MCID: RFR003
MIFTS: 53

Refractive Error malady

Eye diseases category

Summaries for Refractive Error

About this section
Sources:
33MedlinePlus, 63Wikipedia, 32MalaCards
See all sources

Fully expand this MalaCard

Export this MalaCard
MedlinePlus:33 The cornea and lens of your eye helps you focus. refractive errors are vision problems that happen when the shape of the eye keeps you from focusing well. the cause could be the length of the eyeball (longer or shorter), changes in the shape of the cornea, or aging of the lens. four common refractive errors are myopia, or nearsightedness - clear vision close up but blurry in the distance hyperopia, or farsightedness - clear vision in the distance but blurry close up presbyopia - inability to focus close up as a result of aging astigmatism - focus problems caused by the cornea the most common symptom is blurred vision. other symptoms may include double vision, haziness, glare or halos around bright lights, squinting, headaches, or eye strain. glasses or contact lenses can usually correct refractive errors. laser eye surgery may also be a possibility. nih: national eye institute

MalaCards: Refractive Error, also known as refractive errors, is related to retinitis and keratoconus. An important gene associated with Refractive Error is RHO (rhodopsin), and among its related pathways are Degradation of collagen and Syndecan-1-mediated signaling events. The compounds procollagen and n-isobutyl-n-[4-methoxyphenylsulfonyl]glycyl hydroxamic acid have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, testes and endothelial, and related mouse phenotypes are endocrine/exocrine gland and respiratory system.

Wikipedia:63 A refractive error, or refraction error, is an error in the focusing of light by the eye and a frequent... more...

Aliases & Classifications for Refractive Error

About this section
Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 10DISEASES, 44Novoseek, 33MedlinePlus, 60UMLS, 56SNOMED-CT, 34MeSH, 39NCIt, 25ICD10
See all sources

Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Anatomical: Eye diseases


Aliases & Descriptions:

refractive error 8 10
refractive errors 44 33 60
eye refraction disorder 8
disorder of refraction 8


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:9835
MeSH34 D012030
NCIt39 C87145
ICD1025 H52.6

Related Diseases for Refractive Error

About this section
Sources:
17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
See all sources

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Refractive Error:



Diseases related to refractive error

Clinical Features for Refractive Error

About this section

Drugs & Therapeutics for Refractive Error

About this section
Sources:
5CenterWatch, 41NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 60UMLS, 40NDF-RT
See all sources

Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Refractive Error

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Refractive Error

Search NIH Clinical Center for Refractive Error

Search CenterWatch for Refractive Error

Genetic Tests for Refractive Error

About this section

Anatomical Context for Refractive Error

About this section
Sources:
32MalaCards
See all sources

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Refractive Error:

32
Eye, Testes, Endothelial, Retina

Animal Models for Refractive Error or affiliated genes

About this section
Sources:
36MGI
See all sources

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Refractive Error:

36
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:000537910.1GJD2, NF2
2MP:000538810.0VIP, TIMP3, MET, NF2, MMP14, MMP10
3MP:000539110.0TIMP3, FMOD, MET, RHO, NF2, MMP14
4MP:00053789.9FMOD, MET, NF2, MMP13, MMP14, MMP7
5MP:00053859.9ACTC1, VIP, TIMP4, TIMP3, FMOD, MET
6MP:00053879.9RHO, MET, FMOD, TIMP3, VIP, NF2
7MP:00053769.8RHO, MET, TIMP3, TIMP4, VIP, NF2

Publications for Refractive Error

About this section
Sources:
50PubMed
See all sources

Articles related to Refractive Error:

(show top 50)    (show all 538)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Generational difference of refractive error in the baseline study of the Beijing Myopia Progression Study. (23590854)
2013
2
Population-based survey of refractive error among school-aged children in rural northern china: the heilongjiang eye study. (23952961)
2013
3
Uncorrected refractive error and presbyopia among junior high school teachers in Jakarta, Indonesia. (24168702)
2013
4
Association between reading speed, cycloplegic refractive error, and oculomotor function in reading disabled children versus controls. (22926252)
2013
5
Refractive errors and age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (23706699)
2013
6
Nearwork-induced transient myopia and parental refractive error. (23538434)
2013
7
Crystalline lens power and refractive error. (22199240)
2012
8
Annual changes in refractive errors and ocular components before and after the onset of myopia in Chinese children. (22578257)
2012
9
Comparison of refractive error and visual impairment between Native Iban and Malay in a formal government school vision loss prevention programme. (22973137)
2012
10
Correlations between magnitude of refractive error and other optical components in Korean myopes. (23060718)
2012
11
Correction of undesirable pseudophakic refractive error with the Sulcoflex intraocular lens. (22947288)
2012
12
Uncorrected refractive error in older British adults: the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study. (22535330)
2012
13
Screening of primary school children for refractive error in South-South Nigeria. (22876077)
2012
14
Post-laser assisted in situ keratomileusis epithelial ingrowth and its relation to pretreatment refractive error. (21598428)
2011
15
Development and distribution of refractive error in children with Down's syndrome. (20934995)
2011
16
Mesopic pupil size and refractive error. (20858116)
2010
17
Refractive errors and strabismus in children with laurence-moon-biedl syndrome. (20128550)
2010
18
Hyperopic refractive error and shorter axial length are associated with age-related macular degeneration: the Singapore Malay Eye Study. (20671287)
2010
19
Trachoma, cataracts and uncorrected refractive error are still important contributors to visual morbidity in two remote indigenous communities of the Northern Territory, Australia. (19702703)
2009
20
Uncorrected refractive error in the northern and eastern provinces of Sri Lanka. (18983632)
2009
21
Effect of chalazion excision on refractive error and corneal topography. (19551663)
2009
22
Myopia, spectacle wear, and risk of bicycle accidents among rural Chinese secondary school students: the Xichang Pediatric Refractive Error Study report no. 7. (19506197)
2009
23
Multifocal intraocular lens optic anteriorization capture to correct residual refractive error. (19969211)
2009
24
Ciliary body thickness and refractive error in children. (18566470)
2008
25
Femtosecond laser for residual refractive error correction after refractive lens exchange with multifocal intraocular lens implantation. (18501329)
2008
26
Prevalence of refractive error in malay primary school children in suburban area of Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. (19082201)
2008
27
Relations between age, weight, refractive error and eye shape by computerized tomography in children. (17804923)
2007
28
Refractive error and visual impairment in school children in rural southern China. (17123622)
2007
29
Refractive error and visual acuity changes in orthokeratology patients. (17502824)
2007
30
Heritability and familial aggregation of refractive error in the Old Order Amish. (17724179)
2007
31
Making refractive error services sustainable: the InternationalEye Foundation model. (17971911)
2007
32
Artisan iris-fixated toric phakic and aphakic intraocular lens implantation for the correction of astigmatic refractive error after radial keratotomy. (17321407)
2007
33
Effect of refractive error correction on health-related quality of life and depression in older nursing home residents. (17998508)
2007
34
Visual acuity, refractive error, and endothelial cell density six months after Descemet stripping and automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). (17592314)
2007
35
Repeatability (test-retest variability) of refractive error measurement in clinical settings. (16879577)
2006
36
Uncorrected refractive error. (16622075)
2006
37
Refractive error and visual impairment in school-age children in Gombak District, Malaysia. (15808262)
2005
38
Correction of refractive error in the adult population of Bangladesh: meeting the unmet need. (14744879)
2004
39
Changes in keratometric corneal power and refractive error after laser thermal keratoplasty. (15093653)
2004
40
Reliability and validity of refractive error-specific quality-of-life instruments. (12963612)
2003
41
Photorefractive keratectomy or laser in situ keratomileusis for residual refractive error after phakic intraocular lens implantation. (12842685)
2003
42
Imaging of the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer: the effects of age, optic disc area, refractive error, and gender. (11778725)
2002
43
A survey on refractive error and strabismus among children in a school at Aligarh. (11439872)
2000
44
Tonic accommodation, age, and refractive error in children. (10235538)
1999
45
Radial keratotomy to treat myopic refractive error after cataract surgery. (9888076)
1999
46
Custom photorefractive keratectomy ablations for the correction of spherical and cylindrical refractive error and higher-order aberration. (9729870)
1998
47
Capsular management and refractive error in pediatric intraocular lenses. (9111251)
1997
48
The refractive error after implantation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens. The accuracy of IOL power calculation in a hospital practice. (7887161)
1994
49
The influence of refractive error and lattice degeneration on the incidence of retinal detachment. (2562517)
1989
50
Early changes in refractive error following radial keratotomy. (3341977)
1988

Genetic Variations for Refractive Error

About this section

Expression for genes affiliated with Refractive Error

About this section
Sources:
1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
See all sources
Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Refractive Error

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Refractive Error.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Refractive Error

About this section
Sources:
53Reactome, 37NCBI BioSystems Database, 51QIAGEN, 12EMD Millipore
See all sources

Compounds for genes affiliated with Refractive Error

About this section
Sources:
44Novoseek, 11DrugBank, 49PharmGKB, 2BitterDB, 28IUPHAR, 59Tocris Bioscience, 24HMDB
See all sources

Compounds related to Refractive Error according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 42)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1procollagen4410.7FMOD
2n-isobutyl-n-[4-methoxyphenylsulfonyl]glycyl hydroxamic acid44 1111.7MMP10, MMP12, MMP20
3(4-aminophenyl)mercuric acetate4410.7MMP13, MMP10, MMP8, MMP7
4barbiturate4410.6MMP8, MMP13
5clodronate44 49 1112.6MMP13, MMP14, MMP8
6fluoroaluminate4410.6RHO, VIP
7tetracycline44 1111.6MMP8, MMP14, MMP13, RHO
8hydroxamate4410.6TIMP4, MMP13, MMP14, MMP8, MMP12
91,10-phenanthroline44 211.5TIMP4, TIMP3, MMP14
10p0024410.5MET, MMP13, MMP14, MMP8, MMP7
11glycosaminoglycan4410.5TIMP3, FMOD, MET, MMP13, MMP8, ACTC1
12fibrinogen4410.5MMP13, MMP14, MMP8, MMP12, MMP7
1312-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate4410.5MMP10, MMP14, MMP13, MET, TIMP3
14ribonucleic acid4410.5TIMP3, MET, MMP13, MMP14, MMP7, ACTC1
15serine4410.5VIP, NF2, MMP13, MMP14, MMP10, MMP8
16genistein44 28 59 2 11 2415.4TIMP3, MET, MMP13, MMP14, MMP8, MMP12
17uk 3833675910.4MMP13, MMP14, MMP10, MMP8, MMP12, MMP20
18gi 254023x5910.4MMP8, MMP12, MMP20, MMP27, MMP7, MMP10
19ag 14784410.4MET, MMP14, MMP7
20gm 60015910.4MMP13, MMP14, MMP10, MMP8, MMP12, MMP20
21dexamethasone44 49 28 1113.4VIP, TIMP3, MMP13, MMP14, MMP12
22marimastat44 59 1112.4MMP7, MMP27, MMP13, MMP14, MMP10, MMP8
23paraffin4410.4TIMP3, MET, NF2, MMP13, MMP14, MMP7
24matrigel4410.4TIMP3, MET, MMP13, MMP14, MMP10, MMP12
25proline4410.4FMOD, MET, RHO, MMP8, MMP20
26chondroitin sulfate44 2411.4MMP13, FMOD, TIMP3
27progesterone44 59 28 11 2414.4TIMP3, MET, NF2, MMP14, MMP8, MMP7
28oligonucleotide4410.4TIMP3, MET, MMP13, MMP14, MMP10, MMP8
29batimastat44 59 1112.4MMP13, MMP14, MMP10, MMP8, MMP12, MMP20
30hocl4410.4MMP7, MMP8
31retinoic acid44 2411.3TIMP3, MET, RHO, MMP13, MMP8, MMP7
32oxygen44 2411.3TIMP3, MET, MMP13, MMP14, MMP8, MMP12
33phosphatidylinositol4410.3TIMP3, MET, MMP13, MMP14, MMP12, MMP7
34cysteine4410.3VIP, TIMP3, MET, RHO, NF2, MMP13
35nitric oxide44 11 2412.3VIP, MET, MMP13, MMP8, MMP12, MMP7
36vegf4410.2VIP, TIMP3, MET, RHO, MMP13, MMP14
37glucose4410.2TIMP3, MET, MMP8, MMP7, ACTC1
38pd 98,0594410.2MMP14, MMP13, MET, TIMP3
39tyrosine4410.2VIP, TIMP3, FMOD, MET, NF2, MMP13
40ly2940024410.1TIMP3, MET, RHO, MMP14
41calcium44 49 11 2413.1VIP, TIMP3, MET, MMP13, MMP14, MMP10
42piperidine4410.1MMP13, RHO

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Refractive Error

About this section
Sources:
16Gene Ontology
See all sources

Cellular components related to Refractive Error according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1extracellular spaceGO:00561510.0FMOD, MMP13, MMP10, MMP8, MMP20, MMP7
2proteinaceous extracellular matrixGO:0055789.9MMP7, FMOD, MMP13, MMP10, MMP8, MMP12
3extracellular regionGO:0055769.6VIP, TIMP4, FMOD, MET, MMP13, MMP10

Biological processes related to Refractive Error according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1collagen catabolic processGO:03057410.0MMP7, MMP13, MMP14, MMP10, MMP8, MMP12
2proteolysisGO:00650810.0MMP14, MMP10, MMP8, MMP12, MMP20, MMP27
3extracellular matrix disassemblyGO:02261710.0MMP13, MMP14, MMP10, MMP8, MMP12, MMP20
4extracellular matrix organizationGO:0301989.7FMOD, MMP13, MMP14, MMP10, MMP8, MMP12

Molecular functions related to Refractive Error according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1metalloendopeptidase inhibitor activityGO:00819110.3TIMP3, TIMP4
2metalloendopeptidase activityGO:00422210.0MMP7, MMP13, MMP14, MMP10, MMP8, MMP12
3calcium ion bindingGO:00550910.0MMP13, MMP14, MMP10, MMP8, MMP12, MMP20
4zinc ion bindingGO:0082709.7MMP13, MMP14, MMP10, MMP8, MMP12, MMP20

Products for genes affiliated with Refractive Error

About this section
  • Antibodies
  • Proteins
  • Lysates
  • Antibodies

Sources for Refractive Error

About this section
3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
50PubMed
51QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
60UMLS
61UMLS via Orphanet