MCID: RNL017
MIFTS: 49

Renal Oncocytoma

Categories: Rare diseases, Genetic diseases, Nephrological diseases, Cancer diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Renal Oncocytoma

MalaCards integrated aliases for Renal Oncocytoma:

Name: Renal Oncocytoma 37 12 49 14
Oncocytoma, Renal 41 69
Renal Epithelial Oncocytic Tumor 12
Oncocytoma of Kidney 12
Oncocytoma Kidney 49
Oncocytoma Renal 49

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:6245
MeSH 41 C537750
NCIt 46 C4526
SNOMED-CT 64 254922006
UMLS 69 C0346255

Summaries for Renal Oncocytoma

NIH Rare Diseases : 49 Renal oncocytoma is a benign (noncancerous) growth of the kidney. They generally do not cause any signs or symptoms and are often discovered incidentally (by chance) while a person is undergoing diagnostic imaging for other conditions. Some people with renal oncocytoma will have abdominal or flank pain; blood in the urine; and/or an abdominal mass. Although these tumors can occur in people of all ages, they most commonly develop in men who are over age 50. The exact underlying cause of most isolated (single tumor affecting one kidney) renal oncocytomas is unknown; however, multiple and bilateral (affecting both kidneys) renal oncocytomas sometimes occur in people with certain genetic syndromes such as tuberous sclerosis complex and Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome. Although many benign tumors do not require treatment unless they are causing unpleasant symptoms, it can be difficult to confidently differentiate a renal oncocytoma from renal cell carcinoma. Most affected people are, therefore, treated with surgery which allows for confirmation of the diagnosis. Last updated: 3/29/2016

MalaCards based summary : Renal Oncocytoma, also known as oncocytoma, renal, is related to oncocytoma and renal cell carcinoma, papillary, 1. An important gene associated with Renal Oncocytoma is FLCN (Folliculin), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Dendritic Cells Developmental Lineage Pathway. The drugs Radiopharmaceuticals and Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include kidney, t cells and brain, and related phenotypes are homeostasis/metabolism and renal/urinary system

Wikipedia : 72 A renal oncocytoma is a tumour of the kidney made up of oncocytes, a special kind of... more...

Related Diseases for Renal Oncocytoma

Diseases in the Renal Oncocytoma family:

Familial Renal Oncocytoma

Diseases related to Renal Oncocytoma via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 102)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 oncocytoma 30.9 CAV1 CDH16 CLDN8 FLCN KIT KRT7
2 renal cell carcinoma, papillary, 1 29.8 CDH16 KIT KRT7 MME
3 chromophobe renal cell carcinoma 29.4 CDH16 CLDN8 EPCAM FLCN KIT KRT7
4 adenocarcinoma 29.3 EPCAM KIT MST1R
5 renal cell carcinoma, nonpapillary 28.7 CDH16 CLDN8 EPCAM FLCN KIT KRT7
6 familial renal oncocytoma 12.3
7 birt-hogg-dube syndrome 11.0
8 jejunal cancer 10.4 KIT KRT7
9 cribriform carcinoma 10.4 KIT KRT7
10 malignant mixed mullerian tumor 10.4 KIT KRT7
11 adenoid basal cell carcinoma 10.4 KIT KRT7
12 intratubular embryonal carcinoma 10.4 KIT KRT7
13 warthin tumor 10.4 KIT KRT7
14 pleomorphic carcinoma 10.4 KIT KRT7
15 balloon cell malignant melanoma 10.4 KRT7 MME
16 cervical adenoma malignum 10.4 KRT7 MME
17 cervical mucinous adenocarcinoma 10.4 KRT7 MME
18 clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma 10.4 KRT7 MME
19 dermoid cyst 10.4 KIT KRT7
20 bladder lymphoma 10.4 KRT7 MME
21 breast adenomyoepithelioma 10.4 KRT7 MME
22 adenomyoma 10.4 KRT7 MME
23 breast myoepithelial neoplasm 10.4 KRT7 MME
24 benign breast phyllodes tumor 10.4 KIT MME
25 necrotizing sialometaplasia 10.3 KIT KRT7
26 rete testis adenocarcinoma 10.3 KIT MME
27 cystic nephroma 10.3 KIT MME
28 perivascular epithelioid cell tumor 10.3 KIT MME
29 mucinous tubular and spindle renal cell carcinoma 10.3 KRT7 MME
30 large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma 10.3 KIT KRT7
31 papillary hidradenoma 10.3 KIT MME
32 infiltrative basal cell carcinoma 10.3 KRT7 MME
33 spindle cell synovial sarcoma 10.3 KIT KRT7
34 adenosarcoma 10.3 KIT MME
35 malignant biphasic mesothelioma 10.3 EPCAM KRT7
36 integumentary system benign neoplasm 10.3 KRT7 MME
37 rete testis neoplasm 10.3 KIT MME
38 cystadenofibroma 10.3 KRT7 MME
39 collecting duct carcinoma 10.3 KRT7 MME
40 pancreatic mucinous cystadenoma 10.3 KRT7 MME
41 polycystic liver disease 1 10.3 FLCN KRT7
42 smooth muscle tumor 10.3 KIT MME
43 nephrogenic adenofibroma 10.2 KRT7 MME
44 malignant epithelial mesothelioma 10.2 EPCAM KRT7
45 uterine sarcoma 10.2 KIT MME
46 gastrointestinal system benign neoplasm 10.2 KIT KRT7
47 bile duct adenocarcinoma 10.2 EPCAM KRT7
48 papillary adenocarcinoma 10.1 KRT7 MST1R
49 malignant leydig cell tumor 10.1 KIT KRT7 MME
50 mixed cell type cancer 10.1 KIT KRT7 MME

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Renal Oncocytoma:



Diseases related to Renal Oncocytoma

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Renal Oncocytoma

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Renal Oncocytoma:

43
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.61 CAV1 CLDN8 EPCAM FLCN KIT KRT7
2 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.1 CAV1 CLDN8 FLCN KIT KRT7 SDHB

Drugs & Therapeutics for Renal Oncocytoma

Drugs for Renal Oncocytoma (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):


# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Radiopharmaceuticals
2 Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Metastatic Kidney Cancer Active, not recruiting NCT01767636 Phase 2 Pazopanib Hydrochloride
2 Study of 99mTc-Sestamibi SPECT/CT Imaging for the Preoperative Diagnosis of Renal Oncocytoma Recruiting NCT02160925
3 Evaluation of Diagnostic Value of Molecular Markers in Renal Cancer Terminated NCT00491621

Search NIH Clinical Center for Renal Oncocytoma

Cochrane evidence based reviews: oncocytoma, renal

Genetic Tests for Renal Oncocytoma

Anatomical Context for Renal Oncocytoma

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Renal Oncocytoma:

38
Kidney, T Cells, Brain, Prostate, Liver, Thyroid, Testis

Publications for Renal Oncocytoma

Articles related to Renal Oncocytoma:

(show top 50) (show all 366)
# Title Authors Year
1
Next-Generation Sequencing to Detect Deletion of RB1 and ERBB4 Genes in Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Potential Role in Distinguishing Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma from Renal Oncocytoma. ( 29353061 )
2018
2
Contemporary Surgical Management of Renal Oncocytoma: A nation's outcome. ( 29397002 )
2018
3
Giant renal oncocytoma with classic stellate scar. ( 28130290 )
2017
4
Increased Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase and Cystathionine-I^-Synthase in Renal Oncocytomas, Renal Urothelial Carcinoma, and Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma. ( 28668830 )
2017
5
Renal oncocytoma characterized by the defective complex I of the respiratory chain boosts the synthesis of the ROS scavenger glutathione. ( 29285300 )
2017
6
Re: The Genomic Landscape of Renal Oncocytoma Identifies a Metabolic Barrier to Tumorigenesis. ( 29370653 )
2017
7
Renal oncocytoma in a cat with chronic renal failure. ( 28491452 )
2017
8
Modern Pathologic Diagnosis of Renal Oncocytoma. ( 29090117 )
2017
9
Remote Development of Tumor-to-Tumor Metastasis of Breast Adenocarcinoma in a Renal Oncocytoma. ( 28551171 )
2017
10
Liver Metastases From Renal Oncocytoma With Vascular Extension. ( 28682831 )
2017
11
Renal Oncocytoma with Vascular Invasion: A Series of 22 Cases. ( 27498062 )
2016
12
Complex MAX Rearrangement in a Family With Malignant Pheochromocytoma, Renal Oncocytoma, and Erythrocytosis. ( 26670126 )
2016
13
Renal oncocytoma: A report of two cases and review of the literature. ( 27347140 )
2016
14
Bladder leiomyoma in male patient presenting with renal oncocytoma: Are the two conditions related? ( 27453673 )
2016
15
Renal Oncocytoma With Perinephric Fat Invasion. ( 27170678 )
2016
16
Renal oncocytoma, small cell variant, with pseudorosettes, showing cyclin D1 expression and tubulovesicular cristae of mitochondria. ( 27076064 )
2016
17
Voxel-based whole-lesion enhancement parameters: a study of its clinical value in differentiating clear cell renal cell carcinoma from renal oncocytoma. ( 27595574 )
2016
18
A systematic review and meta-analysis of immunohistochemical biomarkers that differentiate chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from renal oncocytoma. ( 26951082 )
2016
19
Active surveillance is suitable for intermediate term follow-up of renal oncocytoma diagnosed by percutaneous core biopsy. ( 27457972 )
2016
20
The clinicopathological, ultrastructural, genetic features and diagnosis of small cell variant renal oncocytoma. ( 25935740 )
2015
21
Differentiation of renal oncocytoma and renal clear cell carcinoma using relative CT enhancement ratio. ( 25591558 )
2015
22
DOG1, cyclin D1, CK7, CD117 and vimentin are useful immunohistochemical markers in distinguishing chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from clear cell renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma. ( 25596994 )
2015
23
Supremacy of modern morphometry in typing renal oncocytoma and malignant look-alikes. ( 25929744 )
2015
24
Comparative study of CT appearances in renal oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. ( 25972369 )
2015
25
Dilemmas in diagnosis and natural history of renal oncocytoma and implications for management. ( 26664505 )
2015
26
Mitochondrial DNA mutations distinguish bilateral multifocal renal oncocytomas from familial Birt-Hogg-Dube tumors. ( 26428318 )
2015
27
The Genomic Landscape of Renal Oncocytoma Identifies a Metabolic Barrier to Tumorigenesis. ( 26655904 )
2015
28
HNF1I^ and S100A1 are useful biomarkers for distinguishing renal oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in FNA and core needle biopsies. ( 25739652 )
2015
29
Cystic Renal Oncocytoma and Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Morphologic and Immunohistochemical Comparative Study. ( 26180933 )
2015
30
TGF-I^1 expression in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma. ( 24704995 )
2014
31
An interesting case of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography avid renal oncocytoma. ( 24735168 )
2014
32
Renal oncocytoma: A diagnostic dilemma on cytology. ( 25190989 )
2014
33
Papillary renal cell carcinoma within a renal oncocytoma: Case report of very rare coexistence. ( 25553171 )
2014
34
C-kit overexpression is not associated with KIT gene mutations in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma or renal oncocytoma. ( 24875296 )
2014
35
Diagnostic accuracy of segmental enhancement inversion for diagnosis of renal oncocytoma at biphasic contrast enhanced CT: systematic review. ( 24663821 )
2014
36
Diagnostic accuracy of segmental enhancement inversion for the diagnosis of renal oncocytoma using biphasic computed tomography (CT) and multiphase contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). ( 25027841 )
2014
37
Ultrasonographic features of renal oncocytoma with histopathologic correlation. ( 24449166 )
2014
38
Renal oncocytoma with invasive histopathologic features -a88 case report. ( 24739051 )
2014
39
Giant renal oncocytoma. ( 23401933 )
2013
40
Tumour-to-tumour metastases: prostate carcinoma metastasising to a renal oncocytoma. ( 23307454 )
2013
41
BCA2 is differentially expressed in renal oncocytoma: an analysis of 158 renal neoplasms. ( 23242606 )
2013
42
Telangiectatic oncocytoma: a previously undescribed variant of renal oncocytoma. ( 23765540 )
2013
43
Cannabinoid CB1 receptor is expressed in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma. ( 23318578 )
2013
44
Renal oncocytoma: contrast-enhanced sonographic features. ( 23443184 )
2013
45
Giant renal oncocytoma. ( 23692817 )
2013
46
Simultaneous renal oncocytoma and lymphoma: interest of lymphadenectomy. ( 23984175 )
2013
47
Primary penile melanoma with an incidental renal oncocytoma. ( 24031073 )
2013
48
Segmental enhancement inversion of small renal oncocytoma: differences in prevalence according to tumor size. ( 23617489 )
2013
49
The Management Of A Concomitant Renal Oncocytoma, Giant Coronary And Bilateral Common Iliac Artery Aneurysms. ( 24200531 )
2013
50
LMP2, a novel immunohistochemical marker to distinguish renal oncocytoma from the eosinophilic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. ( 22705098 )
2013

Variations for Renal Oncocytoma

Cosmic variations for Renal Oncocytoma:

9 (show all 28)
# Cosmic Mut ID Gene Symbol COSMIC Disease Classification
(Primary site, Site subtype, Primary histology, Histology subtype)
Mutation CDS Mutation AA Conf
1 COSM25680 VHL kidney,NS,carcinoma,oncocytic c.563T>G p.L188R 7
2 COSM26012 UBR4 kidney,NS,carcinoma,oncocytic c.4564G>A p.A1522T 7
3 COSM25647 SMC6 kidney,NS,carcinoma,oncocytic c.2911-1G>C p.? 7
4 COSM130403 SF3B1 kidney,NS,carcinoma,oncocytic c.3122G>A p.R1041H 7
5 COSM28419 MDH1 kidney,NS,carcinoma,oncocytic c.894G>C p.K298N 7
6 COSM27600 FOXA2 kidney,NS,carcinoma,oncocytic c.72C>T p.G24G 7
7 COSM26015 ALDH7A1 kidney,NS,carcinoma,oncocytic c.1486A>G p.I496V 7
8 COSM25676 VHL kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell c.485G>T p.C162F 6
9 COSM27269 UMPS kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell c.528G>A p.L176L 6
10 COSM30474 TRIO kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell c.9008A>G p.N3003S 6
11 COSM26594 RNF144A kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell c.410C>T p.A137V 6
12 COSM26987 RGS7 kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell c.169T>C p.F57L 6
13 COSM26614 RABGAP1 kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell c.1533T>A p.H511Q 6
14 COSM30530 PTPN22 kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell c.209G>C p.R70P 6
15 COSM27618 KMT2A kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell c.5711C>T p.A1904V 6
16 COSM30502 ITPR3 kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell c.4574G>T p.C1525F 6
17 COSM28415 DOCK1 kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell c.1306G>T p.D436Y 6
18 COSM30531 COPS4 kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell c.385G>C p.G129R 6
19 COSM25654 CDC5L kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell c.1196G>A p.R399Q 6
20 COSM30471 ARHGAP20 kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell c.1355A>G p.D452G 6
21 COSM17983 VHL kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell carcinoma unclassified c.500G>A p.R167Q 5
22 COSM14312 VHL kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell carcinoma unclassified c.353T>C p.L118P 5
23 COSM17957 VHL kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell carcinoma unclassified c.292T>G p.Y98D 5
24 COSM14382 VHL kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell carcinoma unclassified c.245G>C p.R82P 5
25 COSM14305 VHL kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell carcinoma unclassified c.266T>A p.L89H 5
26 COSM17875 VHL kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell carcinoma unclassified c.234T>G p.N78K 5
27 COSM14425 VHL kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell carcinoma unclassified c.341-2A>T p.? 5
28 COSM52899 PBRM1 kidney,NS,carcinoma,renal cell carcinoma unclassified c.3805A>T p.K1269* 5

Expression for Renal Oncocytoma

LifeMap Discovery
Genes differentially expressed in tissues of Renal Oncocytoma patients vs. healthy controls: 35 (show top 50) (show all 310)
# Gene Description Tissue Up/Dn Fold Change (log2) P value
1 ACSM2A acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 2A Kidney - 11.65 0.000
2 ALDOB aldolase B, fructose-bisphosphate Kidney - 9.16 0.000
3 NAT8 N-acetyltransferase 8 (GCN5-related, putative) Kidney - 9.12 0.000
4 GLYAT glycine-N-acyltransferase Kidney - 8.92 0.000
5 CTXN3 cortexin 3 Kidney - 8.72 0.000
6 ALDH8A1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 8 family, member A1 Kidney - 8.58 0.000
7 SLC12A1 solute carrier family 12 (sodium/potassium/chloride transporter), member 1 Kidney - 8.51 0.000
8 HPD 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase Kidney - 8.48 0.000
9 FABP1 fatty acid binding protein 1, liver Kidney - 8.41 0.000
10 GSTA1 glutathione S-transferase alpha 1 Kidney - 8.32 0.000
11 CFTR cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (ATP-binding cassette sub-family C, member 7) Kidney + 8.25 0.000
12 CXCL14 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 14 Kidney - 8.13 0.000
13 PLG plasminogen Kidney - 8.11 0.000
14 MUC15 mucin 15, cell surface associated Kidney - 8.04 0.000
15 ACMSD aminocarboxymuconate semialdehyde decarboxylase Kidney - 7.88 0.000
16 CALB1 calbindin 1, 28kDa Kidney - 7.86 0.000
17 RNF128 ring finger protein 128, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase Kidney - 7.83 0.000
18 FMO1 flavin containing monooxygenase 1 Kidney - 7.79 0.000
19 UGT2B28 UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2 family, polypeptide B28 Kidney - 7.75 0.000
20 PAH phenylalanine hydroxylase Kidney - 7.75 0.000
21 KCNJ1 potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 1 Kidney - 7.71 0.000
22 G6PC glucose-6-phosphatase, catalytic subunit Kidney - 7.61 0.000
23 SCNN1G sodium channel, non voltage gated 1 gamma subunit Kidney - 7.61 0.000
24 AGXT2 alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 Kidney - 7.60 0.000
25 AQP6 aquaporin 6, kidney specific Kidney + 7.57 0.000
26 SLC16A9 solute carrier family 16, member 9 Kidney - 7.57 0.000
27 ALB albumin Kidney - 7.54 0.000
28 PDZK1IP1 PDZK1 interacting protein 1 Kidney - 7.52 0.000
29 MFSD4 major facilitator superfamily domain containing 4 Kidney - 7.44 0.000
30 MIOX myo-inositol oxygenase Kidney - 7.39 0.000
31 ENPP6 ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 6 Kidney - 7.33 0.000
32 SLC7A13 solute carrier family 7 (anionic amino acid transporter), member 13 Kidney - 7.29 0.000
33 TMEM37 transmembrane protein 37 Kidney - 7.26 0.000
34 UGT3A1 UDP glycosyltransferase 3 family, polypeptide A1 Kidney - 7.21 0.000
35 LOC100505650 uncharacterized LOC100505650 Kidney - 7.19 0.000
36 ANPEP alanyl (membrane) aminopeptidase Kidney - 7.17 0.000
37 FAM151A family with sequence similarity 151, member A Kidney - 7.15 0.000
38 C1S complement component 1, s subcomponent Kidney - 7.01 0.000
39 CLRN3 clarin 3 Kidney - 6.96 0.000
40 EHF ets homologous factor Kidney - 6.86 0.000
41 SLC13A3 solute carrier family 13 (sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter), member 3 Kidney - 6.86 0.000
42 MGAM maltase-glucoamylase Kidney - 6.85 0.000
43 TMEM255A transmembrane protein 255A Kidney + 6.84 0.000
44 TMEM45B transmembrane protein 45B Kidney - 6.80 0.000
45 CYP4A11 cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily A, polypeptide 11 Kidney - 6.78 0.000
46 BHMT betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase Kidney - 6.77 0.000
47 NPHS2 nephrosis 2, idiopathic, steroid-resistant (podocin) Kidney - 6.77 0.000
48 IRX2 iroquois homeobox 2 Kidney - 6.75 0.000
49 GLYATL1 glycine-N-acyltransferase-like 1 Kidney - 6.73 0.000
50 MT1F metallothionein 1F Kidney - 6.70 0.000
Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Renal Oncocytoma.

Pathways for Renal Oncocytoma

Pathways related to Renal Oncocytoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 10.67 EPCAM KIT MME

GO Terms for Renal Oncocytoma

Cellular components related to Renal Oncocytoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 plasma membrane GO:0005886 9.28 CAV1 CDH16 CLDN8 EPCAM FLCN KIT
2 basolateral plasma membrane GO:0016323 9.13 CDH16 CLDN8 EPCAM

Biological processes related to Renal Oncocytoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 stem cell differentiation GO:0048863 8.96 EPCAM KIT
2 cellular response to peptide hormone stimulus GO:0071375 8.62 CAV1 MAX

Molecular functions related to Renal Oncocytoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 protein complex binding GO:0032403 9.13 EPCAM FLCN MAX
2 structural molecule activity GO:0005198 8.8 CAV1 CLDN8 KRT7

Sources for Renal Oncocytoma

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HGMD
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 MedGen
41 MeSH
42 MESH via Orphanet
43 MGI
45 NCI
46 NCIt
47 NDF-RT
50 NINDS
51 Novoseek
53 OMIM
54 OMIM via Orphanet
58 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via HPO
66 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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