Aliases & Classifications for Spasticity

Aliases & Descriptions for Spasticity:

Name: Spasticity 51 29

Summaries for Spasticity

NINDS : 51 Spasticity is a condition in which there is an abnormal increase in muscle tone or stiffness of muscle, which might  interfere with movement, speech, or be associated with discomfort or pain.  Spasticity is usually caused by damage to nerve pathways within the brain or spinal cord that control muscle movement. It may occur in association with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, stroke, brain or head trauma, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, hereditary spastic paraplegias, and metabolic diseases such as adrenoleukodystrophy, phenylketonuria, and Krabbe disease. Symptoms may include  (increased muscle tone),  (a series of rapid muscle contractions), exaggerated deep tendon reflexes, muscle spasms,  (involuntary crossing of the legs), and fixed joints (contractures). The degree of spasticity varies from mild muscle stiffness to severe, painful, and uncontrollable muscle spasms. Spasticity can interfere with rehabilitation in patients with certain disorders, and often interferes with daily activities.

MalaCards based summary : Spasticity is related to spastic paraplegia 19 and hydrocephalus. An important gene associated with Spasticity is DARS (Aspartyl-TRNA Synthetase). The drugs Ethanol and Dopamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include spinal cord, t cells and brain.

Wikipedia : 71 Spasticity (from Greek spasmos-, meaning \'drawing, pulling\') is a feature of altered skeletal muscle... more...

Related Diseases for Spasticity

Diseases related to Spasticity via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 675)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 spastic paraplegia 19 32.1 DDHD1 TECPR2
2 hydrocephalus 29.8 DDHD1 KIF1A SPG7 WASHC5
3 tremor 27.0 ATP6AP2 CAPN1 DARS DDHD1 FAR1 GBA2
4 hereditary spastic paraplegia 12.3
5 tropical spastic paraparesis 12.2
6 spastic paraplegia 7, autosomal recessive 12.2
7 spastic paraplegia 2, x-linked 12.2
8 spastic hemiplegia 12.2
9 silver spastic paraplegia syndrome 12.1
10 spastic quadriplegia 12.1
11 spastic diplegia 12.1
12 spastic paraplegia 11, autosomal recessive 12.1
13 spastic paraplegia 35, autosomal recessive 12.1
14 spastic paraplegia 15, autosomal recessive 12.1
15 spastic paraplegia 4 12.1
16 spastic paraplegia 11 12.1
17 spastic paraplegia 54, autosomal recessive 12.1
18 spastic paraplegia 9a, autosomal dominant 12.1
19 infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paralysis 12.1
20 spastic paraplegia 39, autosomal recessive 12.1
21 spastic cerebral palsy 12.1
22 spastic paraplegia 49, autosomal recessive 12.1
23 spastic paraplegia 4, autosomal dominant 12.1
24 spastic paraplegia 72, autosomal recessive 12.1
25 spastic paraplegia 5a, autosomal recessive 12.1
26 spastic paraplegia 43, autosomal recessive 12.1
27 spastic paraplegia 3a, autosomal dominant 12.0
28 spastic paraplegia 10, autosomal dominant 12.0
29 spastic paraplegia 8, autosomal dominant 12.0
30 spastic paraplegia 30, autosomal recessive 12.0
31 spastic paraplegia 56, autosomal recessive 12.0
32 spastic paraplegia 6, autosomal dominant 12.0
33 spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy, and neuropathy 12.0
34 ataxia, spastic, 4 12.0
35 spastic paraplegia 26, autosomal recessive 12.0
36 spastic paraplegia 12, autosomal dominant 12.0
37 spastic paraplegia 53, autosomal recessive 12.0
38 spastic paraplegia 28, autosomal recessive 12.0
39 spastic paraplegia 45, autosomal recessive 12.0
40 hereditary spastic paraplegia 3a 12.0
41 spastic paraplegia 57, autosomal recessive 12.0
42 spastic paraplegia 18, autosomal recessive 12.0
43 spastic paraplegia 55, autosomal recessive 12.0
44 spastic paraplegia 46, autosomal recessive 12.0
45 spastic paraplegia 8 12.0
46 spastic paraplegia 61, autosomal recessive 12.0
47 ataxia, spastic, 5, autosomal recessive 12.0
48 spastic paraplegia 48, autosomal recessive 12.0
49 spastic paraplegia 42, autosomal dominant 12.0
50 spastic paraplegia 63 12.0

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Spasticity:



Diseases related to Spasticity

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Spasticity

Drugs & Therapeutics for Spasticity

Drugs for Spasticity (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 284)
id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Ethanol Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 64-17-5 702
2
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
3
Baclofen Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2 1134-47-0 2284
4
Levodopa Approved Phase 4 59-92-7 6047
5
Acetylcholine Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Early Phase 1 51-84-3 187
6
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 19982-08-2 4054
7
Dronabinol Approved, Illicit Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 1972-08-3 16078 2978
8
Norepinephrine Approved Phase 4 51-41-2 439260
9
Clonidine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2 4205-90-7 2803
10 Piracetam Approved Phase 4,Phase 2 7491-74-9
11
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2 137-58-6 3676
12
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
13
Tizanidine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2 51322-75-9 5487
14
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
15
Iron Approved Phase 4 7439-89-6 23925
16
Deferiprone Approved Phase 4 30652-11-0 2972
17 Analgesics Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
18 calcium channel blockers Phase 4,Phase 3
19 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Early Phase 1
20 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
21 GABA Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
22 Neuromuscular Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Early Phase 1
23 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
24 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Early Phase 1
25 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 1
26 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
27 Dihydroxyphenylalanine Phase 4
28 Peppermint oil Phase 4,Phase 3
29 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Early Phase 1
30 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
31 abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Early Phase 1
32
gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Phase 4 56-12-2 119
33 incobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Early Phase 1
34 onabotulinumtoxinA Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Early Phase 1
35 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2
36 Excitatory Amino Acids Phase 4,Phase 2
37 Anticonvulsants Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
38 Protective Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
39 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
40 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
41 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
42 Autonomic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
43 Botulinum Toxins Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Early Phase 1
44 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Early Phase 1
45 Carbidopa, levodopa drug combination Phase 4
46 Calcium, Dietary Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
47 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 4,Phase 1
48 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
49 Chelating Agents Phase 4,Early Phase 1
50
Serotonin Phase 4,Phase 1 50-67-9 5202

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 592)
id Name Status NCT ID Phase
1 Antispastic Effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients With Cerebral and Spinal Spasticity Unknown status NCT01786005 Phase 4
2 Upper Extremity Rehabilitation Using Robot and Botulinum Toxin Unknown status NCT02228863 Phase 4
3 The Efficacy and Safety of MEDITOXIN® in Children With Cerebral Palsy Unknown status NCT01256021 Phase 4
4 Does Oral Baclofen Improve Care and Comfort in Spastic Children in Nursing Homes? Unknown status NCT00752934 Phase 4
5 The Impact of Botulinum Toxin Treatment in Quality of Life of Cervical Dystonia Patients Unknown status NCT01664013 Phase 4
6 Dopamine Treatment in Children With Cerebral Palsy With Dystonia- A Double Blind Controlled Study Unknown status NCT01361373 Phase 4
7 Functional Electrical Stimulation-Assisted Walking: Reduction of Secondary Complications Due to Spinal Cord Injury Unknown status NCT00201968 Phase 4
8 Vanderbilt University Spasticity Management Program Evaluation Plan Completed NCT00179114 Phase 4
9 SISTERS: Spasticity In Stroke Study - Randomized Study Completed NCT01032239 Phase 4
10 Safety of Xeomin for Lower Limb Spasticity in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Completed NCT01968902 Phase 4
11 Asian Botulinum Clinical Trial Designed for Early Stroke Spasticity Completed NCT00234546 Phase 4
12 BOTOX® Versus Zanaflex® for the Treatment of Post-Stroke or Traumatic Brain Injury Upper Limb Spasticity Completed NCT00430196 Phase 4
13 Effects on Quality of Life Following Dysport Treatment in Post-Stroke Spasticity of the Arm Completed NCT00216411 Phase 4
14 BOTOX® Economic Spasticity Trial (BEST) Completed NCT00549783 Phase 4
15 Study to Assess Impact of Dysport Injections Early After Stroke on Upper Limb Spasticity Progression Completed NCT02321436 Phase 4
16 Memantine for Spasticity in MS Patients Completed NCT00638027 Phase 4
17 Comparative Efficacy of Three Preparations of Botox-A in Treating Spasticity Completed NCT00178646 Phase 4
18 A Randomized Study of Sativex on Cognitive Function and Mood: Multiple Sclerosis Patients Completed NCT01964547 Phase 4
19 Spread And Effectiveness Of Botulinum Neurotoxin A In Spastic Equinus In Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT01276015 Phase 4
20 Botulinum Toxin A Adult Gastrocnemius Muscle Study Completed NCT01278576 Phase 4
21 SynchroMed II Post-Approval Study Completed NCT00773019 Phase 4
22 Recurrent Crying Spells in Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT01955655 Phase 4
23 Myobloc Atrophy Study Completed NCT02052024 Phase 4
24 Τhe Effectiveness of Hydrotherapy Exercises on the Rehabilitation of Hemiplegic Patients Completed NCT01460277 Phase 4
25 Levetiracetam in Chronic Neuropathic Pain Following Spinal Cord Injury Completed NCT00252954 Phase 4
26 Tizanidine and Superficial Cervical Block on Pain After Thyroidectomy Completed NCT02725359 Phase 4
27 Investigating Botulinum Toxin A to Treat Acute Neck/Upper Shoulder Pain Following a New Spinal Cord Injury. Completed NCT00320281 Phase 4
28 Effects of Botulinum Toxin Type A in Adults With Cerebral Palsy Completed NCT00432055 Phase 4
29 Project to Improve Symptoms and Mood in People With Spinal Cord Injury Completed NCT00592384 Phase 4
30 Post Marketing Surveillance Study of Dysport Completed NCT00210431 Phase 4
31 Study of the Effects on Motor Recovery of Early Post-stroke Spasticity Treatment Recruiting NCT02462317 Phase 4
32 Intrathecal Baclofen (ITB) Delivery Location and Its Effect on Spasticity Recruiting NCT02903823 Phase 4
33 The Effectiveness of Early Botulinum Toxin A Injection for Lower Limbs Spasticity in Subacute Stroke Adults Recruiting NCT02505802 Phase 4
34 Effects of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A (BoNT/A) Free of Complexing Proteins in the Spastic Equinovarus Foot Recruiting NCT03044080 Phase 4
35 Randomised, Evaluation-blinded, Crossover, Controlled Study Assessing Dynamic Hand Splinting in Adults With Post-stroke Hemiplegia (Orthox) Recruiting NCT02888548 Phase 4
36 Study to Evaluate Effects of DYSPORT® Injected in Lower and Upper Limb Combined With Guided Self-Rehabilitation Contract (GSC) Recruiting NCT02969356 Phase 4
37 Does Botulinum Toxin A Make Walking Easier in Children With Cerebral Palsy? Recruiting NCT02546999 Phase 4
38 Rectus Femoris Tenotomy Versus Botulinum Toxin A for Stiff Knee Gait After Stroke Recruiting NCT02114736 Phase 4
39 Upper Limb Botulinum Toxin Injection Combined With Self Rehabilitation Recruiting NCT02699762 Phase 4
40 Treatment for Alcohol Dependence With Gabapentin Recruiting NCT02771925 Phase 4
41 Observational Study of Deferiprone (Ferriprox®) in the Treatment of Superficial Siderosis Active, not recruiting NCT01284127 Phase 4
42 Meditoxin® Treatment in Patients With Post Stroke Upper Limb Spasticity Not yet recruiting NCT02757404 Phase 4
43 The Effect of a Self-rehabilitation Program in Addition to Usual Treatment for Spasticity on Impairment and Activity Limitation in Patients With Spastic Hemiparesis Following Stroke Not yet recruiting NCT02944929 Phase 4
44 Optimal Dose of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy After Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection for Post-stroke Spasticity Not yet recruiting NCT02358005 Phase 4
45 Effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation on Gait in Children With Cerebral Palsy Not yet recruiting NCT02462018 Phase 4
46 Bilateral Versus Unilateral Task Retraining Using the SaeboFlex Orthosis Terminated NCT00893776 Phase 4
47 Improvement After Botulinum Toxin Injections to the Arms in Children With Cerebral Palsy Terminated NCT00549471 Phase 4
48 Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Versus Lidocaine in Treating Masticatory Myofascial Face Pain Using Ultrasound and EMG Guided Techniques Terminated NCT00992108 Phase 4
49 Study of a New Generation Botulinum Toxin A2NTX to Treat Spasticity After Stroke Unknown status NCT01910363 Phase 2, Phase 3
50 HEMITOX : Effect of Botulinum Toxin Injections on Motor and Functional Ability of Upper Limb in Adults at Earlier Phases of Spastic Hemiplegia After Stroke Unknown status NCT00276185 Phase 3

Search NIH Clinical Center for Spasticity

Genetic Tests for Spasticity

Genetic tests related to Spasticity:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Spasticity 29

Anatomical Context for Spasticity

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Spasticity:

39
Spinal Cord, T Cells, Brain, Testes, Skeletal Muscle, Bone, Cortex

Publications for Spasticity

Articles related to Spasticity:

(show top 50) (show all 3202)
id Title Authors Year
1
De novo REEP2 missense mutation in pure hereditary spastic paraplegia. ( 28491902 )
2017
2
Co-existence of spastic paraplegia-30 with novel KIF1A mutation and spinocerebellar ataxia 31 with intronic expansion of BEAN and TK2 in a family. ( 28017198 )
2017
3
Loss-of-function mutations in the ATP13A2/PARK9 gene cause complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG78). ( 28137957 )
2017
4
Modulatory effects of curcumin on apoptosis and cytotoxicity-related molecules in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients. ( 27894665 )
2017
5
NT5C2 novel splicing variant expands the phenotypic spectrum of Spastic Paraplegia (SPG45): case report of a new member of thin corpus callosum SPG-Subgroup. ( 28327087 )
2017
6
Long-Term Dosing of Intrathecal Baclofen in the Treatment of Spasticity After Acquired Brain Injury. ( 28082177 )
2017
7
Cortical bone deficit and fat infiltration of bone marrow and skeletal muscle in ambulatory children with mild spastic cerebral palsy. ( 27732905 )
2017
8
Defects in ER-endosome contacts impact lysosome function in hereditary spastic paraplegia. ( 28389476 )
2017
9
A new phenotype associated with homozygous GRN mutations: complicated spastic paraplegia. ( 28000352 )
2017
10
Hereditary spastic paraplegia type 8 - neuropathological findings. ( 28181327 )
2017
11
Plantar flexor muscle weakness and fatigue in spastic cerebral palsy patients. ( 28064025 )
2017
12
Hereditary spastic paraplegia: More than an upper motor neuron disease. ( 28449883 )
2017
13
Studies on truncating mutations of SPAST associated with Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia indicate greater accumulation and toxicity of the M1 isoform of spastin. ( 28495799 )
2017
14
Beneficial effects of rapamycin in a Drosophila model for hereditary spastic paraplegia. ( 27909242 )
2017
15
Progressive hereditary spastic paraplegia caused by a homozygous KY mutation. ( 28488683 )
2017
16
TFG associated hereditary spastic paraplegia: an addition to the phenotypic spectrum. ( 28124177 )
2017
17
Considering Spastic Paraplegia Type 7 and Adult-Onset Alexander Disease. ( 28459923 )
2017
18
Effects of host restriction factors and the HTLV-1 subtype on susceptibility to HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. ( 28420387 )
2017
19
Hereditary spastic paraplegia due to a novel mutation of the REEP1 gene: Case report and literature review. ( 28099355 )
2017
20
Clinical and genetic study of hereditary spastic paraplegia in Canada. ( 27957547 )
2017
21
Structured skill practice during intensive bimanual training leads to better trunk and arm control than unstructured practice in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy. ( 27912104 )
2017
22
The effect of HTLV-1 virulence factors (HBZ, Tax, proviral load), HLA class I and plasma neopterin on manifestation of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy tropical spastic paraparesis. ( 27845163 )
2017
23
Exome sequencing reveals two FA2H mutations in a family with a complicated form of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia and psychiatric impairments. ( 28017243 )
2017
24
PLA2G6 mutations associated with a continuous clinical spectrum from neuroaxonal dystrophy to hereditary spastic paraplegia. ( 28295203 )
2017
25
Leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL) with a novel DARS2 mutation and isolated progressive spastic paraparesis. ( 28017220 )
2017
26
Hereditary spastic paraplegia caused by compound heterozygous mutations outside the motor domain of the KIF1A gene. ( 28332297 )
2017
27
Sequential bilateral complete rupture of the rectus femoris muscle in a patient with hereditary spastic paraplegia. ( 28264543 )
2017
28
ATPase-deficient mitochondrial inner membrane protein ATAD3A disturbs mitochondrial dynamics in dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia. ( 28158749 )
2017
29
Gross motor function in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI). ( 27771178 )
2017
30
Recessive AFG3L2 Mutation Causes Progressive Microcephaly, Early Onset Seizures, Spasticity, and Basal Ganglia Involvement. ( 28449981 )
2017
31
Pathophysiology, diagnostic work-up and management of balance impairments and falls in patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia. ( 28471471 )
2017
32
Clinical exome sequencing for cerebellar ataxia and spastic paraplegia uncovers novel gene-disease associations and unanticipated rare disorders. ( 28179632 )
2017
33
Spastic diplegia in preterm-born children: Executive function impairment and neuroanatomical correlates. ( 28073076 )
2017
34
Considering Spastic Paraplegia Type 7 and Adult-Onset Alexander Disease-Reply. ( 28459933 )
2017
35
Large Intragenic Deletion in DSTYK Underlies Autosomal-Recessive Complicated Spastic Paraparesis, SPG23. ( 28157540 )
2017
36
Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy for the Treatment of Spasticity in SjAPgren-Larsson Syndrome. ( 28257279 )
2017
37
ALS and MMN mimics in patients with BSCL2 mutations: the expanding clinical spectrum of SPG17 hereditary spastic paraplegia. ( 27738760 )
2017
38
Clonus Associated with Tropical Spastic Paraparesis. ( 27783915 )
2016
39
A novel frameshift mutation of DDHD1 in a Japanese patient with autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia. ( 27216551 )
2016
40
Six-Minute Walk Test in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy and Children Developing Typically. ( 26808959 )
2016
41
Effects of Abnormal Oral Reflexes on Speech Articulation in Persian Speaking Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy. ( 27375753 )
2016
42
Should mirror movements modify therapeutic strategies for unilateral spastic cerebral palsy? ( 27521274 )
2016
43
Effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A on gait and quality of life in adult post-stroke patients with lower limb spasticity: a systematic review protocol. ( 27532646 )
2016
44
Identification of a novel SPG4 tandem base substitution in a Chinese hereditary spastic paraplegia family. ( 27942873 )
2016
45
Change in Pulmonary Function after Incentive Spirometer Exercise in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Study. ( 26996580 )
2016
46
Spasticity over time during acute rehabilitation: a study of patient and clinician scores. ( 27091247 )
2016
47
Effects of severity of gross motor disability on anticipatory postural adjustments while standing in individuals with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy. ( 27399205 )
2016
48
Gastrocnemius muscle-tendon interaction during walking in typically-developing adults and children, and in children with spastic cerebral palsy. ( 27545082 )
2016
49
Prospective Randomized Study of Oral Diazepam and Baclofen on Spasticity in Cerebral Palsy. ( 27504360 )
2016
50
Mechanical and material properties of the plantarflexor muscles and Achilles tendon in children with spastic cerebral palsy and typically developing children. ( 27515440 )
2016

Variations for Spasticity

Expression for Spasticity

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Spasticity.

Pathways for Spasticity

GO Terms for Spasticity

Cellular components related to Spasticity according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 axon cytoplasm GO:1904115 8.62 KIF1A SPG7

Biological processes related to Spasticity according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 anterograde axonal transport GO:0008089 8.62 KIF1A SPG7

Sources for Spasticity

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 MedGen
42 MeSH
43 MESH via Orphanet
44 MGI
46 NCI
47 NCIt
48 NDF-RT
51 NINDS
52 Novoseek
54 OMIM
55 OMIM via Orphanet
59 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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