUTICASONE FUROATE; VILANTEROL TRIFENATATE GlaxoSmithKline Approved May 2013
5
Brovana 17 ARFORMOTEROL TARTRATE Sepracor Approved in October 2006
6
Daliresp 17 ROFLUMILAST Forest Pharmaceuticals Approved February 2011
7
DuoNeb 17 ALBUTEROL SULFATE; IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE Dey Laboratories Approved March 2001
8
Foradil Aerolizer 17 FORMOTEROL FUMARATE Novartis Approved February 2001 (asthma, bronchospasm); September 2001 (COPD)
9
Incruse Ellipta 17 UMECLIDINIUM BROMIDE GlaxoSmithKline Approved May 2014
10
Rayos 17 PREDNISONE Horizon Pharma Approved July of 2012
11
Spiriva HandiHaler 17 TIOTROPIUM BROMIDE Boehringer Ingelheim Approved February 2004
12
Stiolto Respimat 17 OLODATEROL HYDROCHLORIDE; TIOTROPIUM BROMIDE Boehringer Ingelheim Approved May 2015
13
Striverdi Respimat 17 OLODATEROL HYDROCHLORIDE Boehringer Ingelheim Approved July 2014
14
Tudorza Pressair 17 ACLIDINIUM BROMIDE Forest Laboratories Approved July 2012
15
Utibron Neohaler 17 GLYCOPYRROLATE ; INDACATEROL MALEATE Novartis Approved October 2015
16
Xopenex 17 LEVALBUTEROL HYDROCHLORIDE Sepracor Approved February 2002

Drugs for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 667)
id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Theophylline Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 58-55-9 2153
2
Nitric Oxide Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Early Phase 1 10102-43-9 145068
3
Mannitol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 69-65-8 453 6251
4
Simvastatin Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1 79902-63-9 54454
5
Estradiol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1 50-28-2 5757 53477783
6
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 51-43-4 5816
7
Erythromycin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 114-07-8 12560
8
Montelukast Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 158966-92-8 5281040
9
Penicillin G Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 61-33-6 5904
10
Ciprofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 85721-33-1 2764
11
Morphine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 57-27-2 5288826
12
Metoprolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3 37350-58-6, 51384-51-1 4171
13
Iloprost Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2 78919-13-8 6443959
14
Terbutaline Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 23031-25-6 5403
15
Fenoterol Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 13392-18-2 3343
16
Ipratropium Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 22254-24-6, 60205-81-4 43232
17
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2 50-24-8 5755
18
Miconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Early Phase 1 22916-47-8 4189
19
Budesonide Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Early Phase 1 51333-22-3 63006 5281004
20
Azithromycin Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 83905-01-5 55185 53477736 447043
21
Norgestimate Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1 35189-28-7 6540478
22
Riluzole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1744-22-5 5070
23
Clarithromycin Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Early Phase 1 81103-11-9 84029
24
Ofloxacin Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 82419-36-1 4583
25
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3 564-25-0 54671203
26
Moxifloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1 354812-41-2, 151096-09-2 152946
27
Benzocaine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
28
Menthol Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Early Phase 1 2216-51-5 16666
29
Tazobactam Approved Phase 4 89786-04-9 123630
30
Piperacillin Approved Phase 4 66258-76-2 43672
31
Cefuroxime Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 55268-75-2 5361202 5479529
32
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2 83-43-2 6741
33
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2 616-91-1 12035
34
Ethinyl Estradiol Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1 57-63-6 5991
35
Levofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 100986-85-4 149096
36
Caspofungin Approved Phase 4 179463-17-3, 162808-62-0 468682 2826718
37
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 53-03-2 5865
38
Dopamine Approved Phase 4,Phase 1 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
39
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 5743
40
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
41
Lamotrigine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 84057-84-1 3878
42
Phenytoin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 57-41-0 1775
43
Carbamazepine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 298-46-4 2554
44
Nicotine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1 54-11-5 942 89594
45
Zinc Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 7440-66-6 32051 23994
46
Ketoconazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 1 65277-42-1 47576 3823
47
Iron Approved Phase 4,Phase 2 7439-89-6 23925
48
Metformin Approved Phase 4 657-24-9 14219 4091
49
Hydroxyurea Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 127-07-1 3657
50
Valproic Acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 3173)
id Name Status NCT ID Phase
1 Prophylactic Antibiotic Treatment of Patients With Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) Unknown status NCT00132860 Phase 4
2 Efficacy and Safety of Caspofungin for Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Underlying Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Unknown status NCT01499433 Phase 4
3 Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study to Evaluate the Effect of Roflumilast on Endothelial Function in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Unknown status NCT01595750 Phase 4
4 Comparing Treatment Efficacy With HD/MD Flu Plus Sal in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients Unknown status NCT01131806 Phase 4
5 Inhaled Iloprost for Disproportionate Pulmonary Hypertension in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Unknown status NCT01116063 Phase 4
6 The Role of Opinion Leaders in Enhancing Evidence-based Care After Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Emergency Department (ED) Visits Unknown status NCT01107613 Phase 4
7 Efficacy and Safety of Tulobuterol Patch Combined With Tiotropium Bromide for Relieving Dyspnea Symptom of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Unknown status NCT01465906 Phase 4
8 Metoprolol and Formoterol in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Unknown status NCT00288548 Phase 4
9 Can Advair and Flovent Reduce Systemic Inflammation Related to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)? A Multi-Center Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT00120978 Phase 4
10 Exacerbation Prevention GOLD IV COPD With Non Invasive Mechanical Ventilation Unknown status NCT01481727 Phase 4
11 Strategy to Improve Adherence of Roflumilast Unknown status NCT02018432 Phase 4
12 Simvastatin in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Unknown status NCT00680641 Phase 4
13 Predictor for an Additional Benefit of Inhaled Corticosteroid in Patients Treated With Tiotropium for COPD Unknown status NCT00860938 Phase 4
14 The Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Overlap Syndrome Unknown status NCT00914264 Phase 4
15 The Efficacy and Safety of Salmeterol/Fluticasone Propionate vs Atropium/Albuterol in Patients COPD Unknown status NCT01243788 Phase 4
16 Doxycycline and Airway Inflammation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Unknown status NCT00857038 Phase 4
17 Comparing Fluticasone-Salmeterol in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Sleep Unknown status NCT00731770 Phase 4
18 Effects of Nutritional Supplementation in Malnourished Patients in Stable COPD Unknown status NCT02197871 Phase 4
19 Acute Effect of Sildenafil on Exercise Tolerance and Functional Capacity in COPD, IPF and Post Pneumonectomy Patients Unknown status NCT01382368 Phase 4
20 An Efficacy Study of BCS Clearing the Oral Colonized Bacterium in Hospitalized Patients With COPD Unknown status NCT02269800 Phase 4
21 Effects of Exercise Training on Systemic Inflammation an Muscle Repair According to the Obstructive Chronic Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Phenotype Unknown status NCT01431625 Phase 4
22 EUROPT Clinical Trial to Study the Efficacy of One-Way Valve Implantation (New Treatment Algorithm) in Patients With Heterogeneous Emphysema Unknown status NCT00730301 Phase 4
23 Sunovion Brovana Versus Serevent Inspiratory Capacity High Resolution Computed Tomography Unknown status NCT01361984 Phase 4
24 LTOT in COPD Patients With Moderate Chronic Hypoxemia and Chronic Heart Failure Unknown status NCT00668408 Phase 4
25 Efficacy of Bronchial Thermoplasty in Korean Unknown status NCT02031263 Phase 4
26 Evaluate the Effects of Formoterol and Beclomethasone Dipropionate Combination Therapy on Small Airways Function Unknown status NCT01466712 Phase 4
27 Procalcitonin as a Marker of Antibiotic Therapy in Patients With Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Unknown status NCT02171338 Phase 4
28 Evaluation and Reconditioning of Marginal Lung Donors to Transplantation by ex Vivo Lung Perfusion Unknown status NCT01353105 Phase 4
29 Transfusion Strategies in Weaning Patients Unknown status NCT01256645 Phase 4
30 AeriSeal System in Patients With Advanced Upper Lobe Predominant Emphysema and Collateral Ventilation Unknown status NCT01460108 Phase 4
31 Comparative Study of Non-Invasive Mask Ventilation vs Cuirass Ventilation in Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure. Unknown status NCT00331656 Phase 4
32 Surfactant Administration During Spontaneous Breathing Unknown status NCT01329432 Phase 4
33 Airway Clearance for Prevention of COPD Exacerbation Unknown status NCT00181207 Phase 4
34 Non-Invasive Ventilation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Unknown status NCT00560287 Phase 4
35 Inflammatory, Functional and Image Composite Measure to Define Asthma Control Unknown status NCT00597064 Phase 4
36 Bronchiolitis All-study, SE-Norway Unknown status NCT00817466 Phase 4
37 Comparison of Daily Mometasone Furoate Nasal Spray Alone Versus a Combination With Montelukast for Treatment of Chronic Rhinosinusitis With Asthma After Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Unknown status NCT02110654 Phase 4
38 Mechanism(s)of Airflow Limitation in Moderate-severe Persistent Asthma Unknown status NCT00576069 Phase 4
39 Efficacy and Safety of add-on Montelukast to Inhaled Budesonide in the Treatment of Nonasthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis Unknown status NCT01121016 Phase 4
40 A 16-Week Study to Evaluate the Effect of Advair DISKUS™ 250/50mcg on Arterial Stiffness in Subjects With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Completed NCT00857766 Phase 4
41 Validation of a New Shortness of Breath With Daily Activities Questionnaire in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Completed NCT00984659 Phase 4
42 Advair® DISKUS® Versus Serevent® DISKUS® For Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations Completed NCT00115492 Phase 4
43 ADVAIR® DISKUS® Inhaler (Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol) Versus SEREVENT® DISKUS® Inhaler (Salmeterol) For The Treatment Of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations. ADVAIR® DISKUS® Inhaler and SEREVENT® DISKUS® Inhaler Are Trademarks of the Completed NCT00144911 Phase 4
44 Metformin in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Completed NCT01247870 Phase 4
45 Bone Mineral Density Study In Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. DISKUS® Inhaler is a Trademark of the GSK Group of Companies. Completed NCT00355342 Phase 4
46 A Study of the Safety and Tolerance of Regadenoson in Subjects With Asthma or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Completed NCT00862641 Phase 4
47 Efficacy of Tiotropium in Patients of African Descent With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Completed NCT00106821 Phase 4
48 Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol Combination 250/50 DISKUS in the Exercise Endurance Time in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Completed NCT01124422 Phase 4
49 Trial Comparing Tiotropium Inhalation Capsules vs Placebo in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Completed NCT00523991 Phase 4
50 Inhaled Corticosteroid Withdrawal in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Completed NCT00975195 Phase 4

Search NIH Clinical Center for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

Cell-based therapeutics:


LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Stem-cell-based therapeutic approaches for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive:
Adipocell
Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Prochymal
StempeucelCOPD
Embryonic/Adult Cultured Cells Related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive:
Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells PMIDs: 21653527 23054962 21311694
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells PMIDs: 23172272 21653527
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Stempeucel PMIDs: 18720444

Cochrane evidence based reviews: pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive

Genetic Tests for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

Genetic tests related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 29

Anatomical Context for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive:

39
Lung, Heart, Testes, Smooth Muscle, Bone, Neutrophil, Endothelial

Publications for Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive