Aliases & Classifications for Refractive Error

MalaCards integrated aliases for Refractive Error:

Name: Refractive Error 12 14
Refractive Errors 51 40 41 69

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9835
ICD10 32 H52.7
MeSH 41 D012030
NCIt 46 C87145
UMLS 69 C0034951

Summaries for Refractive Error

MedlinePlus : 40 The cornea and lens of your eye helps you focus. Refractive errors are vision problems that happen when the shape of the eye keeps you from focusing well. The cause could be the length of the eyeball (longer or shorter), changes in the shape of the cornea, or aging of the lens. Four common refractive errors are Myopia, or nearsightedness - clear vision close up but blurry in the distance Hyperopia, or farsightedness - clear vision in the distance but blurry close up Presbyopia - inability to focus close up as a result of aging Astigmatism - focus problems caused by the cornea The most common symptom is blurred vision. Other symptoms may include double vision, haziness, glare or halos around bright lights, squinting, headaches, or eye strain. Glasses or contact lenses can usually correct refractive errors. Laser eye surgery may also be a possibility. NIH: National Eye Institute

MalaCards based summary : Refractive Error, also known as refractive errors, is related to amblyopia and myopia, and has symptoms including visual disturbance, eye manifestations and aniseikonia. An important gene associated with Refractive Error is TUBB3 (Tubulin Beta 3 Class III). The drugs Hyaluronic acid and Atropine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, retina and endothelial, and related phenotype is nervous system.

Wikipedia : 72 Refractive error, also known as refraction error, is a problem with focusing light accurately onto the... more...

Related Diseases for Refractive Error

Diseases related to Refractive Error via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 104)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 amblyopia 31.8 MFRP TUBB3
2 myopia 30.4 GJD2 LRPAP1 MFRP MMP2 P4HA2 PRIMPOL
3 pilodental dysplasia with refractive errors 12.3
4 astigmatism 11.4
5 presbyopia 11.3
6 esotropia 11.3
7 ectopia lentis et pupillae 11.1
8 myopia 6 11.1
9 myopia 21, autosomal dominant 11.1
10 myopia 22, autosomal dominant 11.1
11 myopia 23, autosomal recessive 11.1
12 myopia 24, autosomal dominant 11.1
13 myopia 25, autosomal dominant 11.1
14 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 1 10.9
15 myopia 2, autosomal dominant 10.9
16 myopia 18, autosomal recessive 10.9
17 myopia 13, x-linked 10.9
18 myopia 1, x-linked 10.9
19 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 3a, with or without extraocular involvement 10.9
20 myopia 3, autosomal dominant 10.9
21 myopia 17, autosomal dominant 10.9
22 myopia 5, autosomal dominant 10.9
23 myopia 7 10.9
24 myopia 8 10.9
25 myopia 9 10.9
26 myopia 10 10.9
27 myopia 11, autosomal dominant 10.9
28 myopia 12, autosomal dominant 10.9
29 myopia 14 10.9
30 ewing sarcoma 10.9
31 myopia 16, autosomal dominant 10.9
32 myopia 15, autosomal dominant 10.9
33 myopia 19, autosomal dominant 10.9
34 myopia 20, autosomal dominant 10.9
35 corneal disease 10.9
36 ametropic amblyopia 10.9
37 aging 10.6
38 strabismus 10.5
39 cataract 10.5
40 rare isolated myopia 10.4 LRPAP1 SCO2
41 degenerative myopia 10.3 GJD2 ZNF644
42 retinitis 10.3
43 exudative vitreoretinopathy 1 10.2
44 keratoconus 10.2
45 anisometropia 10.2
46 ptosis 10.2
47 accommodative esotropia 10.2
48 macular degeneration, age-related, 1 10.1
49 down syndrome 10.1
50 congenital ptosis 10.1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Refractive Error:



Diseases related to Refractive Error

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Refractive Error

UMLS symptoms related to Refractive Error:


visual disturbance, eye manifestations, aniseikonia

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Refractive Error:

43
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system MP:0003631 9.32 BMP2 GJD2 KCNQ5 LRPAP1 MFRP MMP2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Refractive Error

Drugs for Refractive Error (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 202)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Hyaluronic acid Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 9004-61-9 53477741 24759
2
Atropine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1 5908-99-6, 51-55-8 174174
3
Phenylephrine Approved Phase 4 59-42-7 6041
4
Oxymetazoline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1491-59-4 4636
5
Ephedrine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 299-42-3 9294
6
Iodine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7553-56-2 807
7
Tropicamide Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2 1508-75-4 5593
8
Pseudoephedrine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 90-82-4 7028
9
Ranibizumab Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 347396-82-1 459903
10
Dipivefrin Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 52365-63-6 3105
11
Cyclopentolate Approved Phase 4,Phase 1 512-15-2 2905
12
Ketorolac Approved Phase 4 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
13
Nepafenac Approved, Investigational Phase 4 78281-72-8 151075
14
Bevacizumab Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1 216974-75-3
15 cadexomer iodine Phase 4
16 Analgesics Phase 4,Phase 1
17 Alkylating Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
18 Cathartics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
19 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
20 Adjuvants, Anesthesia Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
21 Micronutrients Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
22 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
23 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
24 Mitomycins Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
25 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
26 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
27 Mydriatics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Early Phase 1
28 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
29 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
30 Cholinesterase Inhibitors Phase 4
31 Nasal Decongestants Phase 4,Phase 3
32 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
33 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
34 Trace Elements Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
35 Vasoconstrictor Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
36 Anesthetics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
37 Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
38 Ophthalmic Solutions Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
39 Angiogenesis Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
40 Parasympatholytics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
41 Angiogenesis Modulating Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
42 Vitamins Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
43 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
44 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
45 Anti-Asthmatic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
46
Echothiophate Iodide Phase 4 6736-03-4 10547
47 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
48 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
49 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
50 Anti-Infective Agents, Local Phase 4,Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 669)

# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A New More Efficient Cycloplegia Scheme Unknown status NCT02177539 Phase 4 Cyclopentolate;Cyclopentolate+tropicamide+phenylephrine
2 Clinical Evaluation of Toric Intraocular Lens Made by Aurolab Unknown status NCT01396616 Phase 4
3 Echothiophate Iodide for the Prevention of Progression of Myopia Unknown status NCT02544529 Phase 4 Echothiophate Iodide 0.03% Ophthalmic Solution;Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium (0.5%)
4 A Prospective Safety and Effectiveness Study of a New High Repetition Rate Excimer Laser Using LASIK for the Correction of Ammetropia and Presbyopia Unknown status NCT02112968 Phase 4
5 A Prospective Safety and Effectiveness Study of the 500 Hz Technolas Perfect Vision Excimer Laser Using LASIK Unknown status NCT02071576 Phase 4
6 A Prospective Safety and Effectiveness Study of the 500 Hz Technolas Perfect Vision Excimer Laser in Asian Eyes Using LASIK Unknown status NCT01977807 Phase 4
7 Prospective Investigation of SUPRACOR Visual Outcomes of Presbyopic Hyperopic Patients With and Without Astigmatism Unknown status NCT01628146 Phase 4
8 Multi Laser Platform Comparison Study for LASIK Unknown status NCT00770094 Phase 4
9 Study of Myopia Prevention in Children With Low Concentration of Atropine Unknown status NCT00541177 Phase 4 atropine;tropicamide
10 Effect of Posterior Corneal Toricity on Refractive Outcome of Pseudophakia Unknown status NCT01554761 Phase 4
11 Ranibizumab for Myopic Neovascularization Unknown status NCT01246089 Phase 4 ranibizumab injection
12 Comparative Study of Two Marketed Spherical Soft Contact Lenses Completed NCT01582789 Phase 4
13 Effect of Contact Lens Wear on Immune Cell Density and Morphology of the Ocular Surface Completed NCT01250925 Phase 4 ReNu MultiPlus® MultiPurpose Solution;OPTI-FREE® RepleniSH®;Clear Care®
14 Anterior Stromal Changes After PRK by Using Intraoperative Mitomicin C Completed NCT00599950 Phase 4 Mitomycin C and Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK)
15 A Study of Interventions to Reduce Disability From Visual Loss in Nursing Home Residents Completed NCT00348621 Phase 4
16 Effect of Orthokeratology Versus Spectacles on Myopia Progression in Chinese Children: A Crossover Trial Completed NCT02186184 Phase 4
17 Clinical Evaluation of HPT Treated Rigid Contact Lenses Made From Roflufocon D Completed NCT02553681 Phase 4
18 Evaluation of CooperVision Avaira Toric (Enfilcon A) Soft Contact Lens When Compared to Acuvue Advance Toric Soft Contact Lens Completed NCT01706770 Phase 4
19 Ocular Responses to Short and Long-term Lens Wear Completed NCT00722891 Phase 4
20 Contact Lens Wettability Completed NCT00349063 Phase 4 Soft contact lens multipurpose disinfection regimen
21 Clinical Performance of Habitual Hydrogel vs. Silicone Hydrogel Toric Contact Lenses Completed NCT02142361 Phase 4
22 Clinical Performance of Biofinity Toric Versus Air Optix for Astigmatism Completed NCT01965288 Phase 4
23 Prospective Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Femtosecond Laser-assisted Refractive Astigmatic Keratotomy. Completed NCT01885780 Phase 4
24 Evaluation of the Post-LASIK Flap Thickness of the FS200 Femtosecond Laser Flap Completed NCT01693939 Phase 4
25 Clinical Evaluation of Biofinity Multifocal Compared With Air Optix Aqua Multifocal and With PureVision Multifocal Completed NCT01591499 Phase 4
26 Presbyopic Supracor Treatment for Near Myopic/Hyperopic Pseudophakic Eyes Completed NCT01387360 Phase 4
27 Intrastromal Corneal Ring for High Astigmatism on Postkeratoplasty Completed NCT01018797 Phase 4
28 Daily Wear Corneal Infiltrative Event Study Completed NCT00937105 Phase 4
29 Contralateral Comparison of Three Excimer Laser Systems in Performing LASIK Completed NCT00821236 Phase 4
30 Ten-year Follow-up of Laser in Situ Keratomileusis in Patients 8 to 15 Years Old Completed NCT00800774 Phase 4
31 Evaluation of the Prophylactic Use of Mitomycin C 0.02% to Inhibit Haze Formation After Photorefractive Keratectomy for High Myopia: 15 x 30 Seconds Completed NCT00564213 Phase 4 PRK and a single intraoperative topical application of mitomycin C 0.02% for 15 seconds
32 Corneal and Conjunctival Sensitivity and Staining Study Completed NCT00455455 Phase 4 Optifree RepleniSH Multipurpose Disinfecting Solution;ReNu Multiplus Multipurpose Solution
33 A Comparison of PRK and LASIK for Correction of Myopia Completed NCT00404105 Phase 4
34 Comparison of Acular LS Versus Nevanac for Pain Control in Eyes Undergoing PRK Completed NCT00347204 Phase 4 ketorolac (Acular LS);Nepafenac (Nevanac)
35 Randomized Comparison of the Abbott WHITESTAR Signature System With Ellips Tranversal Ultrasound vs. the Alcon Infiniti With the Ozil Torsional Handpiece in Phacoemulsification: A Contralaterally-Controlled Trial Completed NCT01279031 Phase 4
36 Three Intraocular Lenses Designed to Improve Distance, Intermediate and Near Vision Following Lens Extraction Completed NCT01225952 Phase 4
37 AcrySof Toric Clinical Results Completed NCT01214863 Phase 4
38 A Comparison of Visual Function After Bilateral Implantation of Presbyopia-correcting Intraocular Lenses (IOLs) Completed NCT01166971 Phase 4
39 Presbyopia-Correcting Intraocular Lenses (IOLs) Completed NCT00963560 Phase 4
40 Use of Toric Intraocular Lens to Neutralize Keratometric Astigmatism Completed NCT00925886 Phase 4
41 Safety and Effectiveness of the Akreos Toric Intraocular Lens. Completed NCT00825513 Phase 4
42 Comparison of Toric IOL Implantation and Opposite Clear Corneal Incision During Cataract Surgery to Correct Corneal Astigmatism Completed NCT01763151 Phase 4
43 Bevacizumab Intravitreal for Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization Completed NCT00797992 Phase 4 Injection
44 A Study Raindrop Near Vision Inlay in Presbyopes Implanted in Corneal Pockets Recruiting NCT03326869 Phase 4
45 Comparison of Next Generation Laser Techniques of Myopia Correction: iDesign vs. SMILE Recruiting NCT03001401 Phase 4
46 Comparison of Outcomes With Multifocal Intraocular Lenses Recruiting NCT02678962 Phase 4
47 A Study to Evaluate the Raindrop Near Vision Inlay Under Flap or Within Pocket Recruiting NCT03376412 Phase 4
48 A Prospective Study to Evaluate the Raindrop Near Vision Inlay With Mitomycin C Recruiting NCT03242317 Phase 4 Mitomycin C
49 A Prospective Study to Evaluate the Raindrop Near Vision Inlay in Presbyopic Patients With Treatments to Optimize the Ocular Surface Before Implantation Recruiting NCT03126877 Phase 4 Mitomycin C
50 A Prospective, Contralateral, Eye to Eye Comparison of SMILE Surgery to LASIK Surgery Recruiting NCT03067077 Phase 4

Search NIH Clinical Center for Refractive Error

Cochrane evidence based reviews: refractive errors

Genetic Tests for Refractive Error

Anatomical Context for Refractive Error

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Refractive Error:

38
Eye, Retina, Endothelial, Testes, Brain, Bone

Publications for Refractive Error

Articles related to Refractive Error:

(show top 50) (show all 685)
# Title Authors Year
1
Prevalence of refractive error, presbyopia, and unmet need of spectacle coverage in a northern district of Bangladesh: Rapid Assessment of Refractive Error study. ( 28976783 )
2018
2
Longitudinal changes in intraocular pressure and association with systemic factors and refractive error: Lingtou Eye Cohort Study. ( 29444785 )
2018
3
The Interrelationship between Refractive Error, Blood Vessel Anatomy, and Glaucomatous Visual Field Loss. ( 29359110 )
2018
4
Knowledge, attitude and associated factors among primary school teachers regarding refractive error in school children in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia. ( 29447172 )
2018
5
Uncorrected and corrected refractive error experiences of Nepalese adults: a qualitative study. ( 28985110 )
2018
6
Refractive error is associated with intracranial volume. ( 29317746 )
2018
7
The difference between cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic autorefraction and its association with progression of refractive error in Beijing urban children. ( 28503812 )
2017
8
Choroidal Thickness Variation According to Refractive Error Measured by Spectral Domain-optical Coherence Tomography in Korean Children. ( 28367044 )
2017
9
Refractive error in underserved adults: causes and potential solutions. ( 28379859 )
2017
10
Refractive error study in young subjects: results from a rural area in Paraguay. ( 28393041 )
2017
11
Refractive Error in a Sample of Black High School Children in South Africa. ( 29120975 )
2017
12
Impact of refractive error on quality of life: a qualitative study. ( 28370795 )
2017
13
The Refractive Error of Professional Baseball Players. ( 28430758 )
2017
14
A review of results after implantation of a secondary intraocular lens to correct residual refractive error after cataract surgery. ( 29042749 )
2017
15
Refractive error change and vision improvement in moderate to severe hyperopic amblyopia after spectacle correction: Restarting the emmetropization process? ( 28423020 )
2017
16
What is the appropriate gold standard test for refractive error? ( 28211178 )
2017
17
Refractive error in Chinese with type 2 diabetes and its association with glycaemic control. ( 28975669 )
2017
18
Comparison of noncycloplegic and cycloplegic autorefraction in categorizing refractive error data in children. ( 29110438 )
2017
19
Response to correction of refractive errors and hypoaccommodation in children with congenital Zika syndrome. ( 29066355 )
2017
20
Student-led screening of school children for refractive error correction. ( 28937870 )
2017
21
Ocular biometry and determinants of refractive error in a founder population of European ancestry. ( 28569566 )
2017
22
Treatment coverage rates for refractive error in the National Eye Health survey. ( 28407009 )
2017
23
Ocular Determinants of Refractive Error and Its Age- and Sex-Related Variations in the Chinese American Eye Study. ( 28520882 )
2017
24
Refractive error, through the lens of the patient. ( 28991415 )
2017
25
Effect of simulated refractive error on adult visual acuity for paediatric tests. ( 28656671 )
2017
26
Genetically low vitamin D concentrations and myopic refractive error: a Mendelian randomization study. ( 28586461 )
2017
27
The quality of systematic reviews about interventions for refractive error can be improved: a review of systematic reviews. ( 28870179 )
2017
28
Influence of refractive error on pupillary dynamics in the normal and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) populations. ( 28262507 )
2017
29
Patient-reported Outcomes for Assessment of Quality of Life in Refractive Error: A Systematic Review. ( 29095758 )
2017
30
Correlation of Corneal Biomechanical Stiffness With Refractive Error and Ocular Biometry in a Pediatric Population. ( 28731878 )
2017
31
Associations between Optic Nerve Head-Related Anatomical Parameters and Refractive Error over the Full Range of Glaucoma Severity. ( 28729947 )
2017
32
Refractive error and vision correction in a general sports-playing population. ( 29124780 )
2017
33
Ametropia, retinal anatomy, and OCT abnormality patterns in glaucoma. 1. Impacts of refractive error and interartery angle. ( 29247496 )
2017
34
The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error in urban, suburban, exurban and rural primary school children in Indonesian population. ( 29181324 )
2017
35
The Effect of Spectacle Lenses Containing Peripheral Defocus on Refractive Error and Horizontal Eye Shape in the Guinea Pig. ( 28549092 )
2017
36
In Vivo and Ex Vivo Evaluation of Inflammation and Apoptosis Induced after SMILE Procedures for Different Refractive Error Range. ( 27911101 )
2016
37
Comparison of Refractive Error Changes in Retinopathy of Prematurity Patients Treated with Diode and Red Lasers. ( 26915028 )
2016
38
Piggy back intraocular lens for the correction of buckling surgery-induced refractive error in pseudophakia. ( 28039346 )
2016
39
Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness and its Association with Refractive error in Chinese Children: The Anyang Childhood Eye Study. ( 27082378 )
2016
40
Meta-analysis of gene-environment-wide association scans accounting for education level identifies additional loci for refractive error. ( 27020472 )
2016
41
Effects of Head-Mounted Display on the Oculomotor System and Refractive Error in Normal Adolescents. ( 27281827 )
2016
42
A Meta-Analysis for Association of Maternal Smoking with Childhood Refractive Error and Amblyopia. ( 27247800 )
2016
43
Seven-year incidence of uncorrected refractive error among an elderly Chinese population in Shihpai, Taiwan: The Shihpai Eye Study. ( 26795416 )
2016
44
Review of effects of anti-VEGF treatment on refractive error. ( 28539808 )
2016
45
The Effect of Age, Accommodation, and Refractive Error on the Adult Human Eye. ( 26703933 )
2016
46
Global Vision Impairment and Blindness Due to Uncorrected Refractive Error, 1990-2010. ( 26905537 )
2016
47
The distribution of near point of convergence and its association with age, gender and refractive error: a population-based study. ( 27652584 )
2016
48
Implantable collamer lens for residual refractive error after corneal refractive surgery. ( 27803858 )
2016
49
The SPARCS: a novel assessment of contrast sensitivity and its reliability in patients with corrected refractive error. ( 26758536 )
2016
50
Refractive Error and the Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the South Korean Population. ( 26914445 )
2016

Variations for Refractive Error

Expression for Refractive Error

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Refractive Error.

Pathways for Refractive Error

GO Terms for Refractive Error

Biological processes related to Refractive Error according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 visual perception GO:0007601 8.92 GJD2 MFRP RDH5 ZIC2

Molecular functions related to Refractive Error according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 retinol dehydrogenase activity GO:0004745 8.62 BMP2 RDH5

Sources for Refractive Error

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HGMD
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 MedGen
41 MeSH
42 MESH via Orphanet
43 MGI
45 NCI
46 NCIt
47 NDF-RT
50 NINDS
51 Novoseek
53 OMIM
54 OMIM via Orphanet
58 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via HPO
66 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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