MCID: SCH015
MIFTS: 77

Schizophrenia malady

Neuronal diseases category

Summaries for Schizophrenia

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8Disease Ontology, 33MedlinePlus, 63Wikipedia, 46OMIM, 32MalaCards
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MedlinePlus:33 Schizophrenia is a serious brain illness. people who have it may hear voices that aren't there. they may think other people are trying to hurt them. sometimes they don't make sense when they talk. the disorder makes it hard for them to keep a job or take care of themselves. symptoms of schizophrenia usually start between ages 16 and 30. men often develop symptoms at a younger age than women. people usually do not get schizophrenia after age 45. there are three types of symptoms: psychotic symptoms distort a person's thinking. these include hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that are not there), delusions (beliefs that are not true), trouble organizing thoughts, and strange movements. "negative" symptoms make it difficult to show emotions and to function normally. a person may seem depressed and withdrawn. cognitive symptoms affect the thought process. these include trouble using information, making decisions, and paying attention. no one is sure what causes schizophrenia. your genes, environment, and brain chemistry may play a role. there is no cure. medicine can help control many of the symptoms. you may need to try different medicines to see which works best. you should stay on your medicine for as long as your doctor recommends. additional treatments can help you deal with your illness from day to day. these include therapy, family education, rehabilitation, and skills training. nih: national institute of mental health

MalaCards: Schizophrenia, also known as schizophrenia, susceptibility to, is related to bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder. An important gene associated with Schizophrenia is DISC1 (disrupted in schizophrenia 1), and among its related pathways is Monoamine GPCRs. The drugs carbamazepine and chlorpromazine and the compounds dopamine and glutamate have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, cortex and prefrontal cortex, and related mouse phenotype behavior/neurological.

Disease Ontology:8 A psychotic disorder that is characterized by a disintegration of thought processes and of emotional responsiveness.

Wikipedia:63 Schizophrenia (/ˌskɪtsɵˈfrɛniə/ or /ˌskɪtsɵˈfriːniə/) is a mental disorder characterized by... more...

Description from OMIM:46 181500,604906,603013

Aliases & Classifications for Schizophrenia

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Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 9diseasecard, 46OMIM, 10DISEASES, 44Novoseek, 33MedlinePlus, 60UMLS, 20GeneTests, 22GTR, 27ICD9CM, 34MeSH, 25ICD10
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Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Anatomical: Neuronal diseases


Aliases & Descriptions:

schizophrenia 8 9 46 10 44 33 60
schizophrenia, susceptibility to 9 20 22
schizophrenia-1 8
schizophrenia 1 60


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:5419
OMIM46 181500
ICD9CM27 295.8, 295.80
MeSH34 D012559
ICD1025 F20, F20.9

Related Diseases for Schizophrenia

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Sources:
17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
See all sources

Diseases in the Schizophrenia family:

Schizophrenia 4 Schizophrenia 12
Schizophrenia 17 Schizophrenia 14
Schizophrenia 16 Schizophrenia 13
Schizophrenia 10 Schizophrenia 15
Early-Onset Schizophrenia

Diseases related to Schizophrenia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 315)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1bipolar disorder31.6COMT, DTNBP1, HTR2A, DRD3, DISC1, NRG1
2schizoaffective disorder31.5COMT, DTNBP1, HTR2A, DRD3, DISC1, TAAR6
3mood disorder30.9COMT, HTR2A, DRD3, DISC1, NRG1, DAOA
4bipolar i disorder30.8DTNBP1
5psychotic disorder30.8COMT, DTNBP1, HTR2A, DRD3, DISC1, NRG1
6dementia30.6HTR2A, COMT
7obsessive-compulsive disorder30.6DRD3, HTR2A, COMT
8alcohol dependence30.5HTR2A
9attention deficit hyperactivity disorder30.5HTR2A, COMT
10antisocial personality disorder30.4HTR2A
11alcohol abuse30.2COMT, DRD3
12panic disorder30.2COMT, HTR2A
13substance dependence30.2DRD3, COMT
14multiple sclerosis30.0RTN4R, NRG1, COMT
15gilles de la tourette syndrome29.6DRD3, HTR2A, COMT
16paranoid schizophrenia11.0
17neuronitis10.7
18personality disorder10.6
19major depressive disorder10.6
20cerebritis10.6
21schizophreniform disorder10.5
22schizotypal personality disorder10.5
23brain disease10.5
24delusional disorder10.4
25substance abuse10.4
26hyperprolactinemia10.4
27alzheimer's disease10.3
28autism spectrum disorder10.3
29borna disease10.3
30nicotine dependence10.3
31childhood-onset schizophrenia10.3
32obesity10.3
33mitochondrial disorders10.3
34cannabis abuse10.3
35learning disability10.3
36parkinson's disease10.2
37mutism10.2
38klinefelter's syndrome10.2
39frontotemporal dementia10.2
40cocaine dependence10.2
41conduct disorder10.2
42anxiety disorder10.2
43sexual disorder10.2
44narcolepsy10.1
45alexithymia10.1
46diabetes mellitus10.1
47speech disorder10.1
48type 2 diabetes mellitus10.1
49schizophrenia 410.1
50marfan syndrome10.0

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Schizophrenia:



Diseases related to schizophrenia

Clinical Features for Schizophrenia

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Sources:
46OMIM
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Clinical features from OMIM:

181500,604906,603013

Clinical synopsis from OMIM:

181500

Genetic Tests for Schizophrenia

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Sources:
20GeneTests, 22GTR
See all sources

Genetic tests related to Schizophrenia:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Schizophrenia20 22 TAAR6

Anatomical Context for Schizophrenia

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Sources:
32MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Schizophrenia:

32
Brain, Cortex, Prefrontal cortex, Testes, Eye, Temporal lobe, Cingulate cortex, Amygdala, Thalamus, Cerebellum, Pituitary, Bone, Olfactory bulb, Endothelial, T cells, Monocytes, Lung, Heart, Caudate nucleus, Whole blood, Thyroid, Skin, Liver, Myeloid, Nk cells, Breast, Prostate, Hypothalamus, Fetal brain

Animal Models for Schizophrenia or affiliated genes

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Sources:
36MGI
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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Schizophrenia:

36
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:000538612.4RTN4R, DAO, NRG1, SYN2, DISC1, DRD3

Publications for Schizophrenia

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Sources:
50PubMed
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Articles related to Schizophrenia:

(show top 50)    (show all 5836)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
In Vivo Evidence for I^2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunit Upregulation in Smokers as Compared with Nonsmokers with Schizophrenia. (24360979)
2013
2
Distinct structural alterations independently contributing to working memory deficits and symptomatology in paranoid schizophrenia. (23040316)
2013
3
Source-based morphometry of gray matter volume in patients with schizophrenia who have persistent auditory verbal hallucinations. (24321225)
2013
4
Comparison of pervasive developmental disorder and schizophrenia by the Japanese version of the National Adult Reading Test. (22335467)
2013
5
Profile of cognitive deficits and associations with depressive symptoms and intelligence in chronic early-onset schizophrenia patients. (23786210)
2013
6
Metabolic changes in first-episode early-onset schizophrenia with second-generation antipsychotics. (23968390)
2013
7
Oversight of constipation in inpatients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study. (23871089)
2013
8
Different distribution patterns of lymphocytes and microglia in the hippocampus of patients with residual versus paranoid schizophrenia: further evidence for disease course-related immune alterations? (22917959)
2012
9
The voices go, but the song remains the same: how can we rescue cognition in early-onset schizophrenia? (22525952)
2012
10
Auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with borderline personality disorder are similar to those in schizophrenia. (22336487)
2012
11
ADHD and Nicotine Use in Schizophrenia and Asperger Syndrome: A Controlled Study. (22498753)
2012
12
Narcolepsy presenting as schizophrenia: a literature review and two case reports. (21637632)
2011
13
Association between suicide attempt and a tri-allelic functional polymorphism in serotonin transporter gene promoter in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. (21964390)
2011
14
Cytochrome P450 testing for prescribing antipsychotics in adults with schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analyses. (20877299)
2011
15
A large replication study and meta-analysis in European samples provides further support for association of AHI1 markers with schizophrenia. (20071346)
2010
16
A functional polymorphism (Ser326Cys) of the human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) gene and schizophrenia. (20304505)
2010
17
Association study of BDNF and DRD3 genes in schizophrenia diagnosis using matched case-control and family based study designs. (20667458)
2010
18
Impact of race on efficacy and safety during treatment with olanzapine in schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder. (21047395)
2010
19
Similar immune profile in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: selective increase in soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I and von Willebrand factor. (19839997)
2009
20
Epistasis between the DAT 3' UTR VNTR and the COMT Val158Met SNP on cortical function in healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. (19666577)
2009
21
Differential association of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism with clinical phenotypes in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. (18571901)
2008
22
FBXL21 association with schizophrenia in Irish family and case-control samples. (18404645)
2008
23
Interactions among genes in the ErbB-Neuregulin signalling network are associated with increased susceptibility to schizophrenia. (17598910)
2007
24
Fine mapping by genetic association implicates the chromosome 1q23.3 gene UHMK1, encoding a serine/threonine protein kinase, as a novel schizophrenia susceptibility gene. (16978587)
2007
25
Association study of a functional promoter polymorphism in the XBP1 gene and schizophrenia. (16342282)
2006
26
DRD2 promoter region variation as a predictor of sustained response to antipsychotic medication in first-episode schizophrenia patients. (16513877)
2006
27
Interpreting the association between cannabis use and increased risk for schizophrenia. (16060598)
2005
28
Relationship of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor TrkB to altered inhibitory prefrontal circuitry in schizophrenia. (15647480)
2005
29
Inhibition of NUDEL (nuclear distribution element-like)- oligopeptidase activity by disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1. (15728732)
2005
30
Schizophrenia as a manifestation of X-linked Mcleod-Neuroacanthocytosis syndrome. (15163264)
2004
31
Polymorphisms within 5' end of the Neuregulin 1 gene are genetically associated with schizophrenia in the Chinese population. (14647391)
2004
32
Support for association of schizophrenia with genetic variation in the 6p22.3 gene, dysbindin, in sib-pair families with linkage and in an additional sample of triad families. (12474144)
2003
33
Correlation between fine motor activity and striatal dopamine D2 receptor density in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. (12928107)
2003
34
Sequence diversity of KIAA0027/MLC1: are megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy and schizophrenia allelic disorders? (12497630)
2003
35
Lower CSF orexin A (hypocretin-1) levels in patients with schizophrenia treated with haloperidol compared to unmedicated subjects. (14515133)
2003
36
Local-global processing in early-onset schizophrenia: evidence for an impairment in shifting the spatial scale of attention. (12633589)
2003
37
Neuroleptic withdrawal in treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia: tardive dyskinesia is not associated with supersensitive psychosis. (12892869)
2003
38
Clara cell secretory protein (CC16) gene polymorphism and schizophrenia in humans. (11154839)
2001
39
Decrease in reelin and glutamic acid decarboxylase67 (GAD67) expression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a postmortem brain study. (11074872)
2000
40
Mutation analysis of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1 subunit gene (GRIN1) in schizophrenia. (11109007)
2000
41
Elevated endogenous cannabinoids in schizophrenia. (10501554)
1999
42
Change in plasma prolactin and clinical response to haloperidol in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. (9829650)
1998
43
First person account: paranoid schizophrenia--a daughter's story. (9502555)
1998
44
The human small conductance calcium-regulated potassium channel gene (hSKCa3) contains two CAG repeats in exon 1, is on chromosome 1q21.3, and shows a possible association with schizophrenia. (10732800)
1998
45
Novel mutations in the promoter and coding region of the human 5-HT1A receptor gene and association analysis in schizophrenia. (9754630)
1998
46
Association study of structural mutations of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene with schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. (9613851)
1998
47
Schizophrenia susceptibility loci on chromosomes 13q32 and 8p21. (9731535)
1998
48
Minor physical anomalies in older patients with late-onset schizophrenia, early-onset schizophrenia, depression, and Alzheimer's disease. (9363288)
1997
49
Investigation of complement C4B deficiency in schizophrenia. (9358016)
1997
50
A study on serum prolactin levels in schizophrenia: correlation with positive and negative symptoms. (8263315)
1993

Genetic Variations for Schizophrenia

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Expression for genes affiliated with Schizophrenia

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1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Schizophrenia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Schizophrenia.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Schizophrenia

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Sources:
37NCBI BioSystems Database, 53Reactome, 49PharmGKB
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Pathways related to Schizophrenia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1
Hide members
11.1TAAR6, DRD3, HTR2A

Compounds for genes affiliated with Schizophrenia

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Sources:
44Novoseek, 28IUPHAR, 11DrugBank, 24HMDB, 49PharmGKB, 59Tocris Bioscience, 2BitterDB
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Compounds related to Schizophrenia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 40)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1dopamine44 28 11 2415.8DAO, COMT, DTNBP1, HTR2A, DRD3, DISC1
2glutamate4412.4COMT, DTNBP1, DRD3, MTHFR, NRG1, DAOA
3proline4411.9COMT, DTNBP1, NRG1, DAOA, DAO
4clozapine44 28 49 1114.8COMT, DTNBP1, HTR2A, DRD3
5ropinirole44 1112.5DRD3, HTR2A, COMT
6pergolide28 44 1113.5COMT, HTR2A, DRD3
7pramipexole44 49 28 1114.5DRD3, HTR2A, COMT
8cabergoline28 44 1113.5DRD3, HTR2A, COMT
9nmda44 2812.5COMT, DAOA, DAO
10paroxetine44 49 28 1114.5DRD3, HTR2A, COMT
11apomorphine44 28 1113.5COMT, HTR2A, DRD3
12risperidone28 44 49 59 11 2416.5DRD3, HTR2A, COMT
13bromocriptine28 44 1113.5DRD3, HTR2A, COMT
14methamphetamine44 49 1113.5COMT, DTNBP1, DRD3
15olanzapine49 44 28 11 2415.5DRD3, HTR2A, COMT
16levodopa44 1112.4COMT, DRD3, MTHFR
17haloperidol44 28 2 49 1115.4DTNBP1, HTR2A, DRD3
18amisulpride44 28 1113.3DRD3, HTR2A
19s330842811.3DRD3, HTR2A
20(+)-butaclamol28 4412.3HTR2A, DRD3
21antipsychotics4911.3MTHFR, COMT
22remoxipride44 1112.3DRD3, HTR2A
23duloxetine44 49 28 1114.2HTR2A, DRD3
24raclopride44 2812.2DRD3, HTR2A
25roxindole28 4412.2DRD3, HTR2A
26Chlorprothixene1111.2DRD3, HTR2A
27terguride28 4412.2DRD3, HTR2A
28spiperone28 4412.2DRD3, HTR2A
29dopac4411.2DRD3, COMT
30piperazine44 1112.1DRD3, HTR2A
31amantadine44 1112.1COMT, DRD3
32maoa4411.1HTR2A, COMT
33pimozide28 49 44 1114.1DRD3, HTR2A
34lisuride28 44 1113.1HTR2A, DRD3
35paliperidone44 1112.0DRD3, HTR2A
36Methotrimeprazine1111.0HTR2A, DRD3
37iloperidone49 44 28 1113.9HTR2A, DRD3
38asenapine28 1111.9DRD3, HTR2A
39quinpirole44 2811.8DRD3, HTR2A
40riboflavin44 11 2412.6DAO, MTHFR

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Schizophrenia

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16Gene Ontology
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Biological processes related to Schizophrenia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1regulation of dopamine secretionGO:01405911.1DRD3, HTR2A, DTNBP1

Products for genes affiliated with Schizophrenia

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Sources for Schizophrenia

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3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
50PubMed
51QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
60UMLS
61UMLS via Orphanet