MCID: RNL011
MIFTS: 45

Renal Osteodystrophy malady

Categories: Rare diseases, Nephrological diseases, Bone diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Renal Osteodystrophy

Aliases & Descriptions for Renal Osteodystrophy:

Name: Renal Osteodystrophy 12 52 14 69
Renal Rickets 12 50 69
Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder 42

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13068
ICD10 33 N25.0
ICD9CM 35 588.0
MeSH 42 D012080
NCIt 47 C114827
UMLS 69 C0035086

Summaries for Renal Osteodystrophy

MalaCards based summary : Renal Osteodystrophy, also known as renal rickets, is related to end stage renal failure and chronic kidney failure. An important gene associated with Renal Osteodystrophy is PTH (Parathyroid Hormone), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways and Development IGF-1 receptor signaling. The drugs Sevelamer and Pamidronate have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone, kidney and bone marrow, and related phenotype is endocrine/exocrine gland.

Wikipedia : 71 Renal osteodystrophy is currently defined as an alteration of bone morphology in patients with chronic... more...

Related Diseases for Renal Osteodystrophy

Diseases related to Renal Osteodystrophy via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 105)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 end stage renal failure 11.2
2 chronic kidney failure 11.2
3 hyperparathyroidism 10.3
4 peritonitis 10.3
5 hypochondrogenesis 10.2 BGLAP PTH
6 toxicodendron dermatitis 10.2 BGLAP PTH
7 deafness, nonsyndromic, modifier 1 10.2 CASR VDR
8 striatonigral degeneration 10.2 CASR PTH
9 familial chronic myelocytic leukemia-like syndrome 10.2 CASR PTH
10 obesity, severe bmiq9 10.2 BGLAP PTH
11 mitochondrial dna depletion syndrome 6 10.2 CASR VDR
12 orbit lymphoma 10.2 FGF23 PTH
13 osteochondrodysplasia 10.2 PTH VDR
14 opthalmoplegia mental retardation lingua scrotalis 10.2 FGF23 PTH
15 joubert syndrome 9 10.2 FGF23 PTH
16 intracranial thrombosis 10.2 BGLAP PTH
17 endemic goiter 10.2 BGLAP CALCA
18 listeria meningitis 10.2 CASR TNFRSF11B
19 atrial heart septal defect 10.1 CALCA PTH
20 phacolytic glaucoma 10.1 BGLAP CALCA
21 high-grade dysplasia in patients with barrett esophagus 10.1 BGLAP CASR VDR
22 kidney disease 10.1
23 y chromosome detection 10.1 BGLAP PTH VDR
24 phka2-related phosphorylase kinase deficiency 10.1 CALCA TNFRSF11B
25 birk-barel mental retardation dysmorphism syndrome 10.1 CALCA TNFRSF11B
26 cowper gland carcinoma 10.1 CASR PTH
27 prostate cancer, hereditary, x-linked 2 10.1 FGF23 VDR
28 prediabetes syndrome 10.1 BGLAP FGF23 PTH
29 opportunistic bacterial infectious disease 10.1 BGLAP FGF23 PTH
30 coffin-lowry syndrome 10.1 FGF23 PTH VDR
31 parathyroid gland disease 10.1 CASR FGF23 PTH
32 chromosomal disease 10.1 BGLAP PTH TNFRSF11B
33 ovarian endometrioid cystadenoma 10.1 CALCA PTH
34 epilepsy, idiopathic generalized 14 10.1 BGLAP FGF23 TNFRSF11B
35 pancreas adenocarcinoma 10.1 BGLAP PTH TNFRSF11B
36 glossitis 10.1 CALCA TNFRSF11B
37 central hypoventilation syndrome, congenital 10.1 CALCA PTH
38 deafness, autosomal recessive 42 10.1 CALCA CASR VDR
39 mental retardation, autosomal recessive 35 10.1 BGLAP TNFRSF11B
40 adult ependymoblastoma 10.1 BGLAP CALCA PTH
41 chronic myocardial ischemia 10.1 FGF23 PTH VDR
42 hypophosphatasia, adult 10.1 BGLAP CALCA PTH
43 epidermolysis bullosa, junctional, herlitz type 10.1 CALCA CASR PTH
44 axial osteomalacia 10.0 BGLAP CALCA FGF23
45 salpingo-oophoritis 10.0 BGLAP CALCA
46 lung giant cell carcinoma 10.0 CASR FGF23 PTH
47 preretinal fibrosis 10.0 BGLAP CALCA TNFRSF11B
48 toenail dystrophy, isolated 10.0 CALCA FGF23 PTH
49 stickler syndrome 10.0 CALCA PTH TNFRSF11B
50 dentin dysplasia 10.0 CALCA VDR

Comorbidity relations with Renal Osteodystrophy via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Acute Cystitis Acute Kidney Failure
Chronic Kidney Failure Deficiency Anemia
Heart Disease Ischemic Heart Disease
Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Renal Osteodystrophy:



Diseases related to Renal Osteodystrophy

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Renal Osteodystrophy

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Renal Osteodystrophy:

44
id Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.1 PTH VDR CASR FGF23 IGFBP4 IGFBP5

Drugs & Therapeutics for Renal Osteodystrophy

Drugs for Renal Osteodystrophy (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 60)
id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Sevelamer Approved Phase 4,Phase 2 52757-95-6, 152751-57-0 3085017
2
Pamidronate Approved Phase 4 40391-99-9 4674
3
Zoledronic acid Approved Phase 4 118072-93-8 68740
4
Ergocalciferol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 50-14-6 5280793
5
Cholecalciferol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 67-97-0 6221 10883523 5280795
6 1 alpha-hydroxyergocalciferol Phase 4,Phase 2
7 Bone Density Conservation Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
8 Ergocalciferols Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
9 Micronutrients Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
10 Trace Elements Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
11 vitamin d Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
12 Vitamins Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
13 Diphosphonates Phase 4
14 Ibandronic acid Phase 4
15 Liver Extracts Phase 4
16 Hormones Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
17 Calciferol Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
18 Vitamin D2 Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
19
Magnesium Hydroxide Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 1309-42-8
20 Calcifediol Phase 3 19356-17-3
21 Calcium, Dietary Phase 3,Phase 2
22 Hydroxycholecalciferols Phase 3
23 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 3
24 Vaccines Phase 2, Phase 3
25 Calcimimetic Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
26 Cinacalcet Hydrochloride Phase 3,Phase 2
27 Hormone Antagonists Phase 3,Phase 2
28 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 3,Phase 2
29
Calcium carbonate Approved Phase 2 471-34-1
30
Calcitriol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 2 32222-06-3 134070 5280453
31
Folic Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 1, Phase 2 59-30-3 6037
32
Niacin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 1, Phase 2 59-67-6 938
33
Nicotinamide Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 1, Phase 2 98-92-0 936
34 Antacids Phase 2
35 Anti-Ulcer Agents Phase 2
36 Chelating Agents Phase 2
37 Dihydroxycholecalciferols Phase 2
38 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 2
39 Vasoconstrictor Agents Phase 2
40 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 2
41 insulin Phase 2
42 Insulin, Globin Zinc Phase 2
43 Antimetabolites Phase 1, Phase 2
44 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
45 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
46 Nicotinic Acids Phase 1, Phase 2
47 Vasodilator Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
48 Vitamin B Complex Phase 1, Phase 2
49 Phytosterol Nutraceutical Phase 2
50 Folate Nutraceutical Phase 1, Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 40)
id Name Status NCT ID Phase
1 How Bone is Made in Children Receiving Dialysis Unknown status NCT01799317 Phase 4
2 Osteopenia and Renal Osteodystrophy: Evaluation and Management Completed NCT00108394 Phase 4
3 Zoledronic Acid to Prevent Bone Loss After Kidney Transplantation Completed NCT01675089 Phase 4
4 The Prevalence of Osteoporosis in Hemodialysis Patients Completed NCT00308828 Phase 4
5 Prospective Study of Profile of Hepatic Osteodystrophy in Patients With Non-Choleastatic Liver Cirrhosis and Impact of Bisphosphonate Supplementation Completed NCT02249741 Phase 4
6 Cholecalciferol Supplementation in Restless Leg Syndrome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Recruiting NCT03063190 Phase 4
7 Vitamin D3 Substitution in Vitamin D Deficient Kidney Transplant Recipients Unknown status NCT00752401 Phase 3
8 Impact of a Multidisciplinary Intensive Management Clinic on Outcomes in Multi-Ethnic Asian Incident Hemodialysis Patients Unknown status NCT01509690 Phase 2, Phase 3
9 Protecting Young Special Risk Females From Cervical Cancer Through Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Vaccination Completed NCT00964210 Phase 3
10 Treatment of Autonomous Hyperparathyroidism in Post Renal Transplant Recipients Completed NCT00975000 Phase 3
11 Effect of Oral Magnesium on Vascular Calcification in Chronic Kidney Disease Recruiting NCT02542319 Phase 2, Phase 3
12 12-month Study of AMG 073 in Renal Osteodystrophy Completed NCT00527085 Phase 2
13 Regulation of Bone Formation in Renal Osteodystrophy Completed NCT00560300 Phase 2
14 Phase II Randomized Study of the Effects of Growth Hormone on Children and Adolescents on Maintenance Dialysis Completed NCT00004340 Phase 2
15 Chewed vs. Crushed Lanthanum Carbonate in Hemodialysis Patients Completed NCT00660530 Phase 2
16 Vitamin D, Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in ESRD Completed NCT00656032 Phase 2
17 The Effect of Oral Niacinamide on Plasma Phosphorus Levels in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients Completed NCT00508885 Phase 1, Phase 2
18 Kidney Yin/Yang Replenishment on Patients With Renal Osteodystrophy Withdrawn NCT01665651 Phase 2
19 Efficacy of Phosphate Binding in Healthy Volunteers: Chewed Versus Crushed Lanthanum Carbonate Completed NCT00458289 Phase 1
20 The Effect of Oral Niacinamide on Serum Phosphorus Levels in Hemodialysis Patients Completed NCT00316472 Phase 1
21 Serum Sclerostin Levels, Cardiovascular Parameters and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients Unknown status NCT01382966
22 The Effect of Parathyroidectomy on Renal Function, Endothelial Function, and Blood Pressure Unknown status NCT00452049
23 Renal Osteodystrophy: A Fresh Approach Completed NCT00859612
24 Low Magnitude Mechanical Stimuli Effects on Bone Structure in ESRD Completed NCT00364234
25 Cholecalciferol Versus Doxercalciferol in the Treatment of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Chronic Kidney Disease Completed NCT00285467
26 Serum Uremic Toxins and Histological Findings of the Blood Vessels in Dialysis Patients Completed NCT00412139
27 Analysis of Bone Microarchitecture With HR-pQCT of Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Candidates for Renal Transplantation Completed NCT02523209
28 Randomized Trial of Risedronate to Prevent Bone Loss in Renal Transplant Recipients. Completed NCT00266708
29 A Prospective Cohort Study to Describe the Evolution of Persistent Hyperparathyroidism in Kidney Transplant Recipients Completed NCT01163669
30 A Study to Follow-up Patients With End Stage Renal Disease Undergoing Hemodialysis, Receiving Selective Vitamin D Receptor Activator's for Prevention and Treatment of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Completed NCT01149291
31 Early-onset Obesity and Cognitive Impairment in Children With Pseudohypoparathyroidism Completed NCT02411461
32 Renal Osteodystrophy: An Individual Management Approach Recruiting NCT02440581
33 Clinical Observation on Bone Metabolism Induced by Chronic Renal Insufficiency Recruiting NCT02147782
34 Systematic Study of Parameters of Chronic Kidney Disease Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) Recruiting NCT02556216
35 Bone Microarchitecture in the Transplant Patient Recruiting NCT02729142
36 Chronic Kidney Disease and Bone - Correlation Between 18F-PET-TT Imaging and Histomorphometry of Bone in CKD Patients Recruiting NCT02967042
37 Resistance to Vitamin D or Parathyroid Hormone Recruiting NCT00001242
38 Effectiveness of Probiotics to Treat End Stage Renal Disease Not yet recruiting NCT02929225
39 Klotho Gene Polymorphism in Dialyzed Patients With Hyperphosphatemia Terminated NCT00374712
40 Treatment of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in the Uremic Patient Terminated NCT00469599

Search NIH Clinical Center for Renal Osteodystrophy

Cochrane evidence based reviews: chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder

Genetic Tests for Renal Osteodystrophy

Anatomical Context for Renal Osteodystrophy

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Renal Osteodystrophy:

39
Bone, Kidney, Bone Marrow, Testes, Spinal Cord, Cortex

Publications for Renal Osteodystrophy

Articles related to Renal Osteodystrophy:

(show top 50) (show all 531)
id Title Authors Year
1
Serum phosphorus adds to value of serum parathyroid hormone for assessment of bone turnover in renal osteodystrophy. ( 27191663 )
2016
2
Only minor differences in renal osteodystrophy features between wild-type and sclerostin knockout mice with chronic kidney disease. ( 27528549 )
2016
3
Challenges of cervical reconstruction for destructive spondyloarthropathy in renal osteodystrophy. ( 27052255 )
2016
4
Turning over renal osteodystrophy dogma: direct actions of FGF23 on osteoblast I^-catenin pathway. ( 27312441 )
2016
5
Bone Canopies in Pediatric Renal Osteodystrophy. ( 27045269 )
2016
6
Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with end-stage renal disease and the development of high-turnover renal osteodystrophy in a Chinese population. ( 27323177 )
2016
7
Study of renal osteodystrophy in chronic kidney disease. ( 27728490 )
2016
8
Emerging role of high resolution imaging in the detection of renal osteodystrophy. ( 27042945 )
2016
9
Micro-CT in the Assessment of Pediatric Renal Osteodystrophy by Bone Histomorphometry. ( 26712809 )
2016
10
The role of bone biopsy for the diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy: a short overview and future perspectives. ( 27473148 )
2016
11
Therapeutic effect of CNP on renal osteodystrophy by antagonizing the FGF-23/MAPK pathway. ( 26459742 )
2016
12
Correction: Bone Canopies in Pediatric Renal Osteodystrophy. ( 27167735 )
2016
13
A rare manifestation of renal osteodystrophy in a non-compliant hemodialysis child: Questions. ( 25966785 )
2015
14
Multiple periradicular radiolucencies mimicking endodontic lesions in renal osteodystrophy of the mandible: a case report. ( 26199041 )
2015
15
Severe maxillofacial renal osteodystrophy in two patients with chronic kidney disease. ( 25784153 )
2015
16
A rare manifestation of renal osteodystrophy in a non-compliant child on hemodialysis: Answers. ( 25966786 )
2015
17
Is renal osteodystrophy a neglected entity? ( 24596811 )
2014
18
Anti-Sclerostin Antibody Treatment in a Rat Model of Progressive Renal Osteodystrophy. ( 25407607 )
2014
19
Effects of unfractionated heparin on renal osteodystrophy and vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease rats. ( 24145307 )
2014
20
Renal osteodystrophy in children: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. ( 24553631 )
2014
21
Bilateral hip arthritis in a case of renal osteodystrophy. ( 24554674 )
2014
22
Severe renal osteodystrophy in early infancy. ( 26052218 )
2014
23
Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of maxillofacial lesions in renal osteodystrophy. ( 24902107 )
2014
24
Bilateral spontaneous fracturing of the femoral neck in a patient with renal osteodystrophy. ( 26229859 )
2014
25
Oral manifestations in a renal osteodystrophy patient - a case report with review of literature. ( 25302278 )
2014
26
Bone biopsy in renal osteodystrophy: continued insights into a complex disease. ( 23318700 )
2013
27
Superscan caused by renal osteodystrophy: Observed on 18F FDG PET/CT scan. ( 24379542 )
2013
28
Recent advances in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy. ( 23802194 )
2013
29
Severe renal osteodystrophy in a pediatric patient with end-stage renal disease: Sagliker syndrome? ( 23026501 )
2013
30
Advanced glycation end products suppress lysyl oxidase and induce bone collagen degradation in a rat model of renal osteodystrophy. ( 23979426 )
2013
31
Prevalence of renal osteodystrophy in african hemodialysis patients. ( 24282802 )
2013
32
Switching between parathormone (PTH) assays: the impact on the diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy. ( 23241601 )
2013
33
Bisphosphonate therapy in renal osteodystrophy--a review. ( 22760876 )
2013
34
Role of TGF-I^ in a Mouse Model of High Turnover Renal Osteodystrophy. ( 24166835 )
2013
35
Differences in bone quality in low- and high-turnover renal osteodystrophy. ( 22193385 )
2012
36
Repression of osteocyte Wnt/I^-catenin signaling is an early event in the progression of renal osteodystrophy. ( 22492547 )
2012
37
Metaphyseal bone collapse mimicking slipped capital femoral epiphysis in severe renal osteodystrophy. ( 22969139 )
2012
38
Severe genu valgum deformity and slipped capital femoral epiphysis with renal osteodystrophy: a report of two cases. ( 21607724 )
2012
39
Renal osteodystrophy: neurosurgical considerations and challenges. ( 22120255 )
2012
40
Sclerostin and Dickkopf-1 in renal osteodystrophy. ( 21164019 )
2011
41
The spectrum of orofacial manifestations in renal osteodystrophy: diagnostic challenges of an uncommon presentation. ( 21716979 )
2011
42
Balloon kyphoplasty treatment for a spontaneous vertebral fracture in renal osteodystrophy. ( 22696726 )
2011
43
Comparative study of quantitative ultrasonography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for evaluating renal osteodystrophy in children with chronic kidney disease. ( 20845051 )
2011
44
Vascular calcifications and renal osteodystrophy in chronic hemodialysis patients: what is the relationship between them? ( 20862543 )
2011
45
Renal osteodystrophy in the first decade of the new millennium: analysis of 630 bone biopsies in black and white patients. ( 21611975 )
2011
46
Renal osteodystrophy secondary to congenital bilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction. ( 22090060 )
2011
47
Value of the new bone classification system in pediatric renal osteodystrophy. ( 20634327 )
2010
48
Bone cell biology and pediatric renal osteodystrophy. ( 20467380 )
2010
49
Four extremity fractures in a patient with renal osteodystrophy. ( 20214705 )
2010
50
Vitamin D inhibition of TACE and prevention of renal osteodystrophy and cardiovascular mortality. ( 20359533 )
2010

Variations for Renal Osteodystrophy

Expression for Renal Osteodystrophy

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Renal Osteodystrophy.

Pathways for Renal Osteodystrophy

GO Terms for Renal Osteodystrophy

Cellular components related to Renal Osteodystrophy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.76 BGLAP CALCA FGF23 IGFBP1 IGFBP4 IGFBP5
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.5 BGLAP CALCA FGF23 IGFBP1 IGFBP4 PTH
3 endoplasmic reticulum lumen GO:0005788 9.02 BGLAP FGF23 IGFBP1 IGFBP4 IGFBP5

Biological processes related to Renal Osteodystrophy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 23)
id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 post-translational protein modification GO:0043687 9.78 FGF23 IGFBP1 IGFBP4 IGFBP5
2 aging GO:0007568 9.67 BGLAP CALCA IGFBP1 IGFBP5
3 positive regulation of cAMP biosynthetic process GO:0030819 9.61 CALCA PTH
4 adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007189 9.61 CALCA PTH
5 negative regulation of osteoblast differentiation GO:0045668 9.6 FGF23 IGFBP5
6 vasodilation GO:0042311 9.58 CALCA CASR
7 response to vitamin D GO:0033280 9.58 BGLAP PTH
8 regulation of glucose metabolic process GO:0010906 9.57 IGFBP4 IGFBP5
9 regulation of bone mineralization GO:0030500 9.56 BGLAP FGF23
10 cellular calcium ion homeostasis GO:0006874 9.56 CALCA CASR PTH VDR
11 positive regulation of ossification GO:0045778 9.55 CALCA PTH
12 cellular protein metabolic process GO:0044267 9.55 CALCA FGF23 IGFBP1 IGFBP4 IGFBP5
13 response to inorganic substance GO:0010035 9.54 BGLAP TNFRSF11B
14 response to magnesium ion GO:0032026 9.52 FGF23 TNFRSF11B
15 positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0043568 9.51 IGFBP4 IGFBP5
16 negative regulation of bone resorption GO:0045779 9.49 CALCA TNFRSF11B
17 type B pancreatic cell proliferation GO:0044342 9.46 IGFBP4 IGFBP5
18 regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0043567 9.43 IGFBP1 IGFBP4
19 response to fibroblast growth factor GO:0071774 9.4 CASR PTH
20 positive regulation of vitamin D 24-hydroxylase activity GO:0010980 9.32 FGF23 VDR
21 cellular response to vitamin D GO:0071305 9.13 BGLAP CASR FGF23
22 skeletal system development GO:0001501 9.02 BGLAP IGFBP4 PTH TNFRSF11B VDR
23 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.07 CASR IGFBP1 IGFBP4 IGFBP5 TNFRSF11B VDR

Molecular functions related to Renal Osteodystrophy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth factor binding GO:0019838 9.43 IGFBP1 IGFBP4 IGFBP5
2 insulin-like growth factor binding GO:0005520 9.33 IGFBP1 IGFBP4 IGFBP5
3 insulin-like growth factor I binding GO:0031994 9.13 IGFBP1 IGFBP4 IGFBP5
4 insulin-like growth factor II binding GO:0031995 8.8 IGFBP1 IGFBP4 IGFBP5

Sources for Renal Osteodystrophy

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 MedGen
42 MeSH
43 MESH via Orphanet
44 MGI
46 NCI
47 NCIt
48 NDF-RT
51 NINDS
52 Novoseek
54 OMIM
55 OMIM via Orphanet
59 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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