Aliases & Classifications for Refractive Error

MalaCards integrated aliases for Refractive Error:

Name: Refractive Error 12 14
Refractive Errors 52 41 42 69

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9835
ICD10 33 H52.7
MeSH 42 D012030
NCIt 47 C87145
UMLS 69 C0034951

Summaries for Refractive Error

MedlinePlus : 41 the cornea and lens of your eye helps you focus. refractive errors are vision problems that happen when the shape of the eye keeps you from focusing well. the cause could be the length of the eyeball (longer or shorter), changes in the shape of the cornea, or aging of the lens. four common refractive errors are myopia, or nearsightedness - clear vision close up but blurry in the distance hyperopia, or farsightedness - clear vision in the distance but blurry close up presbyopia - inability to focus close up as a result of aging astigmatism - focus problems caused by the cornea the most common symptom is blurred vision. other symptoms may include double vision, haziness, glare or halos around bright lights, squinting, headaches, or eye strain. glasses or contact lenses can usually correct refractive errors. laser eye surgery may also be a possibility. nih: national eye institute

MalaCards based summary : Refractive Error, also known as refractive errors, is related to accommodative esotropia and pilodental dysplasia with refractive errors, and has symptoms including aniseikonia, eye manifestations and visual disturbance. An important gene associated with Refractive Error is TUBB3 (Tubulin Beta 3 Class III). The drugs Cyclopentolate and Ephedrine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, retina and endothelial, and related phenotype is nervous system.

Wikipedia : 72 Refractive error, also known as refraction error, is a problem with focusing of light on the retina due... more...

Related Diseases for Refractive Error

Diseases related to Refractive Error via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 83)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 accommodative esotropia 24.1 BMP2 CASC15 CMSS1 GJD2 KCNQ5 LRPAP1
2 pilodental dysplasia with refractive errors 12.2
3 astigmatism 11.4
4 myopia 11.3
5 amblyopia 11.3
6 presbyopia 11.2
7 esotropia 11.2
8 myopia 21, autosomal dominant 11.0
9 ectopia lentis et pupillae 11.0
10 myopia 23, autosomal recessive 11.0
11 myopia 22, autosomal dominant 11.0
12 myopia 25, autosomal dominant 11.0
13 myopia 24, autosomal dominant 11.0
14 myopia 6 11.0
15 megalocornea 1, x-linked 11.0
16 myopia 14 10.8
17 myopia 8 10.8
18 myopia 9 10.8
19 myopia 10 10.8
20 myopia 7 10.8
21 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 1 10.8
22 myopia 20, autosomal dominant 10.8
23 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 3a 10.8
24 ethylmalonic encephalopathy 10.8
25 corneal disease 10.8
26 ametropic amblyopia 10.8
27 prader-willi syndrome due to paternal 15q11q13 deletion 10.6 LRPAP1 SCO2
28 visual epilepsy 10.5 GJD2 ZNF644
29 hypersensitivity vasculitis 10.4 GJD2 ZNF644
30 strabismus 10.4
31 cataract 10.4
32 retinitis 10.2
33 disuse amblyopia 10.2 MFRP TUBB3
34 clubfoot 10.2 LRPAP1 PRIMPOL SCO2 SLC39A5 ZNF644
35 keratoconus 10.1
36 anisometropia 10.1
37 eye disease 10.1
38 ptosis 10.1
39 down syndrome 10.0
40 choroiditis 10.0
41 cycloplegia 9.9
42 albinism 9.9
43 endotheliitis 9.9
44 nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy 9.8
45 ischemic optic neuropathy 9.8
46 exotropia 9.8
47 neuropathy 9.8
48 congenital nystagmus 9.8
49 color vision deficiency 9.8
50 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 9.7

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Refractive Error:



Diseases related to Refractive Error

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Refractive Error

UMLS symptoms related to Refractive Error:


aniseikonia, eye manifestations, visual disturbance

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Refractive Error:

44
id Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system MP:0003631 9.32 BMP2 GJD2 KCNQ5 LRPAP1 MFRP MMP2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Refractive Error

Drugs for Refractive Error (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 202)
id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Cyclopentolate Approved Phase 4,Phase 1 512-15-2 2905
2
Ephedrine Approved Phase 4 299-42-3 9294
3
Oxymetazoline Approved Phase 4 1491-59-4 4636
4
Phenylephrine Approved Phase 4 59-42-7 6041
5
Pseudoephedrine Approved Phase 4 90-82-4 7028
6
Tropicamide Approved Phase 4,Phase 2 1508-75-4 5593
7
Atropine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1 5908-99-6, 51-55-8 174174
8
Dipivefrin Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 52365-63-6 3105
9
Hyaluronic acid Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 9004-61-9 53477741 24759
10
Ranibizumab Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 347396-82-1 459903
11
Ketorolac Approved Phase 4 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
12
Nepafenac Approved Phase 4 78281-72-8 151075
13
Bevacizumab Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1 216974-75-3
14
Iodine Investigational Phase 4 7553-56-2 807
15 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
16 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
17 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
18 Autonomic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
19 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
20 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
21 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
22 Mydriatics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Early Phase 1
23 Nasal Decongestants Phase 4
24 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
25 Parasympatholytics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
26 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
27 Protective Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
28 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
29 Vasoconstrictor Agents Phase 4
30 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
31 Anti-Infective Agents, Local Phase 4,Phase 2
32 cadexomer iodine Phase 4
33 Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
34 Cathartics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
35 Cholinesterase Inhibitors Phase 4
36
Echothiophate Iodide Phase 4 6736-03-4 10547
37 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
38 Laxatives Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
39 Micronutrients Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
40 Ophthalmic Solutions Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
41 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
42 Trace Elements Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
43 Adjuvants, Anesthesia Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
44 Anesthetics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
45 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
46 Anti-Asthmatic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
47 Bronchodilator Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
48 Proxymetacaine Phase 4
49 Angiogenesis Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
50 Angiogenesis Modulating Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 638)

id Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A New More Efficient Cycloplegia Scheme Unknown status NCT02177539 Phase 4 Cyclopentolate;Cyclopentolate+tropicamide+phenylephrine
2 Clinical Evaluation of Toric Intraocular Lens Made by Aurolab Unknown status NCT01396616 Phase 4
3 Echothiophate Iodide for the Prevention of Progression of Myopia Unknown status NCT02544529 Phase 4 Echothiophate Iodide 0.03% Ophthalmic Solution;Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium (0.5%)
4 A Prospective Safety and Effectiveness Study of a New High Repetition Rate Excimer Laser Using LASIK for the Correction of Ammetropia and Presbyopia Unknown status NCT02112968 Phase 4
5 A Prospective Safety and Effectiveness Study of the 500 Hz Technolas Perfect Vision Excimer Laser Using LASIK Unknown status NCT02071576 Phase 4
6 A Prospective Safety and Effectiveness Study of the 500 Hz Technolas Perfect Vision Excimer Laser in Asian Eyes Using LASIK Unknown status NCT01977807 Phase 4
7 Prospective Investigation of SUPRACOR Visual Outcomes of Presbyopic Hyperopic Patients With and Without Astigmatism Unknown status NCT01628146 Phase 4
8 Multi Laser Platform Comparison Study for LASIK Unknown status NCT00770094 Phase 4
9 Study of Myopia Prevention in Children With Low Concentration of Atropine Unknown status NCT00541177 Phase 4 atropine;tropicamide
10 Effect of Posterior Corneal Toricity on Refractive Outcome of Pseudophakia Unknown status NCT01554761 Phase 4
11 Ranibizumab for Myopic Neovascularization Unknown status NCT01246089 Phase 4 ranibizumab injection
12 Comparative Study of Two Marketed Spherical Soft Contact Lenses Completed NCT01582789 Phase 4
13 Effect of Contact Lens Wear on Immune Cell Density and Morphology of the Ocular Surface Completed NCT01250925 Phase 4 ReNu MultiPlus® MultiPurpose Solution;OPTI-FREE® RepleniSH®;Clear Care®
14 Anterior Stromal Changes After PRK by Using Intraoperative Mitomicin C Completed NCT00599950 Phase 4 Mitomycin C and Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK)
15 A Study of Interventions to Reduce Disability From Visual Loss in Nursing Home Residents Completed NCT00348621 Phase 4
16 Clinical Evaluation of HPT Treated Rigid Contact Lenses Made From Roflufocon D Completed NCT02553681 Phase 4
17 Evaluation of CooperVision Avaira Toric (Enfilcon A) Soft Contact Lens When Compared to Acuvue Advance Toric Soft Contact Lens Completed NCT01706770 Phase 4
18 Ocular Responses to Short and Long-term Lens Wear Completed NCT00722891 Phase 4
19 Contact Lens Wettability Completed NCT00349063 Phase 4 Soft contact lens multipurpose disinfection regimen
20 Prospective Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Femtosecond Laser-assisted Refractive Astigmatic Keratotomy. Completed NCT01885780 Phase 4
21 A Comparison of PRK and LASIK for Correction of Myopia Completed NCT00404105 Phase 4
22 Contralateral Comparison of Three Excimer Laser Systems in Performing LASIK Completed NCT00821236 Phase 4
23 Clinical Performance of Habitual Hydrogel vs. Silicone Hydrogel Toric Contact Lenses Completed NCT02142361 Phase 4
24 Clinical Performance of Biofinity Toric Versus Air Optix for Astigmatism Completed NCT01965288 Phase 4
25 Evaluation of the Post-LASIK Flap Thickness of the FS200 Femtosecond Laser Flap Completed NCT01693939 Phase 4
26 Clinical Evaluation of Biofinity Multifocal Compared With Air Optix Aqua Multifocal and With PureVision Multifocal Completed NCT01591499 Phase 4
27 Presbyopic Supracor Treatment for Near Myopic/Hyperopic Pseudophakic Eyes Completed NCT01387360 Phase 4
28 Intrastromal Corneal Ring for High Astigmatism on Postkeratoplasty Completed NCT01018797 Phase 4
29 Daily Wear Corneal Infiltrative Event Study Completed NCT00937105 Phase 4
30 Ten-year Follow-up of Laser in Situ Keratomileusis in Patients 8 to 15 Years Old Completed NCT00800774 Phase 4
31 Evaluation of the Prophylactic Use of Mitomycin C 0.02% to Inhibit Haze Formation After Photorefractive Keratectomy for High Myopia: 15 x 30 Seconds Completed NCT00564213 Phase 4 PRK and a single intraoperative topical application of mitomycin C 0.02% for 15 seconds
32 Corneal and Conjunctival Sensitivity and Staining Study Completed NCT00455455 Phase 4 Optifree RepleniSH Multipurpose Disinfecting Solution;ReNu Multiplus Multipurpose Solution
33 Comparison of Acular LS Versus Nevanac for Pain Control in Eyes Undergoing PRK Completed NCT00347204 Phase 4 ketorolac (Acular LS);Nepafenac (Nevanac)
34 AcrySof Toric Clinical Results Completed NCT01214863 Phase 4
35 Presbyopia-Correcting Intraocular Lenses (IOLs) Completed NCT00963560 Phase 4
36 A Comparison of Visual Function After Bilateral Implantation of Presbyopia-correcting Intraocular Lenses (IOLs) Completed NCT01166971 Phase 4
37 Three Intraocular Lenses Designed to Improve Distance, Intermediate and Near Vision Following Lens Extraction Completed NCT01225952 Phase 4
38 Randomized Comparison of the Abbott WHITESTAR Signature System With Ellips Tranversal Ultrasound vs. the Alcon Infiniti With the Ozil Torsional Handpiece in Phacoemulsification: A Contralaterally-Controlled Trial Completed NCT01279031 Phase 4
39 Use of Toric Intraocular Lens to Neutralize Keratometric Astigmatism Completed NCT00925886 Phase 4
40 Safety and Effectiveness of the Akreos Toric Intraocular Lens. Completed NCT00825513 Phase 4
41 Comparison of Toric IOL Implantation and Opposite Clear Corneal Incision During Cataract Surgery to Correct Corneal Astigmatism Completed NCT01763151 Phase 4
42 Bevacizumab Intravitreal for Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization Completed NCT00797992 Phase 4 Injection
43 Effect of Orthokeratology Versus Spectacles on Myopia Progression in Chinese Children: A Crossover Trial Recruiting NCT02186184 Phase 4
44 Comparison of Next Generation Laser Techniques of Myopia Correction: iDesign vs. SMILE Recruiting NCT03001401 Phase 4
45 Comparison of Outcomes With Multifocal Intraocular Lenses Recruiting NCT02678962 Phase 4
46 High Resolution Wavefront-guided vs. Wavefront Optimized LASIK Recruiting NCT02565537 Phase 4
47 A Prospective Study to Evaluate the Raindrop Near Vision Inlay With Mitomycin C Recruiting NCT03242317 Phase 4 Mitomycin C
48 A Prospective Study to Evaluate the Raindrop Near Vision Inlay in Presbyopic Patients With Treatments to Optimize the Ocular Surface Before Implantation Recruiting NCT03126877 Phase 4 Mitomycin C
49 A Prospective Study To Evaluate The Raindrop Near Vision Inlay In Presybopic Patients Treated With Mitomycin C Following Femtosecond Flap Creation. Recruiting NCT03101501 Phase 4 Mitomycin c
50 A Prospective, Contralateral, Eye to Eye Comparison of SMILE Surgery to LASIK Surgery Recruiting NCT03067077 Phase 4

Search NIH Clinical Center for Refractive Error

Cochrane evidence based reviews: refractive errors

Genetic Tests for Refractive Error

Anatomical Context for Refractive Error

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Refractive Error:

39
Eye, Retina, Endothelial, Testes, Brain, Bone

Publications for Refractive Error

Articles related to Refractive Error:

(show top 50) (show all 669)
id Title Authors Year
1
Refractive error in underserved adults: causes and potential solutions. ( 28379859 )
2017
2
Choroidal Thickness Variation According to Refractive Error Measured by Spectral Domain-optical Coherence Tomography in Korean Children. ( 28367044 )
2017
3
Treatment coverage rates for refractive error in the National Eye Health survey. ( 28407009 )
2017
4
Ocular biometry and determinants of refractive error in a founder population of European ancestry. ( 28569566 )
2017
5
Impact of refractive error on quality of life: a qualitative study. ( 28370795 )
2017
6
Student-led screening of school children for refractive error correction. ( 28937870 )
2017
7
Influence of refractive error on pupillary dynamics in the normal and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) populations. ( 28262507 )
2017
8
Correlation of Corneal Biomechanical Stiffness With Refractive Error and Ocular Biometry in a Pediatric Population. ( 28731878 )
2017
9
The difference between cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic autorefraction and its association with progression of refractive error in Beijing urban children. ( 28503812 )
2017
10
The quality of systematic reviews about interventions for refractive error can be improved: a review of systematic reviews. ( 28870179 )
2017
11
Refractive error study in young subjects: results from a rural area in Paraguay. ( 28393041 )
2017
12
Genetically low vitamin D concentrations and myopic refractive error: a Mendelian randomization study. ( 28586461 )
2017
13
The Effect of Spectacle Lenses Containing Peripheral Defocus on Refractive Error and Horizontal Eye Shape in the Guinea Pig. ( 28549092 )
2017
14
Associations between Optic Nerve Head-Related Anatomical Parameters and Refractive Error over the Full Range of Glaucoma Severity. ( 28729947 )
2017
15
Refractive error change and vision improvement in moderate to severe hyperopic amblyopia after spectacle correction: Restarting the emmetropization process? ( 28423020 )
2017
16
Effect of simulated refractive error on adult visual acuity for paediatric tests. ( 28656671 )
2017
17
The Refractive Error of Professional Baseball Players. ( 28430758 )
2017
18
What is the appropriate gold standard test for refractive error? ( 28211178 )
2017
19
Ocular Determinants of Refractive Error and Its Age- and Sex-Related Variations in the Chinese American Eye Study. ( 28520882 )
2017
20
Accuracy and Utility of Self-report of Refractive Error. ( 27197004 )
2016
21
Mechanism for a Rare, Idiosyncratic Complication Following Hyperopic LASIK: Diurnal Shift in Refractive Error Due to Epithelial Thickness Profile Changes. ( 27304599 )
2016
22
"Refractive Errors and Amblyopia in the UCLA Preschool Vision Program; First Year Results". ( 27640004 )
2016
23
A Meta-Analysis for Association of Maternal Smoking with Childhood Refractive Error and Amblyopia. ( 27247800 )
2016
24
Fixation Stability and Refractive Error After Cataract Surgery in Highly Myopic Eyes. ( 27325397 )
2016
25
Longitudinal Development of Refractive Error in Children With Accommodative Esotropia: Onset, Amblyopia, and Anisometropia. ( 27116548 )
2016
26
In Vivo and Ex Vivo Evaluation of Inflammation and Apoptosis Induced after SMILE Procedures for Different Refractive Error Range. ( 27911101 )
2016
27
Exploration and detection of potential regulatory variants in refractive error GWAS. ( 27604318 )
2016
28
Comparison between focometer and autorefractor in the measurement of refractive error among students in underserved community of sub-Saharan Africa. ( 27518551 )
2016
29
Long-Term Changes in Refractive Error and Clinical Evaluation in Partially Accommodative Esotropia after Surgery. ( 27936115 )
2016
30
Global Patterns in Health Burden of Uncorrected Refractive Error. ( 27893092 )
2016
31
Piggy back intraocular lens for the correction of buckling surgery-induced refractive error in pseudophakia. ( 28039346 )
2016
32
Effects of Head-Mounted Display on the Oculomotor System and Refractive Error in Normal Adolescents. ( 27281827 )
2016
33
Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness and its Association with Refractive error in Chinese Children: The Anyang Childhood Eye Study. ( 27082378 )
2016
34
The Effect of Age, Accommodation, and Refractive Error on the Adult Human Eye. ( 26703933 )
2016
35
Rapid assessment of refractive error in the eThekwini Municipality of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. ( 27161520 )
2016
36
Age, gender and refractive error association with intraocular pressure in healthy Saudi participants: A cross-sectional study. ( 26949358 )
2016
37
Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study. ( 27380979 )
2016
38
Seven-year incidence of uncorrected refractive error among an elderly Chinese population in Shihpai, Taiwan: The Shihpai Eye Study. ( 26795416 )
2016
39
Myopia, Just a Refractive Error? ( 26704135 )
2016
40
Visual acuity and refractive status of Omani students with refractive error in grades 1, 4 and 7: A retrospective cohort study. ( 27013825 )
2016
41
Fixation Stability and Refractive Error After Cataract Surgery in High Myopic Eyes. ( 27702439 )
2016
42
Topographic determination of corneal asphericity as a function of age, gender, and refractive error. ( 27600511 )
2016
43
The SPARCS: a novel assessment of contrast sensitivity and its reliability in patients with corrected refractive error. ( 26758536 )
2016
44
Meta-analysis of gene-environment-wide association scans accounting for education level identifies additional loci for refractive error. ( 27020472 )
2016
45
Age-Specific Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Refractive Error in Children Aged 3-10 Years in Shanghai, China. ( 27842160 )
2016
46
Relation of anthropometric measurements to ocular biometric changes and refractive error in children with thalassemia. ( 27834467 )
2016
47
Refractive Results: Safety and Efficacy of Secondary Piggyback Sensara8c AR40 Intraocular Lens Implantation to Correct Pseudophakic Refractive Error. ( 27313869 )
2016
48
Childhood gene-environment interactions and age-dependent effects of genetic variants associated with refractive error and myopia: The CREAM Consortium. ( 27174397 )
2016
49
Comparison of Refractive Error Changes in Retinopathy of Prematurity Patients Treated with Diode and Red Lasers. ( 26915028 )
2016
50
Prevalence and Risk Factors for Refractive Error in Adult Chinese Americans: The Chinese American Eye Study. ( 27769895 )
2016

Variations for Refractive Error

Expression for Refractive Error

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Refractive Error.

Pathways for Refractive Error

GO Terms for Refractive Error

Biological processes related to Refractive Error according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 visual perception GO:0007601 8.92 GJD2 MFRP RDH5 ZIC2

Molecular functions related to Refractive Error according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 retinol dehydrogenase activity GO:0004745 8.62 BMP2 RDH5

Sources for Refractive Error

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 MedGen
42 MeSH
43 MESH via Orphanet
44 MGI
46 NCI
47 NCIt
48 NDF-RT
51 NINDS
52 Novoseek
54 OMIM
55 OMIM via Orphanet
59 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via HPO
66 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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