Aliases & Classifications for Reading Disorder

MalaCards integrated aliases for Reading Disorder:

Name: Reading Disorder 12 14
Developmental Reading Disorder 69
Specific Reading Disorder 69
Dyslexia 69

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13365
ICD9CM 34 315.09
ICD10 32 F81.0

Summaries for Reading Disorder

Disease Ontology : 12 A learning disability involing difficulty reading resulting primarily from neurological factors which affect any part of the reading process.

MalaCards based summary : Reading Disorder, also known as developmental reading disorder, is related to aphasia and dyslexia, and has symptoms including aprosodia An important gene associated with Reading Disorder is SLITRK2 (SLIT And NTRK Like Family Member 2). The drugs Dopamine and Levodopa have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, eye and cortex.

Related Diseases for Reading Disorder

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Reading Disorder:



Diseases related to Reading Disorder

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Reading Disorder

UMLS symptoms related to Reading Disorder:


aprosodia

Drugs & Therapeutics for Reading Disorder

Drugs for Reading Disorder (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 36)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
2
Levodopa Approved Phase 4 59-92-7 6047
3
Amphetamine Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 300-62-9 3007 5826
4
Guanfacine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29110-47-2 3519
5
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 20748-11-2, 113-45-1 4158
6 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 4
7 Autonomic Agents Phase 4
8 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
9 Dopamine agonists Phase 4
10 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
11 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4
12 Protective Agents Phase 4
13 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4
14 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride Phase 4
15 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
16 adderall Phase 4
17 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
18 Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists Phase 4
19 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
20 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4
21 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
22 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
23
Lovastatin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 75330-75-5 53232
24 Anticholesteremic Agents Phase 2
25 Antimetabolites Phase 2
26 Dihydromevinolin Phase 2
27 Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Phase 2
28 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 2
29 L 647318 Phase 2
30 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 2
31
Menthol Approved 2216-51-5 16666
32
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
33
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved 51-43-4 5816
34 Racepinephrine Approved 329-65-7
35 tannic acid Approved, Nutraceutical
36 Epinephryl borate

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 52)

# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Dopaminergic Enhancement of Learning and Memory in Healthy Adults and Patients With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT00111371 Phase 4 Levodopa
2 Comparison of Atomoxetine and Placebo in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and/or Reading Disorder (RD) Completed NCT00191906 Phase 4 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride;placebo
3 Interventions for Children With Attention and Reading Disorders Completed NCT01133847 Phase 4 Methylphenidate;Mixed Salt Amphetamine;Atomoxetine;Guanfacine
4 Effects of Atomoxetine on Brain Activation During Attention & Reading Tasks in Participants With ADHD & Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00716274 Phase 4 Atomoxetine;Placebo
5 Treatment of ADHD With Atomoxetine in Children & Adolescents With ADHD & Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00607919 Phase 4 Atomoxetine;Placebo
6 Treatment With Atomoxetine Hydrochloride in Children and Adolescents With ADHD Completed NCT00191048 Phase 4 Atomoxetine
7 Randomized Clinical Trial of Phonological Interventions Unknown status NCT00818428 Phase 2, Phase 3
8 Reading Problems in Children Living in Urban Areas Completed NCT00065832 Phase 3
9 Working Memory Training in Adults With Substance Abuse and Executive Function Deficits. Unknown status NCT02068261 Phase 2
10 Implementation of Climb Up Program for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Dyslexia in a School in India Completed NCT01012778 Phase 1, Phase 2
11 My Scrivener® - Measuring Effectiveness and Dose Response in Children Completed NCT00919906 Phase 1, Phase 2
12 Interventions for Reading Disabilities in NF1 Recruiting NCT02964884 Phase 2 Lovastatin;Placebo Oral Tablet
13 Group-based Training for Parents of Children With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT02107534
14 Using fMRI to Evaluate Instructional Programs for Children With Developmental Dyslexia Unknown status NCT00068835
15 Effects of Music Education for Children With Reading Difficulties Unknown status NCT01388881
16 Scholar Performance and Praxis Assessment in Children With Rolandic Epilepsy Unknown status NCT01046760
17 Predictive Executive Functioning Models Using Interactive Tangible-Graphical Interface Devices Unknown status NCT01711372
18 Sensory and Connectivity Abnormalities in Autism and Language Disorders Unknown status NCT00956579
19 Rhythm and Music to Rehabilitate Reading Disorders Completed NCT02316873
20 Study of Hierarchy of Afferents in Postural Control of Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT02879786
21 Working Memory Training for Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT02429739
22 Morphofunctional Imaging and Developmental Dyslexia Completed NCT00254644
23 Developmental Dyslexia and Functional Maturation of Auditory Cortex Completed NCT00245804
24 Neurobiology and Treatment of Reading Disability in NF-1 Completed NCT00624234
25 Functional MRI Study in Children With a Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and/or Developmental Dyslexia (DD) Completed NCT02393729
26 Comprehensive Program to Improve Reading and Writing Skills in At-Risk and Dyslexic Children Completed NCT00061412
27 Reading Disability in Children With NF1 Completed NCT02397967
28 Developmental Language Difficulties: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Studies Completed NCT02872870
29 Functional Imaging and Reading Deficit in Children With NF1 Completed NCT02422732
30 Therapy for Reading Problems in Adults After Brain Injury Completed NCT00064805
31 Multimodal Treatment of Phonological Alexia: Behavioral & fMRI Outcomes Completed NCT00827268
32 Brain Mechanisms Underlying Reading Improvement in Central Alexia Completed NCT02062619
33 Maturation of Auditory Processing in Children With Dyslexia Compared to Average-reading Children Recruiting NCT02345876
34 Dyslexia, Motor Control and Proprioception Recruiting NCT03364010
35 Effects of the Combination of RRT With tDCS on Dyslexic Adults Recruiting NCT03119402
36 Comparison of Interventions for Developmental Dyslexia Recruiting NCT02791841
37 Prediction and Intervention in Developmental Dyslexia Recruiting NCT02217696
38 Improving Response to Intervention in Students With or at Risk of Reading Disabilities Recruiting NCT03261661
39 Efficacy of Coloured Overlays and Lenses for Reading Difficulty Recruiting NCT02680223
40 App-delivered Therapy for Arabic Readers With Hemianopic Alexia Recruiting NCT02482350
41 Brain Imaging of Childhood Onset Psychiatric Disorders, Endocrine Disorders and Healthy Volunteers Recruiting NCT00001246
42 Characterization of Auditory Processing Involved in the Encoding of Speech Sounds Recruiting NCT02574299
43 The Effectiveness of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation in Young Dyslexic Adults Active, not recruiting NCT01930500
44 Rhythmic Reading Training Compared to 'Abilmente' Method Active, not recruiting NCT03199092
45 Predictive Executive Functioning Models Using Interactive Tangible-Graphical Interface Devices in Adults Active, not recruiting NCT02127931
46 The Baltimore Reading and Eye Disease Study Active, not recruiting NCT02607384
47 Reading in Preterm and Full-term Children: Neural Basis and Prediction Active, not recruiting NCT01599546
48 Speech and Short-term Memory Functions in Dyslexia: a Combined MEG and EEG Study Enrolling by invitation NCT02622360
49 Orthophonic and / or Proprioceptive Treatment of Developmental Dyslexia. Enrolling by invitation NCT03448237
50 Dyslexics' Visual Attention Field Not yet recruiting NCT03285789

Search NIH Clinical Center for Reading Disorder

Genetic Tests for Reading Disorder

Anatomical Context for Reading Disorder

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Reading Disorder:

38
Brain, Eye, Cortex, Amygdala

Publications for Reading Disorder

Articles related to Reading Disorder:

(show all 44)
# Title Authors Year
1
Neurobiological bases of reading disorder Part I: Etiological investigations. ( 28785303 )
2017
2
Neurobiological Bases of Reading Disorder Part II: The Importance of Developmental Considerations in Typical and Atypical Reading. ( 29276529 )
2017
3
Possible roles for fronto-striatal circuits in reading disorder. ( 27826071 )
2017
4
Amygdala sub-regional functional connectivity predicts anxiety in children with reading disorder. ( 29143475 )
2017
5
Descriptive epidemiology of prenatal and perinatal risk factors in a Chinese population with reading disorder. ( 27819320 )
2016
6
Comorbidity of Arithmetic and Reading Disorder: Basic Number Processing and Calculation in Children With Learning Impairments. ( 26772796 )
2016
7
Lifelong Reading Disorder and Mild Cognitive Impairment: Implications for Diagnosis. ( 26639959 )
2015
8
Effectiveness of EEG-Biofeedback on Attentiveness, Working Memory and Quantitative Electroencephalography on Reading Disorder. ( 24644508 )
2013
9
Commentary: translating quantitative genetics into molecular genetics: decoupling reading disorder and ADHD - reflections on Greven et al. and Rosenberg et al. (2012). ( 22260725 )
2012
10
Language Impairments in Children With ADHD and in Children With Reading Disorder. ( 23074303 )
2012
11
The co-occurrence of reading disorder and ADHD: epidemiology, treatment, psychosocial impact, and economic burden. ( 21757683 )
2012
12
Patient characteristics, comorbidities, and medication use for children with ADHD with and without a co-occurring reading disorder: A retrospective cohort study. ( 22145783 )
2011
13
Processing speed and working memory performance in those with both ADHD and a reading disorder compared with those with ADHD alone. ( 21613301 )
2011
14
Tourette syndrome and reading disorder in a boy with left parietofrontal tract disruption. ( 22019420 )
2011
15
The influence of working memory load on response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or reading disorder. ( 21432708 )
2011
16
Amblyopic dyslexia: a little investigated reading disorder. ( 20401806 )
2010
17
Error monitoring in children with ADHD or reading disorder: An event-related potential study. ( 20097256 )
2010
18
Evidence for specificity of ERP abnormalities during response inhibition in ADHD children: a comparison with reading disorder children without ADHD. ( 19850394 )
2010
19
Working memory, response inhibition, and within-subject variability in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or reading disorder. ( 19813130 )
2010
20
Differential effects of atomoxetine on executive functioning and lexical decision in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and reading disorder. ( 20035588 )
2009
21
Reading disorders in primary progressive aphasia: a behavioral and neuroimaging study. ( 19428421 )
2009
22
Detection of simulated ADHD and reading disorder using symptom validity measures. ( 18534813 )
2008
23
Mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited by duration deviations in children with reading disorder, attention deficit or both. ( 18440662 )
2008
24
Expressive versus receptive language skills in specific reading disorder. ( 18415729 )
2008
25
The relationship between attention, executive functions and reading domain abilities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and reading disorder: a comparative study. ( 17501726 )
2007
26
Children with reading disorder show modality independent brain abnormalities during semantic tasks. ( 17010394 )
2007
27
Error-related event-related potentials in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, reading disorder, and math disorder. ( 17257731 )
2007
28
Maternal stress in nonverbal learning disorder: a comparison with reading disorder. ( 16724792 )
2006
29
Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence of auditory processing deficits in children with reading disorder. ( 16564738 )
2006
30
Meta-analysis of the nonword reading deficit in specific reading disorder. ( 17009769 )
2006
31
A stimulus-centered reading disorder for words and numbers: Is it neglect dyslexia? ( 16393754 )
2005
32
Spatial-frequency- and contrast-dependent visible persistence and reading disorder: no evidence for a basic perceptual deficit. ( 15206008 )
2004
33
JAMA patient page. Reading disorder. ( 15113824 )
2004
34
Alexia and related reading disorders. ( 12916491 )
2003
35
Varieties of developmental reading disorder: genetic and environmental influences. ( 9927524 )
1999
36
Executive functioning deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are independent of oppositional defiant or reading disorder. ( 10504814 )
1999
37
Language and memory in children with combined complex-partial epilepsy and reading disorder. ( 8323126 )
1993
38
Developmental reading disorder: predictors of outcome in adolescents who received early diagnosis and treatment. ( 1469107 )
1992
39
A comparison of 13-year-old boys with attention deficit and/or reading disorder on neuropsychological measures. ( 2926022 )
1989
40
Language mechanisms and reading disorder: a modular approach. ( 3791919 )
1986
41
EMG and EEG biofeedback training in the treatment of a 10-year-old hyperactive boy with a developmental reading disorder. ( 6882815 )
1983
42
Helping the youngster with a reading disorder. Exploring one problem common to education, psychology, and mental health: summary of a conference. ( 5552374 )
1971
43
Problems in relating visual function to reading disorder. ( 5267181 )
1970
44
Linear dyslexia. A new form of reading disorder. ( 14424629 )
1959

Variations for Reading Disorder

Expression for Reading Disorder

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Reading Disorder.

Pathways for Reading Disorder

GO Terms for Reading Disorder

Cellular components related to Reading Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cell surface GO:0009986 9.56 CNTNAP2 DIP2A PSEN1 ROBO1
2 aggresome GO:0016235 9.16 PSEN1 TDP2
3 cell projection GO:0042995 9.02 CNTNAP2 DCDC2 DOCK4 RIPOR2 ROBO1
4 stereocilium GO:0032420 8.96 DOCK4 RIPOR2

Biological processes related to Reading Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system development GO:0007399 9.56 DCDC2 DNAAF4 KIAA0319 ROBO1
2 cerebral cortex development GO:0021987 9.33 CNTNAP2 FOXP2 PSEN1
3 vocal learning GO:0042297 8.96 CNTNAP2 FOXP2
4 neuron migration GO:0001764 8.92 DCDC2 DNAAF4 KIAA0319 PSEN1

Molecular functions related to Reading Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 protein binding GO:0005515 9.44 CNTNAP2 DCDC2 DIP2A DNAAF4 DOCK4 FOXP2

Sources for Reading Disorder

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HGMD
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 MedGen
41 MeSH
42 MESH via Orphanet
43 MGI
45 NCI
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47 NDF-RT
50 NINDS
51 Novoseek
53 OMIM
54 OMIM via Orphanet
58 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via HPO
66 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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