Aliases & Classifications for Refractive Error

Aliases & Descriptions for Refractive Error:

Name: Refractive Error 12 14
Refractive Errors 52 41 42 69

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9835
ICD10 33 H52.7
MeSH 42 D012030
NCIt 47 C87145
UMLS 69 C0034951

Summaries for Refractive Error

MedlinePlus : 41 the cornea and lens of your eye helps you focus. refractive errors are vision problems that happen when the shape of the eye keeps you from focusing well. the cause could be the length of the eyeball (longer or shorter), changes in the shape of the cornea, or aging of the lens. four common refractive errors are myopia, or nearsightedness - clear vision close up but blurry in the distance hyperopia, or farsightedness - clear vision in the distance but blurry close up presbyopia - inability to focus close up as a result of aging astigmatism - focus problems caused by the cornea the most common symptom is blurred vision. other symptoms may include double vision, haziness, glare or halos around bright lights, squinting, headaches, or eye strain. glasses or contact lenses can usually correct refractive errors. laser eye surgery may also be a possibility. nih: national eye institute

MalaCards based summary : Refractive Error, also known as refractive errors, is related to pilodental dysplasia with refractive errors and astigmatism, and has symptoms including aniseikonia, eye manifestations and visual disturbance. An important gene associated with Refractive Error is GJD2 (Gap Junction Protein Delta 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Degradation of the extracellular matrix. The drugs Hyaluronic acid and Atropine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, retina and testes, and related phenotype is nervous system.

Wikipedia : 71 Refractive error, also known as refraction error, is a problem with focusing of light on the retina due... more...

Related Diseases for Refractive Error

Diseases related to Refractive Error via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 80)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pilodental dysplasia with refractive errors 12.2
2 astigmatism 11.4
3 myopia 11.3
4 amblyopia 11.3
5 presbyopia 11.2
6 esotropia 11.2
7 myopia 21, autosomal dominant 11.0
8 ectopia lentis et pupillae 11.0
9 myopia 6 11.0
10 myopia 23, autosomal recessive 11.0
11 megalocornea 1, x-linked 11.0
12 myopia 22, autosomal dominant 11.0
13 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 1 10.8
14 myopia 25, autosomal dominant 10.8
15 myopia 24, autosomal dominant 10.8
16 myopia 20, autosomal dominant 10.8
17 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 3a 10.8
18 myopia 14 10.8
19 ethylmalonic encephalopathy 10.8
20 corneal disease 10.8
21 myopia 8 10.8
22 ametropic amblyopia 10.8
23 myopia 9 10.8
24 myopia 10 10.8
25 myopia 7 10.8
26 strabismus 10.4
27 cataract 10.4
28 retinitis 10.2
29 visual epilepsy 10.2 CHRNG GJD2
30 keratoconus 10.1
31 eye disease 10.1
32 anisometropia 10.1
33 ptosis 10.1
34 accommodative esotropia 10.1
35 leukemia 10.0 MMP2 TIMP1 ZNF469
36 down syndrome 10.0
37 cycloplegia 9.9
38 albinism 9.9
39 choroiditis 9.9
40 endotheliitis 9.9
41 puerperal pulmonary embolism 9.9 MFRP MMP2 RDH5 TIMP1
42 neuropathy 9.8
43 nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy 9.8
44 congenital nystagmus 9.8
45 color vision deficiency 9.8
46 ischemic optic neuropathy 9.8
47 exotropia 9.8
48 keratopathy 9.7
49 retinal vein occlusion 9.7
50 regular astigmatism 9.7

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Refractive Error:



Diseases related to Refractive Error

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Refractive Error

UMLS symptoms related to Refractive Error:


aniseikonia, eye manifestations, visual disturbance

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Refractive Error:

44
id Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system MP:0003631 9.32 RBFOX1 ZIC2 BMP2 CHRNG GJD2 KCNQ5

Drugs & Therapeutics for Refractive Error

Drugs for Refractive Error (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 195)
id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Hyaluronic acid Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 9004-61-9 53477741 24759
2
Atropine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1 5908-99-6, 51-55-8 174174
3
Phenylephrine Approved Phase 4 59-42-7 6041
4
Oxymetazoline Approved Phase 4 1491-59-4 4636
5
Ephedrine Approved Phase 4 299-42-3 9294
6
Tropicamide Approved Phase 4,Phase 2 1508-75-4 5593
7
Pseudoephedrine Approved Phase 4 90-82-4 7028
8
Menthol Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 2216-51-5 16666
9
Ranibizumab Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 347396-82-1 459903
10
Cyclopentolate Approved Phase 4,Phase 1 512-15-2 2905
11
Dipivefrin Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 52365-63-6 3105
12
Ketorolac Approved Phase 4 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
13
Nepafenac Approved Phase 4 78281-72-8 151075
14
Bevacizumab Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1 216974-75-3
15 Analgesics Phase 4,Phase 1
16 Alkylating Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
17 Mitomycins Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
18 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
19 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
20 Adjuvants, Anesthesia Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
21 Mydriatics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Early Phase 1
22 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
23 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
24 Nasal Decongestants Phase 4
25 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
26 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
27 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
28 Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
29 Ophthalmic Solutions Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
30 Anesthetics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
31 Parasympatholytics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
32 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
33 Angiogenesis Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
34 Vasoconstrictor Agents Phase 4
35 Angiogenesis Modulating Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
36 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
37 Anti-Asthmatic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
38 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
39 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
40 Protective Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
41 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
42 Proxymetacaine Phase 4
43 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
44 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
45 Autonomic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
46 Bronchodilator Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
47 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
48 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 4
49 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
50 Trace Elements Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 605)
id Name Status NCT ID Phase
1 A New More Efficient Cycloplegia Scheme Unknown status NCT02177539 Phase 4
2 Clinical Evaluation of Toric Intraocular Lens Made by Aurolab Unknown status NCT01396616 Phase 4
3 A Prospective Safety and Effectiveness Study of a New High Repetition Rate Excimer Laser Using LASIK for the Correction of Ammetropia and Presbyopia Unknown status NCT02112968 Phase 4
4 A Prospective Safety and Effectiveness Study of the 500 Hz Technolas Perfect Vision Excimer Laser Using LASIK Unknown status NCT02071576 Phase 4
5 A Prospective Safety and Effectiveness Study of the 500 Hz Technolas Perfect Vision Excimer Laser in Asian Eyes Using LASIK Unknown status NCT01977807 Phase 4
6 Prospective Investigation of SUPRACOR Visual Outcomes of Presbyopic Hyperopic Patients With and Without Astigmatism Unknown status NCT01628146 Phase 4
7 Multi Laser Platform Comparison Study for LASIK Unknown status NCT00770094 Phase 4
8 Study of Myopia Prevention in Children With Low Concentration of Atropine Unknown status NCT00541177 Phase 4
9 Effect of Posterior Corneal Toricity on Refractive Outcome of Pseudophakia Unknown status NCT01554761 Phase 4
10 Ranibizumab for Myopic Neovascularization Unknown status NCT01246089 Phase 4
11 Comparative Study of Two Marketed Spherical Soft Contact Lenses Completed NCT01582789 Phase 4
12 Effect of Contact Lens Wear on Immune Cell Density and Morphology of the Ocular Surface Completed NCT01250925 Phase 4
13 Anterior Stromal Changes After PRK by Using Intraoperative Mitomicin C Completed NCT00599950 Phase 4
14 A Study of Interventions to Reduce Disability From Visual Loss in Nursing Home Residents Completed NCT00348621 Phase 4
15 Clinical Evaluation of HPT Treated Rigid Contact Lenses Made From Roflufocon D Completed NCT02553681 Phase 4
16 Evaluation of CooperVision Avaira Toric (Enfilcon A) Soft Contact Lens When Compared to Acuvue Advance Toric Soft Contact Lens Completed NCT01706770 Phase 4
17 Ocular Responses to Short and Long-term Lens Wear Completed NCT00722891 Phase 4
18 Contact Lens Wettability Completed NCT00349063 Phase 4
19 Prospective Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Femtosecond Laser-assisted Refractive Astigmatic Keratotomy. Completed NCT01885780 Phase 4
20 A Comparison of PRK and LASIK for Correction of Myopia Completed NCT00404105 Phase 4
21 Contralateral Comparison of Three Excimer Laser Systems in Performing LASIK Completed NCT00821236 Phase 4
22 Clinical Performance of Habitual Hydrogel vs. Silicone Hydrogel Toric Contact Lenses Completed NCT02142361 Phase 4
23 Clinical Performance of Biofinity Toric Versus Air Optix for Astigmatism Completed NCT01965288 Phase 4
24 Evaluation of the Post-LASIK Flap Thickness of the FS200 Femtosecond Laser Flap Completed NCT01693939 Phase 4
25 Clinical Evaluation of Biofinity Multifocal Compared With Air Optix Aqua Multifocal and With PureVision Multifocal Completed NCT01591499 Phase 4
26 Presbyopic Supracor Treatment for Near Myopic/Hyperopic Pseudophakic Eyes Completed NCT01387360 Phase 4
27 Intrastromal Corneal Ring for High Astigmatism on Postkeratoplasty Completed NCT01018797 Phase 4
28 Daily Wear Corneal Infiltrative Event Study Completed NCT00937105 Phase 4
29 Ten-year Follow-up of Laser in Situ Keratomileusis in Patients 8 to 15 Years Old Completed NCT00800774 Phase 4
30 Evaluation of the Prophylactic Use of Mitomycin C 0.02% to Inhibit Haze Formation After Photorefractive Keratectomy for High Myopia: 15 x 30 Seconds Completed NCT00564213 Phase 4
31 Corneal and Conjunctival Sensitivity and Staining Study Completed NCT00455455 Phase 4
32 Comparison of Acular LS Versus Nevanac for Pain Control in Eyes Undergoing PRK Completed NCT00347204 Phase 4
33 AcrySof Toric Clinical Results Completed NCT01214863 Phase 4
34 Presbyopia-Correcting Intraocular Lenses (IOLs) Completed NCT00963560 Phase 4
35 A Comparison of Visual Function After Bilateral Implantation of Presbyopia-correcting Intraocular Lenses (IOLs) Completed NCT01166971 Phase 4
36 Three Intraocular Lenses Designed to Improve Distance, Intermediate and Near Vision Following Lens Extraction Completed NCT01225952 Phase 4
37 Comparison of Toric IOL Implantation and Opposite Clear Corneal Incision During Cataract Surgery to Correct Corneal Astigmatism Completed NCT01763151 Phase 4
38 Randomized Comparison of the Abbott WHITESTAR Signature System With Ellips Tranversal Ultrasound vs. the Alcon Infiniti With the Ozil Torsional Handpiece in Phacoemulsification: A Contralaterally-Controlled Trial Completed NCT01279031 Phase 4
39 Use of Toric Intraocular Lens to Neutralize Keratometric Astigmatism Completed NCT00925886 Phase 4
40 Safety and Effectiveness of the Akreos Toric Intraocular Lens. Completed NCT00825513 Phase 4
41 Bevacizumab Intravitreal for Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization Completed NCT00797992 Phase 4
42 Effect of Orthokeratology Versus Spectacles on Myopia Progression in Chinese Children: A Crossover Trial Recruiting NCT02186184 Phase 4
43 Comparison of Next Generation Laser Techniques of Myopia Correction: iDesign vs. SMILE Recruiting NCT03001401 Phase 4
44 Comparison of Outcomes With Multifocal Intraocular Lenses Recruiting NCT02678962 Phase 4
45 High Resolution Wavefront-guided vs. Wavefront Optimized LASIK Recruiting NCT02565537 Phase 4
46 A Prospective Study to Evaluate the Raindrop Near Vision Inlay in Presbyopic Patients With Treatments to Optimize the Ocular Surface Before Implantation Recruiting NCT03126877 Phase 4
47 A Prospective Study To Evaluate The Raindrop Near Vision Inlay In Presybopic Patients Treated With Mitomycin C Following Femtosecond Flap Creation. Recruiting NCT03101501 Phase 4
48 A Prospective, Contralateral, Eye to Eye Comparison of SMILE Surgery to LASIK Surgery Recruiting NCT03067077 Phase 4
49 Pseudophakic Astigmatic Reduction With Verion-LenSx Arcuate Incisions Recruiting NCT02763124 Phase 4
50 Post-Approval Study of the TECNIS® Toric Extended Cylinder Range Intraocular Lens (IOL) Recruiting NCT02649842 Phase 4

Search NIH Clinical Center for Refractive Error

Cochrane evidence based reviews: refractive errors

Genetic Tests for Refractive Error

Anatomical Context for Refractive Error

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Refractive Error:

39
Eye, Retina, Testes, Endothelial

Publications for Refractive Error

Articles related to Refractive Error:

(show top 50) (show all 649)
id Title Authors Year
1
Childhood gene-environment interactions and age-dependent effects of genetic variants associated with refractive error and myopia: The CREAM Consortium. ( 27174397 )
2016
2
Global Patterns in Health Burden of Uncorrected Refractive Error. ( 27893092 )
2016
3
The SPARCS: a novel assessment of contrast sensitivity and its reliability in patients with corrected refractive error. ( 26758536 )
2016
4
Changes in Axial Length and Refractive Error After Noninvasive Normalization of Intraocular Pressure From Elevated Levels. ( 26701268 )
2016
5
Longitudinal Changes in Refractive Error in a Pediatric Referral Population in Korea. ( 27668868 )
2016
6
Piggy back intraocular lens for the correction of buckling surgery-induced refractive error in pseudophakia. ( 28039346 )
2016
7
Mechanism for a Rare, Idiosyncratic Complication Following Hyperopic LASIK: Diurnal Shift in Refractive Error Due to Epithelial Thickness Profile Changes. ( 27304599 )
2016
8
Prevalence and Risk Factors for Refractive Error in Adult Chinese Americans: The Chinese American Eye Study. ( 27769895 )
2016
9
Relation of anthropometric measurements to ocular biometric changes and refractive error in children with thalassemia. ( 27834467 )
2016
10
Refractive error characteristics in patients with congenital blepharoptosis before and after ptosis repair surgery. ( 27717339 )
2016
11
Topographic determination of corneal asphericity as a function of age, gender, and refractive error. ( 27600511 )
2016
12
Exploration and detection of potential regulatory variants in refractive error GWAS. ( 27604318 )
2016
13
Implantable collamer lens for residual refractive error after corneal refractive surgery. ( 27803858 )
2016
14
Refractive Error and the Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the South Korean Population. ( 26914445 )
2016
15
Visual acuity and refractive status of Omani students with refractive error in grades 1, 4 and 7: A retrospective cohort study. ( 27013825 )
2016
16
The distribution of near point of convergence and its association with age, gender and refractive error: a population-based study. ( 27652584 )
2016
17
Accuracy and Utility of Self-report of Refractive Error. ( 27197004 )
2016
18
"Refractive Errors and Amblyopia in the UCLA Preschool Vision Program; First Year Results". ( 27640004 )
2016
19
The Effect of Age, Accommodation, and Refractive Error on the Adult Human Eye. ( 26703933 )
2016
20
Comparison of Refractive Error Changes in Retinopathy of Prematurity Patients Treated with Diode and Red Lasers. ( 26915028 )
2016
21
Refractive Results: Safety and Efficacy of Secondary Piggyback Sensara8c AR40 Intraocular Lens Implantation to Correct Pseudophakic Refractive Error. ( 27313869 )
2016
22
Wavefront-optimized surface retreatments of refractive error following previous laser refractive surgery: a retrospective study. ( 26870742 )
2016
23
Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness and its Association with Refractive error in Chinese Children: The Anyang Childhood Eye Study. ( 27082378 )
2016
24
Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study. ( 27380979 )
2016
25
In Vivo and Ex Vivo Evaluation of Inflammation and Apoptosis Induced after SMILE Procedures for Different Refractive Error Range. ( 27911101 )
2016
26
Comparison between focometer and autorefractor in the measurement of refractive error among students in underserved community of sub-Saharan Africa. ( 27518551 )
2016
27
Antioxidant supplementation increases retinal responses and decreases refractive error changes in dogs. ( 27293555 )
2016
28
Age-Specific Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Refractive Error in Children Aged 3-10 Years in Shanghai, China. ( 27842160 )
2016
29
Fixation Stability and Refractive Error After Cataract Surgery in Highly Myopic Eyes. ( 27325397 )
2016
30
Effects of Head-Mounted Display on the Oculomotor System and Refractive Error in Normal Adolescents. ( 27281827 )
2016
31
Longitudinal Development of Refractive Error in Children With Accommodative Esotropia: Onset, Amblyopia, and Anisometropia. ( 27116548 )
2016
32
The influence on unaided vision of age, pupil diameter and sphero-cylindrical refractive error. ( 27061606 )
2016
33
A Meta-Analysis for Association of Maternal Smoking with Childhood Refractive Error and Amblyopia. ( 27247800 )
2016
34
Fixation Stability and Refractive Error After Cataract Surgery in High Myopic Eyes. ( 27702439 )
2016
35
Global Vision Impairment and Blindness Due to Uncorrected Refractive Error, 1990-2010. ( 26905537 )
2016
36
Long-Term Changes in Refractive Error and Clinical Evaluation in Partially Accommodative Esotropia after Surgery. ( 27936115 )
2016
37
Age, gender and refractive error association with intraocular pressure in healthy Saudi participants: A cross-sectional study. ( 26949358 )
2016
38
Rapid assessment of refractive error in the eThekwini Municipality of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. ( 27161520 )
2016
39
Seven-year incidence of uncorrected refractive error among an elderly Chinese population in Shihpai, Taiwan: The Shihpai Eye Study. ( 26795416 )
2016
40
Meta-analysis of gene-environment-wide association scans accounting for education level identifies additional loci for refractive error. ( 27020472 )
2016
41
Myopia, Just a Refractive Error? ( 26704135 )
2016
42
Assumption-free estimation of the genetic contribution to refractive error across childhood. ( 26019481 )
2015
43
Prevalence of Amblyopia in School-Aged Children and Variations by Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in a Multi-Country Refractive Error Study. ( 26278861 )
2015
44
Interocular asymmetries in axial length and refractive error in 4 cohorts. ( 25543252 )
2015
45
The Association of Refractive Error with Glaucoma in a Multiethnic Population. ( 26260281 )
2015
46
The Characteristics and Short-term Refractive Error Outcomes of Cystoid Macular Edema in Premature Neonates as Detected by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography. ( 26431295 )
2015
47
Effect of refractive error on temperament and character properties. ( 25709911 )
2015
48
Case of extremely high refractive error misdiagnosed as normal by PlusoptiX S09 photoscreener. ( 26104596 )
2015
49
Refractive errors, visual impairment, and the use of low-vision devices in albinism in Malawi. ( 25673250 )
2015
50
Correction: Association between Childhood Strabismus and Refractive Error in Chinese Preschool Children. ( 26091507 )
2015

Variations for Refractive Error

Expression for Refractive Error

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Refractive Error.

Pathways for Refractive Error

Pathways related to Refractive Error according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
11.68 BMP2 COL8A1 LAMA2 MMP2 TIMP1

GO Terms for Refractive Error

Cellular components related to Refractive Error according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 proteinaceous extracellular matrix GO:0005578 9.46 COL8A1 LAMA2 MMP2 TIMP1
2 extracellular matrix GO:0031012 9.26 COL8A1 LAMA2 MMP2 TIMP1
3 basement membrane GO:0005604 8.8 COL8A1 LAMA2 TIMP1

Biological processes related to Refractive Error according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endodermal cell differentiation GO:0035987 9.16 COL8A1 MMP2
2 cardiac muscle tissue morphogenesis GO:0055008 8.96 ACTC1 BMP2
3 visual perception GO:0007601 8.92 GJD2 MFRP RDH5 ZIC2

Molecular functions related to Refractive Error according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 retinol dehydrogenase activity GO:0004745 8.62 BMP2 RDH5

Sources for Refractive Error

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 MedGen
42 MeSH
43 MESH via Orphanet
44 MGI
46 NCI
47 NCIt
48 NDF-RT
51 NINDS
52 Novoseek
54 OMIM
55 OMIM via Orphanet
59 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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