MCID: RFR003
MIFTS: 42

Refractive Error malady

Category: Eye diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Refractive Error

About this section

Aliases & Descriptions for Refractive Error:

Name: Refractive Error 11 13
 
Refractive Errors 49 37 38 67

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology11 DOID:9835
ICD1029 H52.7
MeSH38 D012030
NCIt44 C87145

Summaries for Refractive Error

About this section
MedlinePlus:37 The cornea and lens of your eye helps you focus. refractive errors are vision problems that happen when the shape of the eye keeps you from focusing well. the cause could be the length of the eyeball (longer or shorter), changes in the shape of the cornea, or aging of the lens. four common refractive errors are myopia, or nearsightedness - clear vision close up but blurry in the distance hyperopia, or farsightedness - clear vision in the distance but blurry close up presbyopia - inability to focus close up as a result of aging astigmatism - focus problems caused by the cornea the most common symptom is blurred vision. other symptoms may include double vision, haziness, glare or halos around bright lights, squinting, headaches, or eye strain. glasses or contact lenses can usually correct refractive errors. laser eye surgery may also be a possibility. nih: national eye institute

MalaCards based summary: Refractive Error, also known as refractive errors, is related to pilodental dysplasia with refractive errors and astigmatism, and has symptoms including aniseikonia, eye manifestations and visual discomfort. An important gene associated with Refractive Error is ZNF644 (Zinc Finger Protein 644). Affiliated tissues include eye, retina and endothelial, and related mouse phenotype nervous system.

Wikipedia:70 Refractive error, also known as refraction error, is a problem with focusing of light on the retina due... more...

Related Diseases for Refractive Error

About this section

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Refractive Error:



Diseases related to refractive error

Symptoms for Refractive Error

About this section

UMLS symptoms related to Refractive Error:


aniseikonia, eye manifestations, visual discomfort, diplopia, refractive, visual disturbance

Drugs & Therapeutics for Refractive Error

About this section

Drugs for Refractive Error (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50)    (show all 199)
idNameStatusPhaseClinical TrialsCas NumberPubChem Id
1
TropicamideapprovedPhase 4, Phase 2221508-75-45593
Synonyms:
(+-)-N-Ethyl-2-phenyl-N-(4-pyridylmethyl)hydracrylamide
1508-75-4
5-22-09-00359 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
AB00052120
AC-816
AC1L1KOZ
AC1Q5IFA
AR-1K6980
Akorn Brand of Tropicamide
Alcon Brand of Tropicamide
BPBio1_000303
BRD-A79672927-001-05-8
BRN 0285563
BSPBio_000275
BSPBio_002289
Bio-0810
Bistropamide
Bournonville Brand of Tropicamide
CHEMBL1200604
CID5593
CPD000058523
Cahill May Roberts Brand of Tropicamide
Chauvin Brand of Tropicamide
Colircusi Tropicamida
D00397
D014331
DB00809
DivK1c_000448
EINECS 216-140-2
EU-0101223
Epitromina
HMS1568N17
HMS1921I09
HMS2089M05
HMS2092A18
HMS501G10
I-Picamide
I06-0811
IDI1_000448
KBio1_000448
KBio2_001064
KBio2_003632
KBio2_006200
KBio3_001509
KBioGR_000873
KBioSS_001064
L001262
LS-28545
Lopac0_001223
MLS001306442
MLS002154240
Medical Ophthalmics Brand of Tropicamide
Minims tropicamide
MolPort-000-159-321
Mydral
Mydriacyl
Mydriacyl (TN)
Mydriafair
Mydriaticum
Mydrum
N-Ethyl-2-phenyl-N-(4-pyridylmethyl)hydracrylamide
N-Ethyl-2-phenyl-N-4-[-pyridyl-methyl]hydracrylamide
N-Ethyl-N-(4-pyridylmethyl)tropamid
N-Ethyl-N-(4-pyridylmethyl)tropamide
N-Ethyl-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-N-(4-pyridinylmethyl)benzeneacetamide
N-ethyl-3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-N-(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)propanamide
NCGC00016065-03
NCGC00016065-08
 
NCGC00024866-02
NCGC00024866-03
NCGC00024866-04
NCGC00024866-05
NCGC00024866-06
NINDS_000448
Novartis Brand of Tropicamide
Ocu Tropic
Ocu-Tropic
OcuTropic
Ocumed Brand of Tropicamide
Ocusoft Brand of Tropicamide
Opticyl
Paremyd
Pharmafair Brand of Tropicamide
Prestwick0_000228
Prestwick1_000228
Prestwick2_000228
Prestwick3_000228
Prestwick_487
Rivex Brand of Tropicamide
Ro 1-7683
SAM002564235
SMP1_000304
SMR000058523
SPBio_000872
SPBio_002196
SPECTRUM1500599
STK934612
Spectro-Cyl
Spectrum2_000936
Spectrum3_000655
Spectrum4_000377
Spectrum5_001585
Spectrum_000584
Stulln Brand 1 of Tropicamide
Stulln Brand 2 of Tropicamide
T 9778
T9778_SIGMA
TL8001101
Triaminic DM
Tropicacyl
Tropicamid
Tropicamida
Tropicamida [INN-Spanish]
Tropicamide
Tropicamide (JP15/USP/INN)
Tropicamide Alcon Brand
Tropicamide Chauvin Brand
Tropicamide Faure
Tropicamide Minims
Tropicamide Monofree
Tropicamide Monohydrochloride, (R)-Isomer
Tropicamide Monohydrochloride, (S)-Isomer
Tropicamide Novartis Brand
Tropicamide Ocumed Brand
Tropicamide Pharmafair Brand
Tropicamide Rivex Brand
Tropicamide [USAN:INN:BANJAN]
Tropicamide, (+-)-Isomer
Tropicamide, (R)-Isomer
Tropicamide, (S)-Isomer
Tropicamidum
Tropicamidum [INN-Latin]
Tropikamid
Tropimil
UNII-N0A3Z5XTC6
Visumidriatic
n-ethyl-n-(g-picolyl)tropamide
tropicamide
2
PseudoephedrineapprovedPhase 460690-82-47028
Synonyms:
( )-Pseudoephedrine
(+) threo-2-(methylamino)-1-phenyl-1-propanol
(+)-(1S,2S)-Pseudoephedrine
(+)-Pseudoephedrine
(+)-psi-Ephedrine
(+)-threo-Ephedrine
(1S,2S)-(+)-Pseudoephedrine
(1S,2S)-2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpropan-1-ol
(1S,2S)-2-Methylamino-1-phenyl-1-propanol
(1S,2S)-Pseudoephedrine
(1S,2S)-Pseudoephedrine, polymer-bound
1-Ephedrine
2-(Methylamino)-1-phenyl-1-propanol
287636_ALDRICH
304-87-0
30987-59-8
37577-31-4
649031_ALDRICH
90-82-4
AC-20292
AC1L1NUA
Acunaso
Acunaso (TN)
Afrinol
BIDD:GT0817
BRD-K84175871-003-02-2
BSPBio_003261
Balminil Decongestant Syrup
Benylin Decongestant
Benzenemethanol, alpha-((1S)-1-(methylamino)ethyl)-, (alpha-S)- (9CI)
Besan
C02765
C10H15NO
CHEBI:51209
CHEMBL1590
CID7028
CPD-9954
Cenafed
D-Isoephedrine
D-Pseudoephedrine
D-Pseudoephedrine base
D-Psi-2-Methylamino-1-phenyl-1-propanol
D-Psi-Ephedrine
D08449
DB00852
Decofed
Dimetapp Decongestant
Dimetapp Decongestant Pediatric Drops
DivK1c_000451
Drixoral N.D.
Drixoral Nasal Decongestant
EINECS 202-018-6
Efidac 24 Pseudoephedrine Hcl
Efidac/24
Eltor 120
Ephedrine
Genaphed
HSDB 3177
I01-8928
IDI1_000451
Isoephedrine
KBio1_000451
 
KBio2_001358
KBio2_003926
KBio2_006494
KBio3_002762
KBioGR_001763
KBioSS_001358
L(+)-Psi-Ephedrine
L(+)-psi-Ephedrine
L-(+)-Pseudoephedrine
LS-125922
Lopac-E-3250
Maxenal
MolPort-001-684-474
Myfedrine
NCGC00015408-01
NCGC00178180-01
NCI60_002955
NINDS_000451
Neodurasina
Neodurasina (TN)
Novafed
PDSP1_001347
PSEUDOEPHEDRINE
Pedia Care
Pseudo
Pseudo 60's
Pseudo-12
Pseudoefedrina
Pseudoefedrina [INN-Spanish]
Pseudoephedrine
Pseudoephedrine (D)
Pseudoephedrine (INN)
Pseudoephedrine D-form
Pseudoephedrine Ephedrine
Pseudoephedrine [INN:BAN]
Pseudoephedrine d-form
Pseudoephedrinum
Pseudoephedrinum [INN-Latin]
Psi-ephedrin
Psi-ephedrine
Robidrine
SPBio_001365
STOCK1N-42675
Spectrum2_001303
Spectrum3_001771
Spectrum4_001162
Spectrum5_000650
Spectrum_000878
Sudafed
Sudafed Decongestant
Sudafed Decongestant 12 Hour
Sudafed Decongestant Extra Strength
Triaminic AM Decongestant Formula
Triaminic Infant Oral Decongestant Drops
UNII-7CUC9DDI9F
alpha-(1-(Methylamino)ethyl)benzyl alcohol
d-Isoephedrine
d-Pseudoephedrine
d-psi-2-Methylamino-1-phenyl-1-propanol
d-psi-Ephedrine
pseudoéphédrine
trans-Ephedrine
ψ-ephedrine
3
PhenylephrineapprovedPhase 444059-42-76041
Synonyms:
(-)-m-Hydroxy-alpha-(methylaminomethyl)benzyl alcohol
(-)-m-Hydroxy-α-(methylaminomethyl)benzyl alcohol
(R)-2-Hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-methylethylamine
(R)-3-Hydroxy-alpha-((methylamino)methyl)benzenemethanol
1416-03-1
3-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]phenol
59-42-7
61-76-7 (hydrochloride)
AC1L1LO9
AC1Q40UF
AI3-02402
AK-Dilate
AK-Nefrin
Adrianol
Ah-Chew
Ak-Dilate
Ak-Nefrin
Ak-dilate
Ak-nefrin
Alcon Efrin
Alcon efrin
Alconefrin Nasal Drops 12
Alconefrin Nasal Drops 25
Alconefrin Nasal Drops 50
Alconefrin Nasal Spray 25
BIDD:GT0157
BSPBio_002420
Benzenemethanol, 3-hydroxy-alpha-((methylamino)methyl)-, (R)- (9CI)
Biomydrin
C07441
CCRIS 8464
CHEBI:8093
CHEMBL1215
CID6041
Cyclomydril
D08365
DB00388
Dilatair
Dimetane
Dionephrine
DivK1c_000597
Doktors
Duration
EINECS 200-424-8
EINECS 215-810-1
Fenilefrina
Fenilefrina [INN-Spanish]
HSDB 3383
I-Phrine
IDI1_000597
Isophrim
Isophrin
Isopto Frin
KBio1_000597
KBio2_001581
KBio2_004149
KBio2_006717
KBio3_001640
KBioGR_001313
KBioSS_001581
L-Phenylephedrine
L-Phenylephrine
LS-43027
Lopac-P-6126
Lopac0_000920
M-Methylaminoethanolphenol
M-Oxedrine
M-Sympathol
M-Sympatol
M-Synephrine
 
Mesaton
Mesatone
Mesatonum
Metaoxedrin
Metaoxedrine
Metaoxedrinum
Metasympatol
Metasynephrine
Metsatonum
Mezaton
Minims Phenylephrine
MolPort-001-792-191
Mydfrin
NCGC00015825-01
NCGC00015825-02
NCGC00024257-03
NCGC00024257-05
NCGC00024257-06
NINDS_000597
Neo-Synephrine
Neo-Synephrine Nasal Drops
Neo-Synephrine Nasal Jelly
Neo-Synephrine Nasal Spray
Neo-Synephrine Pediatric Nasal Drops
Neofrin
Neophryn
Neosynephrine
Nostril
Nostril Spray Pump
Nostril Spray Pump Mild
Ocu-Phrin Sterile Eye Drops
Ocu-Phrin Sterile Ophthalmic Solution
Ocugestrin
P0395
PDSP1_001108
PDSP2_001092
Phenoptic
Phenylephrine
Phenylephrine (INN)
Phenylephrine Minims
Phenylephrine Minims (TN)
Phenylephrine [INN:BAN]
Phenylephrinum
Phenylephrinum [INN-Latin]
Prefrin
Prefrin Liquifilm
Pyracort D
R(-)-Mezaton
R(-)-Phenylephrine
Relief Eye Drops for Red Eyes
Rhinall
SPBio_001280
Spectrum2_001280
Spectrum3_000770
Spectrum4_000967
Spectrum5_001411
Spectrum_001101
Spersaphrine
Tannins, compds. with (R)-3-hydroxy-alpha-((methylamino)methyl)benzenemethanol
UNII-1WS297W6MV
Vicks Sinex
Visadron
l-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-N-methylethanolamine
l-1-(m-Hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylaminoethanol
l-alpha-Hydroxy-beta-methylamino-3-hydroxy-L-ethylbenzene
l-m-Hydroxy-alpha-((methylamino)methyl)benzyl alcohol
m-Methylaminoethanolphenol
m-Oxedrine
m-Sympathol
m-Sympatol
m-Synephrine
phenylephrine
4
DipivefrinapprovedPhase 4, Phase 39452365-63-63105
Synonyms:
( -)-2,2-Dimethylpropansaeure-4-(1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl)-1,2-phenylenester
( -)-4-(1-Hydroxy-2-methylaminoethyl)-o-phenylendipivalat
(+-)-3,4-Dihydroxy-alpha-((methylamino)methyl)benzyl alcohol 3,4-dipivalate
(+-)-4-[1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-O-phenylene divavalate
(+-)-4-[1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-o-phenylene divavalate
(RS)-4-(1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl)-1,2-phenylen dipivalat
1-(3',4'-Dipivaloyloxyphenyl)-2-methylamino-1-ethanol
1-(3',4'-dipivaloyloxyphenyl)-2-methylamino-1-ethanol
2,2-Dimethylpropanoic acid 4-[1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-1,2-phenylene ester
4-(1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl)-1,2-phenylen dipivalat
4-[1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-O-phenylene divavalate
4-[1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-o-phenylene divavalate
4-[1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]benzene-1,2-diyl bis(2,2-dimethylpropanoate)
52365-63-6
AB00514686
AC1L1F6K
AKOS003662293
AKPro
BPBio1_000688
BRD-A47494775-003-03-0
BSPBio_000624
C06963
C19H29NO5
CHEBI:4646
CID3105
D02349
DB00449
Dipivalyl Epinephrine
 
Dipivefrin
Dipivefrin (USAN)
Dipivefrin HCL
Dipivefrin [USAN]
Dipivefrina
Dipivefrina [INN-Spanish]
Dipivefrine
Dipivefrine (INN)
Dipivefrinum
Dipivefrinum [INN-Latin]
Dipivéfrine
K 30081
L000915
LS-121419
NCGC00179499-01
Ophtho-Dipivefrin
Prestwick0_000632
Prestwick1_000632
Prestwick2_000632
Prestwick3_000632
Pro-Epinephrine
Propine
Propine C Cap B.I.D.
SPBio_002843
UNII-8Q1PVL543G
[2-(2,2-dimethylpropanoyloxy)-4-[1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]phenyl] 2,2-dimethylpropanoate
dipivalyl epinephrine
dipivefrin
nchembio747-comp3
5
Hyaluronic acidapproved, vet_approvedPhase 44399004-61-953477741, 24759
Synonyms:
Hyaluronan
Hyaluronate
Hyaluronic acid
Hylartil
Hyruan Plus
Luronit
 
Macronan
Mucoitin
Nutra-HAF
Q 5AQ
Sepracoat
Sepragel Sinus
Sofast
Synvisc
6
MentholapprovedPhase 4, Phase 323532216-51-516666
Synonyms:
(−
()-Menthol
(+)-Neo-menthol
(+)-p-Menthan-3-ol
(+-)-(1R*,3R*,4S*)-Menthol
(+-)-Menthol
(+/-)-Menthol
(+/-)-p-Menthan-3-ol
(-)-(1R,3R,4S)-Menthol
(-)-Menthyl alcohol
(-)-menthol
(-)-p-Menthan-3-ol
(-)-trans-p-Menthan-cis-ol
(1R)-(-)-Menthol
(1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthol
(1R,2S,5R)-Menthol
(1R,3R,4S)-(-)-MENTHOL
(1R,3R,4S)-(-)-Menthol
(1R-(1-alpha,2-beta,5-alpha))-5-Methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)cyclohexanol
(1S, 2S, 5R)-(+)-Neomenthol
(1S,2R,5R)-(+)-Isomenthol
(1S,2R,5S)-(+)-Menthol
(1S,2R,5S)-Menthol
(1alpha,2beta,5alpha)-5-Methyl-2(1-methylethyl)cyclohexanol
(1r,2s,5r)-(-)-menthol
(L)-MENTHOL
(R)-(-)-Menthol
(r)-(-)-menthol
)-Menthol
--MENTHOL
1-Menthol
1490-04-6
15356-60-2
15356-70-4
15785_RIEDEL
15785_SIAL
19863P
2-Isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanol
20747-49-3
2216-51-5
3-p-Menthol
4-Isopropyl-1-methylcyclohexan-3-ol
491-02-1
5-Methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-cyclohexanol
5-Methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)cyclohexanol
5-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexanol
5-methyl-2-propan-2-ylcyclohexan-1-ol
551376_ALDRICH
551376_FLUKA
588733_ALDRICH
613290_ALDRICH
613290_FLUKA
63660_FLUKA
63670_ALDRICH
63670_FLUKA
63975-60-0
6C6A4A8C-A054-468C-A1F0-F29E39838CF2
89-78-1
98167-53-4
AC1L1B2E
AC1L28FR
AC1Q1NQ2
AC1Q2QQM
AI3-08161
AI3-52408
AKOS000119740
AR-1J3337
BB_NC-0057
BRN 1902288
BRN 3194263
BSPBio_003062
C00400
C10H20O
CCRIS 3728
CCRIS 375
CCRIS 4666
CCRIS 9231
CHEBI:15409
CHEBI:545611
CHEMBL256087
CHEMBL470670
CID1254
CID16666
Caswell No. 540
D-(-)-Menthol
D-p-Menthan-3-ol
D00064
D008610
D04849
D04918
DB00825
DivK1c_000820
EINECS 201-939-0
EINECS 207-724-8
EINECS 216-074-4
EINECS 218-690-9
EINECS 239-387-8
EINECS 239-388-3
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 051601
FEMA No. 2665
Fisherman's friend lozenges
Fisherman's friend lozenges (TN)
HMS1922G13
HMS2092L14
HMS502I22
 
HSDB 5662
HSDB 593
Headache crystals
Hexahydrothymol
I06-1216
I14-7371
IDI1_000820
KBio1_000820
KBio2_000785
KBio2_003353
KBio2_005921
KBio3_002562
KBioSS_000785
L-(-)-Menthol
L-(-)-menthol
L-Menthol
L-menthol
LMPR0102090001
LS-2353
LS-57201
LS-886
LS-89531
LS-89533
Levomenthol
Levomenthol [INN:BAN]
Levomentholum
Levomentholum [INN-Latin]
Levomentol
M0321
M0545
M2772_SIAL
MENTHOL
MLS002207256
Menthacamphor
Menthol
Menthol (USP)
Menthol (VAN)
Menthol natural
Menthol natural, brazilian
Menthol racemic
Menthol racemique
Menthol racemique [French]
Menthol solution
Menthol, (1alpha,2beta,5alpha)-Isomer
Menthomenthol
Menthyl alcohol
MolPort-000-849-729
MolPort-001-793-392
NCGC00159382-02
NCGC00159382-03
NCGC00164247-01
NCGC00164247-02
NCI-C50000
NINDS_000820
NOOLISFMXDJSKH-KXUCPTDWBX
NSC 2603
NSC 62788
NSC2603
NSC62788
Neoisomenthol
Peppermint camphor
RACEMIC MENTHOL U.S.P.
Racementhol
Racementhol [INN:BAN]
Racementholum
Racementholum [INN-Latin]
Racementol
Racementol [INN-Spanish]
Racemic menthol
Robitussin Cough Drops
SDCCGMLS-0066659.P001
SMR001306785
SPBio_000869
SPECTRUM1503134
STK802468
Spectrum2_000855
Spectrum3_001561
Spectrum5_001060
Spectrum_000305
Tra-kill tracheal mite killer
U.S.P. Menthol
U.S.p. Menthol
UNII-BZ1R15MTK7
UNII-L7T10EIP3A
UNII-YS08XHA860
W266507_ALDRICH
W266523_ALDRICH
W266590_ALDRICH
WLN: L6TJ AY1&1 BQ D1
WLN: L6TJ AY1&1 DQ D1 -L
ZINC01482164
cis-1 ,3-trans-1,4-(+-)-menthol
cis-1,3-trans-1,4-(+-)-menthol
d,l-Menthol
d-Menthol
d-Neomenthol
dl-3-p-Menthanol
dl-Menthol
dl-Menthol (JP15)
l-(-)-Menthol
l-Menthol
l-Menthol (JP15)
l-Menthol (TN)
l-Menthol (natural)
nchembio862-comp1
p-Menthan-3-ol
rac-Menthol
7
RanibizumabapprovedPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 1474347396-82-1459903
Synonyms:
347396-82-1
D05697
Lucentis
Lucentis (TN)
 
Ranibizumab
Ranibizumab (USAN/INN)
Ranibizumab (genetical recombination)
Ranibizumab (genetical recombination) (JAN)
ranibizumab
rhuFab V2
8
OxymetazolineapprovedPhase 44401491-59-44636
Synonyms:
1491-59-4
2-(4-Tert-butyl-2,6-dimethyl-3-hydroxybenzyl)-2-imidazoline
2-(4-tert-Butyl-2,6-dimethyl-3-hydroxybenzyl)-2-imidazoline
3-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-ylmethyl)-2,4-dimethyl-6-tert-butyl-phenol
3-[(4,5-Dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl]-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2,4-dimethylphenol
3-[(4,5-dihydro-1H-Imidazol-2-yl)methyl]-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2,4-dimethylphenol
6-Tert-butyl-3-(2-imidazolin-2-ylmethyl)-2,4-dimethylphenol
6-t-Butyl-3-(2-imidazolin-2-ylmethyl)-2,4-dimethylphenol
6-tert-Butyl-3-(2-imidazolin-2-ylmethyl)-2,4-dimethylphenol
6-tert-Butyl-3-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-ylmethyl)-2,4-dimethylphenol
AC-6370
AC1L1IM1
Afrin Cherry 12 Hour Nasal Spray
Afrin Extra Moisturizing 12 Hour Nasal Spray
Afrin Original 12 Hour Nasal Spray
Afrin Original 12 Hour Nose Drops
Afrin Original 12 Hour Pump Mist
Afrin Sinus 12 Hour Nasal Spray
BPBio1_000295
BPBio1_000419
BRD-K16195444-001-01-7
BRN 0886303
BSPBio_000267
BSPBio_002145
Biomol-NT_000161
C07363
CAS-151615
CHEBI:142520
CHEMBL762
CID4636
D010109
D08322
DB00935
DivK1c_000567
Dristan Long Lasting Mentholated Nasal Spray
Dristan Long Lasting Nasal Mist
Drixoral Nasal Solution
Duramist Plus Up To 12 Hour Nasal Decongestant Spray
EINECS 216-079-1
FT-0082560
Genasal Nasal Spray Up to 12 Hour Relief
H 990
HMS2089G03
HSDB 3143
Hazol
IDI1_000567
Iliadin
KBio1_000567
KBio2_001531
KBio2_004099
KBio2_006667
KBio3_001645
KBioGR_000908
KBioSS_001531
L000459
LS-104146
 
Lopac-O-2378
Lopac0_000903
MolPort-002-538-313
NCGC00015766-01
NCGC00015766-02
NCGC00015766-03
NCGC00015766-10
NCGC00022345-02
NCGC00022345-04
NCGC00022345-05
NCGC00022345-06
NINDS_000567
Nafrine
Nasal Relief 12 Hour Nasal Spray
Navasin
Navisin
Neo-Synephrine 12 Hour Spray
Nezeril
Nostrilla 12 Hour Nasal Decongestant
Operil (TN)
Oximetazolina
Oximetazolina [INN-Spanish]
Oximetazolinum
Oxylazine
Oxymetazolina
Oxymetazoline (INN)
Oxymetazoline [INN:BAN]
Oxymetazoline hydrochloride crystalline
Oxymetazolinum
Oxymetazolinum [INN-Latin]
Oxymethazoline
Oxymetozoline
Phenol, 3-[(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl]-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2,4-dimethyl- (9CI)
Phenol, 6-tert-butyl-3-(2-imidazolin-2-ylmethyl)-2,4-dimethyl- (7CI,8CI)
Prestwick0_000224
Prestwick1_000224
Prestwick2_000224
Prestwick3_000224
Rhinofrenol
Rhinolitan
SPBio_001095
SPBio_002188
Sinerol
Spectrum2_000998
Spectrum3_000533
Spectrum4_000464
Spectrum5_001114
Spectrum_001051
Tocris-1142
UNII-8VLN5B44ZY
Vicks Sinex 12 Hour Nasal Spray
Vicks Sinex 12 Hour Ultra Fine Mist for Sinus Relief
Visine L.R
Visine L.R.
nchembio705-11
oxymeta zoline
oxymetazoline
oxymetazoline hydrochloride crystalline
9
Atropineapproved, vet_approvedPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 11295908-99-6, 51-55-8174174
Synonyms:
(+,-)-Tropyl tropate
(+-)-Atropine
(+-)-Hyoscyamine
(+-)-atropine
(+-)-hyoscyamine
(+/-)-Atropine
(+/-)-Hyoscyamine
(3-Endo)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl tropate
(3-endo)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl (2S)-3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoate
(3-endo)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl 3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoate
(3-endo)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl tropate
(3-endo)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-ol
(3-endo,8-syn)-3-[(3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoyl)oxy]-8-methyl-8-azoniabicyclo[3.2.1]octane
(3-exo)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-ol
(±)-atropine
(±)-hyoscyamine
1-alpha-H,5-alpha-H-Tropan-3-alpha-ol (+-)-tropate (ester)
1-alpha-H,5-alpha-H-Tropan-3-alpha-ol (+-)-tropate (ester) (8CI)
120-29-6
1alphaH,5alphaH-Tropan-3alpha-ol
1alphaH,5alphaH-Tropan-3alpha-ol (+-)-tropate (ester)
1alphaH,5alphaH-Tropan-3beta-ol
2-Phenylhydracrylic acid 3-alpha-tropanyl ester
51-55-8
8-Methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl 3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoate
8-Methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl tropate
8-Methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-yl 3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropionate
A0132_SIGMA
A2468_SIGMA
AC1L5AX3
AC1Q3XL2
ACon1_000046
AI3-60219
AKOS005137976
ATROPINE
Ambap120-29-6
Anaspaz
Atropair
Atropen
Atropen (TN)
Atropin
Atropin [German]
Atropin-flexiolen
Atropina
Atropina [Italian]
Atropine
Atropine (USP)
Atropine Care
Atropine Sulfate
Atropine Sulfate S.O.P.
Atropine [BAN]
Atropinol
Atropinum
Atropt
Atrosulf
BRD-A27290375-001-01-8
Belladenal
Bellergal-S
Benzeneacetic acid, alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-, (3-endo)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo(3.2.1)oct-3-yl ester
C01479
C17H23NO3
CAS-120-29-6
CCRIS 3080
CHEBI:15742
CHEBI:15884
CHEBI:16684
CHEBI:537621
CHEBI:57858
CHEMBL1235490
 
CID174174
CPD001906768
Cytospaz
D00113
DB00572
DB04026
DL-Hyoscyamine
DL-Tropanyl 2-hydroxy-1-phenylpropionate
DL-Tropyl tropate
EINECS 200-104-8
Eyesules
FT-0082634
HMS2089A16
HSDB 2199
Hyoscyamine sulfate
I-Tropine
Isopto Atropine
Isopto-atropine
LS-7203
MEGxp0_001878
MLS000069795
MLS001148094
MLS002695888
Minims
Minims Atropine
MolPort-001-742-593
MolPort-003-986-158
Mydriasine
NCGC00016370-01
NCGC00142514-01
NCGC00142514-03
NP-010662
Neo-Diophen
OR22908
Ocu-Tropine
Protamine & Atropine
SAM002554885
SMR000058248
ST057178
ST057655
T0534
TL8000018
Tropanol
Tropic acid, 3-alpha-tropanyl ester
Tropic acid, ester with tropine
Tropine (+/-)-tropate
Tropine tropate
Tropine, tropate (ester)
Troyl tropate
Urised
[(1R,5S)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-yl] 3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoate
[(1S,5R)-8-Methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl] 3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-propanoate
[(1S,5R)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl] 3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-propanoate
a-Tropine
atropinium cation
atropinium(1+)
b eta-(Hydroxymethyl)benzeneacetic acid 8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl ester
beta-Phenyl-gamma-oxypropionsaeure-tropyl-ester [German]
beta-Phenyl-gamma-oxypropionsaure-tropyl-ester [German]
bmse000649
d1-hyoscyamine
dl-Hyoscyamine
dl-Tropyltropate
dl-tropyltropate
endo-(+/-)-alpha-(Hydroxymethyl)benzeneacetic acid 8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl ester
endo-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-ol
hyoscyamine
nchembio.307-comp21
tropan-3alpha-ol
tropan-3alpha-yl 3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoate
tropan-3beta-ol
10
CyclopentolateapprovedPhase 4, Phase 19512-15-22905
Synonyms:
(+-)-Cyclopentolate
(+-)-cyclopentolate
(±)-cyclopentolate
1-Hydroxy-alpha-phenylcyclopentaneacetic acid 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl ester
1-hydroxy-alpha-phenylcyclopentaneacetic acid 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl ester
2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl (1-hydroxycyclopentyl)(phenyl)acetate
2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl 1-hydroxy-alpha-phenylcyclopentaneacetate
2-(dimethylamino)Ethyl 1-hydroxy-alpha-phenylcyclopentaneacetate
2-(dimethylamino)Ethyl 2-(1-hydroxycyclopentyl)-2-phenylacetate
2-(dimethylamino)ethyl 2-(1-hydroxycyclopentyl)-2-phenylacetate
2-Dimethylaminoethyl 2-(1-hydroxycyclopentyl)-2-phenylacetat
2-Phenyl-2-(1-hydroxycyclopentyl)ethanoic acid beta-(dimethylamino)ethyl ester
2-dimethylaminoethyl 2-(1-hydroxycyclopentyl)-2-phenylacetate
2-phenyl-2-(1-hydroxycyclopentyl)ethanoic acid beta-(dimethylamino)ethyl ester
512-15-2
AB00053445
AC-15991
AC1L1EQK
AC1Q67OG
AR-1H7796
BPBio1_001288
BRD-A77291778-003-05-5
BSPBio_001170
BSPBio_002097
Bell Pentolate
Bell Pentolate (TN)
Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-(1-hydroxycyclopentyl)-, 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl ester
Benzeneacetic acid, alpha-(1-hydroxycyclopentyl)-, 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl ester
C06932
CHEBI:4024
CID2905
Ciclopentolato
Ciclopentolato [INN-Spanish]
Cyclopentoiate
Cyclopentolate
Cyclopentolate (INN)
Cyclopentolate [INN:BAN]
Cyclopentolatum
Cyclopentolatum [INN-Latin]
Cyclopentylate
Cylate
 
D07759
DB00979
Diopentolate
DivK1c_000610
EINECS 208-136-4
IDI1_000610
KBio1_000610
KBio2_001336
KBio2_003904
KBio2_006472
KBio3_001317
KBioGR_000886
KBioSS_001336
L000802
LS-175236
Minims Cyclopentolate
MolPort-005-935-560
Mydrilate
NINDS_000610
Ocu-Pentolate
Prestwick0_001095
Prestwick1_001095
Prestwick2_001095
Prestwick3_001095
SPBio_000983
SPBio_003055
Spectrum2_001122
Spectrum3_000369
Spectrum4_000303
Spectrum5_000793
Spectrum_000856
UNII-I76F4SHP7J
alpha-(1-Hydroxycyclopentyl)benzeneacetic acid 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl ester
alpha-(1-hydroxycyclopentyl)benzeneacetic acid 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl ester
b-dimethylaminoethyl(1-hydroxycyclopentyl)phenylacetate
beta-(Dimethylamino)ethyl (1-hydroxycyclopentyl)phenylacetate
beta-(dimethylamino)Ethyl (1-hydroxycyclopentyl)phenylacetate
beta-Dimethylaminoethyl (1-hydroxycyclopentyl)phenylacetate
beta-dimethylaminoethyl (1-hydroxycyclopentyl)phenylacetate
cyclopentolate
nchembio747-comp4
α-(1-hydroxycyclopentyl)benzeneacetic acid 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl ester
β-dimethylaminoethyl (1-hydroxycyclopentyl)phenylacetate
11
EphedrineapprovedPhase 4606299-42-39294
Synonyms:
( )-Pseudoephedrine
(+)-Ephedrin
(+)-Ephedrine
(+)-Pseudoephedrine
(+)-psi-Ephedrine
(+)-threo-Ephedrine
(+-)-Ephedrine
(-)-Ephedrine
(-)-Pseudoephedrine
(-)-psi-Ephedrine
(-)-threo-Ephedrine
(1R,2R)-Ephedrine
(1R,2S)-1-Phenyl-1-hydroxy-2-methylaminopropane
(1S,2R)-Ephedrine
(L)-EPHEDRINE
--EPHEDRINE
1-EPHEDRINE
1-Sedrin
134910_ALDRICH
287636_ALDRICH
287644_ALDRICH
299-42-3
304-87-0
30987-59-8
321-96-0
321-97-1
321-98-2
37577-31-4
38732-95-5
45261_FLUKA
4607-45-8
50-98-6
50906-05-3
53214-57-6
649031_ALDRICH
6912-63-6
7009-81-6
90-82-4
968-63-8
AC-20231
AC-20292
AC1L1JGK
AC1L1NUA
AC1L1RFA
AC1L1SR1
AC1L1T31
AC1L1Y3M
AC1O8JUO
AC1Q3XJE
AC1Q3XJM
AC1Q3XJN
AC1Q59F5
AC1Q7701
AI3-02761
AKOS000268842
AR-1A0126
AR-1I7143
Acunaso
Acunaso (TN)
Afrinol
Ambap299-42-3
BIDD:GT0817
BRN 3197916
BRN 4231286
BSPBio_001946
BSPBio_001968
BSPBio_003261
Benylin Decongestant
Besan
Biophedrin
C01575
C02765
C10H15NO
CHEBI:15407
CHEBI:51209
CHEMBL1590
CHEMBL211456
CHEMBL357080
CID11972440
CID5032
CID62946
CID6710657
CID7028
CID8650
CID9294
CID9457
CPD-9954
CPDD 0049
Cenafed
D00124
D08449
DB00852
DB01364
Decofed
DivK1c_000181
DivK1c_000451
DivK1c_000461
Drixoral N.D.
EINECS 202-017-0
EINECS 202-018-6
EINECS 206-080-5
EINECS 206-292-8
EINECS 206-293-3
Eciphin
Efedrin
Efidac/24
Eltor 120
Ephedral
Ephedremal
Ephedrin
Ephedrine
Ephedrine (TN)
Ephedrine (USP)
Ephedrine [USAN:BAN]
Ephedrine l-form
Ephedrital
Ephedrol
Ephedrosan
Ephedrotal
Ephedsol
Ephendronal
Ephoxamin
Fedrin
Genaphed
HSDB 3072
HSDB 3177
I-Sedrin
I01-3584
I01-8925
I01-8928
 
IDI1_000181
IDI1_000451
IDI1_000461
Isoephedrine
Jsp005664
KBio1_000181
KBio1_000451
KBio1_000461
KBio2_001358
KBio2_001500
KBio2_003926
KBio2_004068
KBio2_006494
KBio2_006636
KBio3_001188
KBio3_001446
KBio3_002762
KBioGR_001013
KBioGR_001763
KBioSS_001358
KBioSS_001500
KST-1A9168
Kratedyn
L(+)-psi-Ephedrine
L(-)-Ephedrine
L-(+)-Ephedrine
L-(-)-Ephedrine
L-Ephedrine
L-erythro-2-(Methylamino)-1-phenylpropan-1-ol
L000968
LS-125921
LS-125922
LS-43083
LS-63961
LS-63962
LS-63963
LS-63964
Lexofedrin
Lopac-E-3250
Lopac0_000501
MLS000069657
Manadrin
Mandrin
Maxenal
MolPort-001-684-474
MolPort-001-684-477
MolPort-001-684-478
MolPort-001-684-479
MolPort-001-769-085
Myfedrine
NCGC00015408-01
NCGC00015408-02
NCGC00162174-01
NCGC00178180-01
NCGC00178889-01
NCI-C55652
NCI60_002955
NINDS_000181
NINDS_000451
NINDS_000461
NSC 165609
NSC 170951
NSC 8971
NSC165609
NSC170951
NSC8971
Nasol
Neodurasina
Neodurasina (TN)
Oprea1_287330
PDSP1_000168
PDSP1_001106
PDSP1_001343
PDSP1_001345
PDSP1_001346
PDSP1_001347
PDSP2_000167
PDSP2_001090
PDSP2_001327
PDSP2_001329
PDSP2_001330
PDSP2_001331
PSEUDOEPHEDRINE
Pedia Care
Pseudo
Pseudo 60's
Pseudo-12
Pseudoefedrina
Pseudoephedrine (D)
Pseudoephedrinum
Psi-ephedrin
Psi-ephedrine
Robidrine
SMR000059174
SPBio_000214
SPBio_001365
SPBio_001377
ST023802
STK367993
STOCK1N-42675
Sanedrine
Spectrum2_000137
Spectrum2_001303
Spectrum2_001309
Spectrum3_000414
Spectrum3_000563
Spectrum3_001771
Spectrum4_000497
Spectrum4_001162
Spectrum5_000650
Spectrum5_000879
Spectrum5_001106
Spectrum_000878
Spectrum_001020
Sudafed
Sudafed Decongestant
UNII-03VRY66076
UNII-7CUC9DDI9F
UNII-GN83C131XS
Vencipon
WLN: QYR & Y1 & M1
WLN: QYR&Y1&M1
Zephrol
d-Ephedrine
d-Isoephedrine
d-Pseudoephedrine
d-psi-Ephedrine
l-Ephedrine
l-Pseudoephedrine
racephedrine
trans-Ephedrine
12
KetorolacapprovedPhase 430474103-06-3, 66635-83-43826
Synonyms:
(+-)-5-Benzoyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid
(+-)-Ketorolac
(+-)-isomer
(.+/-.)-2,3-Dihydro-5-benzoyl-1H-pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid
1H-Pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid, 5-benzoyl-2,3-dihydro
5-(phenylcarbonyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid
5-Benzoyl-1,2-dihydro-3H-pyrrolo(1,2a)pyrrole-1-carboxylic acid
5-Benzoyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid
66635-83-4
74103-06-3
AB00053682
AC-545
AC1L1GSW
BRD-A40639672-234-05-7
C07062
CHEBI:105080
CHEMBL469
CID3826
D020910
D08104
DB00465
 
I14-2832
Ketoralac
Ketorolac
Ketorolac (INN)
Ketorolac Tromethamine
Ketorolac [INN:BAN]
Ketorolaco
Ketorolaco [Spanish]
Ketorolacum
Ketorolacum [Latin]
Kétorolac
LS-139094
Macril
MolPort-005-933-093
NCGC00185990-01
RS 37619
RS-37619
SBB067312
STL018674
Toradol (TN)
UNII-YZI5105V0L
ketorolac
rac-Ketorolac
13
Bevacizumabapproved, investigationalPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 11968216974-75-3
Synonyms:
216974-75-3
Avastin
Avastin (TN)
Bevacizumab
Bevacizumab (genetical recombination)
 
Bevacizumab (genetical recombination) (JAN)
D06409
R-435
anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody
antiVEGF
bevacizumab
14
NepafenacapprovedPhase 44178281-72-8151075
Synonyms:
2-amino-3-Benzoylbenzeneacetamide
AHR 9434
AHR-9434
AL 6515
 
AL-6515
Amfenac amide
Nepafenaco
Nepafenacum
Nevanac
15Antibiotics, AntitubercularPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 16972
16Anti-Bacterial AgentsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 110884
17Alkylating AgentsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 14694
18Adrenergic AgentsPhase 4, Phase 35140
19Angiogenesis Modulating AgentsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 14072
20Adrenergic alpha-AgonistsPhase 41625
21MitomycinsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 1233
22Ophthalmic SolutionsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 11092
23Adrenergic AgonistsPhase 42877
24Anti-Inflammatory AgentsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 110355
25AnalgesicsPhase 4, Phase 111287
26TetrahydrozolinePhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 1593
27Anti-Infective AgentsPhase 4, Phase 1, Phase 221402
28MydriaticsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 1, Early Phase 1763
29Nucleic Acid Synthesis InhibitorsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 14855
30Angiogenesis InhibitorsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 14143
31Cholinergic AntagonistsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 11658
32Neurotransmitter AgentsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 117734
33Nasal DecongestantsPhase 4578
34Respiratory System AgentsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 14818
35Protective AgentsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 17190
36ParasympatholyticsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 11050
37Peripheral Nervous System AgentsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 122776
38ProxymetacainePhase 440
39Vasoconstrictor AgentsPhase 42027
40Bronchodilator AgentsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 12856
41Cholinergic AgentsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 13846
42Autonomic AgentsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 19774
43Anti-Asthmatic AgentsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 13369
44Anti-Arrhythmia AgentsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 12969
45Muscarinic AntagonistsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 11134
46Adjuvants, AnesthesiaPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 11588
47AnestheticsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 19001
48Ketorolac TromethaminePhase 4304
49MicronutrientsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 1, Phase 25802
50Trace ElementsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 1, Phase 25802

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50)    (show all 571)
idNameStatusNCT IDPhase
1A New More Efficient Cycloplegia SchemeUnknown statusNCT02177539Phase 4
2Clinical Evaluation of Toric Intraocular Lens Made by AurolabUnknown statusNCT01396616Phase 4
3A Study of Interventions to Reduce Disability From Visual Loss in Nursing Home ResidentsUnknown statusNCT00348621Phase 4
4A Prospective Safety and Effectiveness Study of the 500 Hz Technolas Perfect Vision Excimer Laser Using LASIKUnknown statusNCT02071576Phase 4
5Multi Laser Platform Comparison Study for LASIKUnknown statusNCT00770094Phase 4
6Study of Myopia Prevention in Children With Low Concentration of AtropineUnknown statusNCT00541177Phase 4
7Effect of Posterior Corneal Toricity on Refractive Outcome of PseudophakiaUnknown statusNCT01554761Phase 4
8Ranibizumab for Myopic NeovascularizationUnknown statusNCT01246089Phase 4
9Comparative Study of Two Marketed Spherical Soft Contact LensesCompletedNCT01582789Phase 4
10Effect of Contact Lens Wear on Immune Cell Density and Morphology of the Ocular SurfaceCompletedNCT01250925Phase 4
11Anterior Stromal Changes After PRK by Using Intraoperative Mitomicin CCompletedNCT00599950Phase 4
12Osmoprotective and Castor Oil Containing Lubricants in Dysfunctional Tear Syndrome and Post Refractive Surgery PatientsCompletedNCT01741987Phase 4
13Evaluation of CooperVision Avaira Toric (Enfilcon A) Soft Contact Lens When Compared to Acuvue Advance Toric Soft Contact LensCompletedNCT01706770Phase 4
14Ocular Responses to Short and Long-term Lens WearCompletedNCT00722891Phase 4
15Contact Lens WettabilityCompletedNCT00349063Phase 4
16Prospective Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Femtosecond Laser-assisted Refractive Astigmatic Keratotomy.CompletedNCT01885780Phase 4
17A Comparison of PRK and LASIK for Correction of MyopiaCompletedNCT00404105Phase 4
18Contralateral Comparison of Three Excimer Laser Systems in Performing LASIKCompletedNCT00821236Phase 4
19Clinical Performance of Habitual Hydrogel vs. Silicone Hydrogel Toric Contact LensesCompletedNCT02142361Phase 4
20Clinical Performance of Biofinity Toric Versus Air Optix for AstigmatismCompletedNCT01965288Phase 4
21Evaluation of the Post-LASIK Flap Thickness of the FS200 Femtosecond Laser FlapCompletedNCT01693939Phase 4
22Clinical Evaluation of Biofinity Multifocal Compared With Air Optix Aqua Multifocal and With PureVision MultifocalCompletedNCT01591499Phase 4
23Presbyopic Supracor Treatment for Near Myopic/Hyperopic Pseudophakic EyesCompletedNCT01387360Phase 4
24Intrastromal Corneal Ring for High Astigmatism on PostkeratoplastyCompletedNCT01018797Phase 4
25Daily Wear Corneal Infiltrative Event StudyCompletedNCT00937105Phase 4
26Ten-year Follow-up of Laser in Situ Keratomileusis in Patients 8 to 15 Years OldCompletedNCT00800774Phase 4
27Evaluation of the Prophylactic Use of Mitomycin C 0.02% to Inhibit Haze Formation After Photorefractive Keratectomy for High Myopia: 15 x 30 SecondsCompletedNCT00564213Phase 4
28Corneal and Conjunctival Sensitivity and Staining StudyCompletedNCT00455455Phase 4
29Comparison of Acular LS Versus Nevanac for Pain Control in Eyes Undergoing PRKCompletedNCT00347204Phase 4
30AcrySof Toric Clinical ResultsCompletedNCT01214863Phase 4
31Presbyopia-Correcting Intraocular Lenses (IOLs)CompletedNCT00963560Phase 4
32A Comparison of Visual Function After Bilateral Implantation of Presbyopia-correcting Intraocular Lenses (IOLs)CompletedNCT01166971Phase 4
33Three Intraocular Lenses Designed to Improve Distance, Intermediate and Near Vision Following Lens ExtractionCompletedNCT01225952Phase 4
34Comparison of Toric IOL Implantation and Opposite Clear Corneal Incision During Cataract Surgery to Correct Corneal AstigmatismCompletedNCT01763151Phase 4
35Randomized Comparison of the Abbott WHITESTAR Signature System With Ellips Tranversal Ultrasound vs. the Alcon Infiniti With the Ozil Torsional Handpiece in Phacoemulsification: A Contralaterally-Controlled TrialCompletedNCT01279031Phase 4
36Use of Toric Intraocular Lens to Neutralize Keratometric AstigmatismCompletedNCT00925886Phase 4
37Safety and Effectiveness of the Akreos Toric Intraocular Lens.CompletedNCT00825513Phase 4
38Bevacizumab Intravitreal for Myopic Choroidal NeovascularizationCompletedNCT00797992Phase 4
39Effect of Orthokeratology Versus Spectacles on Myopia Progression in Chinese Children: A Crossover TrialRecruitingNCT02186184Phase 4
40Comparison of Next Generation Laser Techniques of Myopia Correction: iDesign vs. SMILERecruitingNCT03001401Phase 4
41Comparison of Outcomes With Multifocal Intraocular LensesRecruitingNCT02678962Phase 4
42High Resolution Wavefront-guided vs. Wavefront Optimized LASIKRecruitingNCT02565537Phase 4
43Pseudophakic Astigmatic Reduction With Verion-LenSx Arcuate IncisionsRecruitingNCT02763124Phase 4
44A Prospective Safety and Effectiveness Study of the 500 Hz Technolas Perfect Vision Excimer Laser in Asian Eyes Using LASIKRecruitingNCT01977807Phase 4
45Post-Approval Study of the TECNIS® Toric Extended Cylinder Range Intraocular Lens (IOL)RecruitingNCT02649842Phase 4
46Efficacy and Safety of MiSight ® Contact Lenses in Reducing the Progression of Childhood Myopia.Active, not recruitingNCT01917110Phase 4
47Wavefront-guided PRK vs Wavefront-optimized PRKActive, not recruitingNCT02091934Phase 4
48Prospective Investigation of SUPRACOR Visual Outcomes of Presbyopic Hyperopic Patients With and Without AstigmatismActive, not recruitingNCT01628146Phase 4
49LASIK Using the Alcon Allegretto Wavefront-Guided Excimer Laser vs AMO Visx Wavefront-Guided Excimer LaserActive, not recruitingNCT01454843Phase 4
50Wavefront-guided Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) Versus Wavefront-guided Lasik for MyopiaActive, not recruitingNCT01140594Phase 4

Search NIH Clinical Center for Refractive Error


Cochrane evidence based reviews: refractive errors

Genetic Tests for Refractive Error

About this section

Anatomical Context for Refractive Error

About this section

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Refractive Error:

35
Eye, Retina, Endothelial, Testes, Brain, Bone

Animal Models for Refractive Error or affiliated genes

About this section

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Refractive Error:

40
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00036318.3BMP2, GJD2, KCNQ5, LAMA2, LRPAP1, MFRP

Publications for Refractive Error

About this section

Articles related to Refractive Error:

(show top 50)    (show all 649)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Changes in Axial Length and Refractive Error After Noninvasive Normalization of Intraocular Pressure From Elevated Levels. (26701268)
2016
2
Antioxidant supplementation increases retinal responses and decreases refractive error changes in dogs. (27293555)
2016
3
Comparison of Refractive Error Changes in Retinopathy of Prematurity Patients Treated with Diode and Red Lasers. (26915028)
2016
4
Refractive Errors and Amblyopia in the UCLA Preschool Vision Program; First Year Results". (27640004)
2016
5
A clinic-based study of refractive errors, strabismus, and amblyopia in pediatric age-group. (26392796)
2015
6
Using femtosecond laser to create customized corneal flaps for patients with low and moderate refractive error differing in corneal thickness. (25807232)
2015
7
Screening for significant refractive error using a combination of distance visual acuity and near visual acuity. (25689600)
2015
8
Prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment among rural school-age children of Goro District, Gurage Zone, Ethiopia. (25489200)
2014
9
Prevalence of visual impairment and uncorrected refractive error - report from a Canadian urban population-based study. (23713914)
2013
10
Genetic susceptibility and mechanisms for refractive error. (23647423)
2013
11
Annual changes in refractive errors and ocular components before and after the onset of myopia in Chinese children. (22578257)
2012
12
Heritability of strabismus: genetic influence is specific to eso-deviation and independent of refractive error. (22877876)
2012
13
Nature and nurture: the complex genetics of myopia and refractive error. (21155761)
2011
14
Variations in eye volume, surface area, and shape with refractive error in young children by magnetic resonance imaging analysis. (22003110)
2011
15
Post-laser assisted in situ keratomileusis epithelial ingrowth and its relation to pretreatment refractive error. (21598428)
2011
16
Corrective lens use and refractive error among United States Air Force aircrew. (20358711)
2010
17
Refractive error in central India: the Central India Eye and Medical Study. (20045569)
2010
18
Role of the hepatocyte growth factor gene in refractive error. (20005573)
2010
19
Refractive error and smoking habits in exudative age-related macular degeneration in a hospital-based setting. (19590519)
2010
20
A genome-wide association study for myopia and refractive error identifies a susceptibility locus at 15q25. (20835236)
2010
21
Uncorrected refractive errors, presbyopia and spectacle coverage: results from a rapid assessment of refractive error survey. (19874105)
2009
22
The hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET) gene is not associated with refractive error and ocular biometrics in a Caucasian population. (20011629)
2009
23
Prevalence of uncorrected refractive error and other eye problems among urban and rural school children. (20142964)
2009
24
Standardized patient methodology to assess refractive error reproducibility. (19319010)
2009
25
Uncorrected refractive error in the northern and eastern provinces of Sri Lanka. (18983632)
2009
26
Useful resources: refractive error. (17971918)
2007
27
Relations between age, weight, refractive error and eye shape by computerized tomography in children. (17804923)
2007
28
Refractive error and visual impairment in school children in rural southern China. (17123622)
2007
29
Uncorrected refractive error in Singapore teenagers. (16424534)
2006
30
Effect of postoperative refractive error on visual acuity and patient satisfaction after implantation of the Array multifocal intraocular lens. (16338567)
2005
31
Refractive error and visual impairment in school-age children in Gombak District, Malaysia. (15808262)
2005
32
The correlations between Central Corneal Thickness and age, gender, intraocular pressure and refractive error of aged 12-60 years old in rural Thai community. (16858956)
2005
33
Laser in situ keratomileusis for refractive error after cataract surgery. (15975465)
2005
34
The relation between birth size and the results of refractive error and biometry measurements in children. (15031173)
2004
35
Refractive error following cataract extraction with the implantation of a standard power intraocular lens in a rural African blindness prevention programme. (14762417)
2004
36
Development of the National Eye Institute refractive error correction quality of life questionnaire: focus groups. (14644709)
2003
37
Epidemiology of refractive errors and presbyopia. (14499819)
2003
38
Population-based assessment of refractive error in India: the Andhra Pradesh eye disease study. (11886410)
2002
39
Axial length and refractive error in X-linked retinoschisis. (11384589)
2001
40
Refractive Error Study in Children: sampling and measurement methods for a multi-country survey. (10764848)
2000
41
Effectiveness of LASIK to correct refractive error after penetrating keratoplasty. (10743921)
2000
42
The influence of age, gender, refractive error, and optic disc size on the optic disc configuration in Japanese normal eyes. (10794257)
2000
43
A survey on refractive error and strabismus among children in a school at Aligarh. (11439872)
2000
44
Tonic accommodation, age, and refractive error in children. (10235538)
1999
45
The effect of continuous light on refractive error and the ocular components of the rat. (9990328)
1998
46
Pulsatile ocular blood flow variations with axial length and refractive error. (9286800)
1997
47
Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision. (9331277)
1997
48
Refractive error and ocular motility in plagiocephaly. (7923229)
1994
49
A comparison of cycloplegic refraction to the near retinoscopy technique for refractive error determination. (2212460)
1990
50
Refractive error changes in law students. (3631215)
1987

Variations for Refractive Error

About this section

Expression for genes affiliated with Refractive Error

About this section
Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Refractive Error.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Refractive Error

About this section

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Refractive Error

About this section

Biological processes related to Refractive Error according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1eye developmentGO:000165410.3SCO2, SLC39A5
2visual perceptionGO:00076019.8GJD2, MFRP, RDH5, ZIC2

Molecular functions related to Refractive Error according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1retinol dehydrogenase activityGO:000474510.1BMP2, RDH5

Sources for Refractive Error

About this section
2CDC
6CNVD
10DGIdb
15ExPASy
16FDA
17FMA
26GTR
27HGMD
28HMDB
29ICD10
30ICD10 via Orphanet
31ICD9CM
32IUPHAR
33KEGG
36MedGen
38MeSH
39MESH via Orphanet
40MGI
43NCI
44NCIt
45NDF-RT
48NINDS
49Novoseek
51OMIM
52OMIM via Orphanet
56PubMed
57QIAGEN
62SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
66Tumor Gene Family of Databases
67UMLS
68UMLS via Orphanet