MCID: STR020
MIFTS: 51

Strabismus malady

Categories: Eye diseases, Genetic diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Strabismus

Summaries for Strabismus

MalaCards based summary : Strabismus is related to autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness and total third-nerve palsy, and has symptoms including ophthalmoplegia, spasm of conjugate gaze and anomalies of divergence. An important gene associated with Strabismus is VANGL2 (VANGL Planar Cell Polarity Protein 2). The drugs Sevoflurane and Propofol have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, thyroid and testes, and related phenotypes are mortality/aging and nervous system

Wikipedia : 71 Strabismus, also called crossed eyes, is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each... more...

Related Diseases for Strabismus

Diseases in the Strabismus family:

Essential Strabismus

Diseases related to Strabismus via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 247)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness 31.1 FRMD7 GPR143
2 total third-nerve palsy 29.5 CHN1 KIF21A PHOX2A TUBB3
3 mechanical strabismus 12.1
4 mental retardation, anterior maxillary protrusion, and strabismus 12.0
5 hemifacial hyperplasia with strabismus 11.8
6 speech development, delayed, with facial asymmetry, strabismus, and transverse earlobe crease 11.8
7 ptosis, strabismus, and ectopic pupils 11.8
8 exotropia 11.7
9 ptosis strabismus diastasis 11.7
10 severe hypotonia-psychomotor developmental delay-strabismus-cardiac septal defect syndrome 11.7
11 severe intellectual disability-hypotonia-strabismus-coarse face-planovalgus syndrome 11.7
12 essential strabismus 11.7
13 esotropia 11.7
14 paralytic squint 11.5
15 mental retardation, autosomal dominant 37 11.2
16 fourth cranial nerve palsy, familial congenital 11.2
17 hypertropia 11.2
18 crouzon syndrome 11.1
19 tukel syndrome 11.1
20 amblyopia 11.1
21 retinoblastoma 11.1
22 mental retardation, autosomal recessive 36 11.0
23 oculocutaneous albinism 10.9
24 cyclotropia 10.9
25 hypotropia 10.9
26 krauss herman holmes syndrome 10.8
27 x-linked congenital stationary night blindness 10.8
28 nephrotic syndrome, type 5, with or without ocular abnormalities 10.7
29 corneal dystrophy, congenital stromal 10.7
30 albinism, oculocutaneous, type vi 10.7
31 cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 1 10.7
32 arthrogryposis, distal, type 5 10.7
33 nystagmus 6, congenital, x-linked 10.7
34 nystagmus 1, congenital, x-linked 10.7
35 ophn1 syndrome 10.7
36 mental retardation, autosomal dominant 18 10.7
37 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 2 10.7
38 naegeli-franceschetti-jadassohn syndrome 10.7
39 3mc syndrome 10.7
40 gatad2b-associated neurodevelopmental disorder 10.7
41 mcpherson robertson cammarano syndrome 10.7
42 mehes syndrome 10.7
43 microdontia hypodontia short stature 10.7
44 singh chhaparwal dhanda syndrome 10.7
45 stickler syndrome, type ii 10.6
46 cousin syndrome 10.6
47 nystagmus 7, congenital, autosomal dominant 10.6
48 pitt-hopkins-like syndrome 2 10.6
49 duane retraction syndrome 2 10.6
50 marinesco-sjogren syndrome 10.6

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Strabismus:



Diseases related to Strabismus

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Strabismus

UMLS symptoms related to Strabismus:


ophthalmoplegia, spasm of conjugate gaze, anomalies of divergence

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Strabismus:

44
id Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.06 CASQ2 CHN1 ECEL1 FGFR2 HOXB1 MCOLN1
2 nervous system MP:0003631 9.9 GPR143 HOXB1 MCOLN1 NALCN PHOX2A TUBB3
3 hearing/vestibular/ear MP:0005377 9.77 HOXB1 VANGL1 VANGL2 COL9A1 FGFR2
4 muscle MP:0005369 9.73 CASQ2 CHN1 ECEL1 FGFR2 HOXB1 MCOLN1
5 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.56 ECEL1 FGFR2 HOXB1 NALCN PHOX2A TUBB3
6 skeleton MP:0005390 9.23 CHN1 COL9A1 ECEL1 FGFR2 FRMD7 HOXB1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Strabismus

Drugs for Strabismus (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 150)
id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Sevoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 28523-86-6 5206
2
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2 2078-54-8 4943
3
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 5743
4
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 59467-70-8 4192
5
Acetylcholine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 51-84-3 187
6
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 76631-46-4, 113775-47-6 68602 5311068 56032
7
Isoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 26675-46-7 3763
8
Ketamine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2 6740-88-1 3821
9
Moxifloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 354812-41-2, 151096-09-2 152946
10
Benzocaine Approved Phase 4 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
11
Fluorometholone Approved Phase 4 426-13-1 9878
12
Desflurane Approved Phase 4 57041-67-5 42113
13
Rimexolone Approved Phase 4 49697-38-3 39507
14
Povidone-iodine Approved Phase 4 25655-41-8
15
Chlorhexidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 55-56-1 9552079 2713
16
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
17
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
18 tannic acid Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4
19 Analgesics Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
20 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
21 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
22 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
23 Anesthetics Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
24 Anesthetics, General Phase 4,Phase 2
25 Anesthetics, Inhalation Phase 4
26 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 4,Phase 2
27 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
28 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 4,Phase 2
29 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 4
30 Antiemetics Phase 4
31 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
32 Autonomic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
33 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
34
Iodine Phase 4 7553-56-2 807
35 cadexomer iodine Phase 4
36 Dexamethasone acetate Phase 4 1177-87-3
37 glucocorticoids Phase 4
38
protease inhibitors Phase 4
39 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
40 Adjuvants, Anesthesia Phase 4,Phase 3
41 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4
42 GABA Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
43 GABA Modulators Phase 4,Phase 2
44 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
45 Neuromuscular Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
46 Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists Phase 4
47 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
48 HIV Protease Inhibitors Phase 4
49 Norgestimate, ethinyl estradiol drug combination Phase 4
50 Trace Elements Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 116)
id Name Status NCT ID Phase
1 Efficacy of Single-Shot Dexmedetomidine Versus Placebo in Preventing Pediatric Emergence Delirium in Strabismus Surgery Completed NCT01901588 Phase 4
2 Ocular-hypertensive Response to Topical Steroids in Children After Bilateral Strabismus Surgery Completed NCT02816905 Phase 4
3 Comparison of Two Treatments for Strabismus Correction: Botulinum Toxin A Associated to Surgery and Surgery Alone Completed NCT01460355 Phase 4
4 Povidone-iodine Antisepsis for Strabismus Surgery Completed NCT00461656 Phase 4
5 The Effect of Anaesthesia Depth on Oculo-cardiac Reflex Completed NCT02379546 Phase 4
6 Effects of Dexmedetomidine Premedication on Emergence Agitation After Strabismus Surgery in Children Completed NCT01895023 Phase 4
7 Intranasal Dexmedetomidine vs Midazolam-ketamine Combination for Premedication of Pediatric Patients Completed NCT02072083 Phase 4
8 Comparison of Intra Ocular Pressure After Insertion of the LMA Supreme and LMA Proseal in Pediatric Patients Recruiting NCT02508181 Phase 4
9 Propofol for Treatment on Emergence Agitation Enrolling by invitation NCT02738814 Phase 4
10 Combined Radiotherapy and Intravenous Steroids for Early Progressive Thyroid Eye Disease Not yet recruiting NCT02339142 Phase 4
11 Vision In Preschoolers Study (VIP Study) Unknown status NCT00038753 Phase 3
12 A Trial of Bifocals in Myopic Children With Esophoria Unknown status NCT00000128 Phase 3
13 Efficacy and Safety of GSK1358820 (Botulinum Toxin Type A) in Patients With Strabismus Completed NCT01584843 Phase 3
14 Effects of Prismatic Spectacle Lenses on Symptoms of Dizziness, Headache and Anxiety as Caused by Vertical Heterophoria Completed NCT00785135 Phase 3
15 Bilateral Recession or Unilateral Recession-Resection as Surgery for Infantile Esotropia Completed NCT00304577 Phase 3
16 The Prism Adaptation Study (PAS) Completed NCT00000121 Phase 3
17 Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) Treatment Study Completed NCT00001864 Phase 3
18 Occlusion Versus Pharmacologic Therapy for Moderate Amblyopia Completed NCT00000170 Phase 3
19 Trial to Evaluate 2 Hours of Daily Patching for Amblyopia in Children Completed NCT00091923 Phase 3
20 Evaluation of VisionQuest 20/20, a Visual Acuity Testing Software Completed NCT00366756 Phase 3
21 Orthoptic Changes Following Photorefractive Keratectomy Completed NCT01279993 Phase 3
22 An Observational Study of Infantile, Acquired Non-accommodative, and Acquired Partially-accommodative Esotropia Completed NCT00310960 Phase 3
23 Trial Comparing Patching Versus Atropine for Amblyopia in 7 to < 13 Year Olds Completed NCT00315328 Phase 3
24 Full-time Bangerter Filters Versus Part-time Daily Patching for Moderate Amblyopia in Children Completed NCT00525174 Phase 3
25 Bupivacaine Injection of Eye Muscles to Treat Strabismus Recruiting NCT01616108 Phase 2, Phase 3
26 ASIS for Enbrel in Plaque Psoriasis Unknown status NCT02112097 Phase 1, Phase 2
27 Does LMA Instead of ET Tube Affect Incidence of Postoperative Vomiting in Children Undergoing Strabismus Correction? Completed NCT00338559 Phase 2
28 Prevention of Complications of Eye Surgery Completed NCT00478907 Phase 2
29 Eye Muscle Surgery to Treat Congenital Nystagmus Completed NCT00001866 Phase 2
30 Study of Non-surgical Treatment Versus Observation in Asian Children With Intermittent Exotropia Terminated NCT01267500 Phase 2
31 The Effect of Vision Therapy/Orthoptic on Motor & Sensory Status of the 3 to 7 Years Old Strabismic Patients Unknown status NCT00917982 Phase 1
32 Monovision for the Treatment of Diplopia Completed NCT01426672 Phase 1
33 Assessment of Fibrin Glue in Pterygium Surgery and Other Forms of External Eye Surgery Completed NCT00344201 Phase 1
34 Visual Cortex Stimulation in Patients With Amblyopia Completed NCT00097162 Phase 1
35 Dichoptic Virtual Reality Therapy for Amblyopia in Adults Terminated NCT02246556 Phase 1
36 Comparison of Propofol 1mg/kg and Propofol 0.5mg/kg for Prevention of Emergence Agitation in Children Undergoing Strabismus Surgery During Sevoflurane Anesthesia Unknown status NCT02152787
37 Surgery for Esotropia Under Topical Anesthesia Unknown status NCT00993174
38 Determining the Efficacy of Full-time Occlusion Therapy in Severe Amblyopia at Different Ages Unknown status NCT02113709
39 New Pediatric Patching Method to Improve Compliance Unknown status NCT02236351
40 The Antigagging Effect of Granisetron (Kytril), an Antiemetic Drug, in Dental Situations Unknown status NCT00502437
41 Vision Screening for the Detection of Amblyopia Unknown status NCT01430247
42 Safety and Feasibility of Using Epicall for Monitoring Pre-seizure Biomarkers Unknown status NCT01436695
43 Lateral Rectus Muscle and Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (AS-OCT) in Two Recession Surgeries Unknown status NCT02450162
44 Suture Contamination Rate in Adjustable Suture Strabismus Surgery Completed NCT02424357
45 Assessing the Functional and Psychosocial Impact of Strabismus in Asian Children Using the AS-20 and IXTQ Questionnaires Completed NCT01608828
46 Binocular Treatment of Amblyopia Before and After Strabismus Surgery Completed NCT01791946
47 Postoperative Subtenons Anesthesia for Postoperative Pain in Pediatric Strabismus Surgery Completed NCT01812044
48 Anesthetic Depth and the Incidence of Emergence Agitation in Children Undergoing Strabismus Surgery Completed NCT02521259
49 Screening for Studies on Nystagmus and Strabismus Completed NCT00001861
50 Effect of Neuromuscular Blockade on the Oculomotor by Not Squinting Child Completed NCT02360969

Search NIH Clinical Center for Strabismus

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 69 / NDF-RT 48 :


Genetic Tests for Strabismus

Genetic tests related to Strabismus:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Susceptibility to Strabismus 29
2 Strabismus 29 24

Anatomical Context for Strabismus

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Strabismus:

39
Eye, Thyroid, Testes, Cortex, Brain, Colon, Bone

Publications for Strabismus

Articles related to Strabismus:

(show top 50) (show all 766)
id Title Authors Year
1
Surgical outcomes of unilateral recession-resection for vertical strabismus in patients with thyroid eye disease. ( 28089937 )
2017
2
Rectus muscle excyclorotation and V-pattern strabismus: a quantitative appraisal of clinical relevance in syndromic craniosynostosis. ( 28320694 )
2017
3
Long-term Visual Acuity, Strabismus and Nystagmus Outcomes Following Multimodality Treatment in Group D Retinoblastoma Eyes. ( 28501391 )
2017
4
Rate of Strabismus Detection on Digital Photographs Increases by Using Off-center Near Target. ( 28092398 )
2017
5
The Prevalence of Strabismus and Associated Risk Factors in a Southeastern Region of Brazil. ( 27960584 )
2016
6
Comment on "Exotropia Is the Main Pattern of Childhood Strabismus Surgery in the South of China: A Six-Year Clinical Review". ( 27523160 )
2016
7
Electrical stimulation of superior colliculus affects strabismus angle in monkey models for strabismus. ( 28031397 )
2016
8
Awareness and Perception of Strabismus Among the Youths and Women of Child-Bearing Age in a Local Government in South Western Nigeria. ( 28027694 )
2016
9
New Indications for Botulinum Toxin in the Management of Strabismus. ( 27018880 )
2016
10
CONCURRENT ENDOPHTHALMITIS AND ANTERIOR SEGMENT ISCHEMIA AFTER STRABISMUS SURGERY. ( 27124792 )
2016
11
Cyclic esotropia and impaired vision after strabismus surgery. ( 27765448 )
2016
12
Not only amblyopic but also dominant eye in subjects with strabismus show increased saccadic latency. ( 27559718 )
2016
13
Strabismus in patients with cortical visual impairment: outcomes of surgery and observations of spontaneous resolution. ( 27079591 )
2016
14
Paul of Aegina (c. 625-690 AD), the Origins of the Early Correction of Pediatric Strabismus in Byzantine Empire. ( 27593906 )
2016
15
Quality of life in teenagers with strabismus. ( 27853358 )
2016
16
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Strabismus in a UK Multi-ethnic Birth Cohort. ( 27929723 )
2016
17
Psychosocial interventions for improving quality of life outcomes in adults undergoing strabismus surgery. ( 27171652 )
2016
18
Evaluation of Postoperative Povidone-Iodine in Adjustable Suture Strabismus Surgery to Reduce Suture Colonization: A Randomized Clinical Trial. ( 27561000 )
2016
19
Author's reply to comments to: The use of Mersilene mesh for tendon elongation in strabismus surgery. ( 27834466 )
2016
20
Effective treatment for prevention of post-operative adhesion after strabismus surgery in experimental rabbit model: 0.5 % tranilast ophthalmic solution. ( 27655065 )
2016
21
Orbital cellulitis and multiple abscess formation after strabismus surgery. ( 27085279 )
2016
22
Normal Correspondence of Tectal Maps for Saccadic Eye Movements in Strabismus. ( 27605534 )
2016
23
Strabismus in Adults Older Than 60 Years. ( 27537251 )
2016
24
Microstructural changes of the whole brain in patients with comitant strabismus: evidence from a diffusion tensor imaging study. ( 27574432 )
2016
25
Strabismus Surgery in Patients With Ocular Neuromyotonia: Potential Unmasking of the Condition and Effective Management Tool. ( 27023310 )
2016
26
Comparison of Surgical Success for Infantile Esotropia and Strabismus Associated with Neurological Impairment. ( 27532638 )
2016
27
Partial tendon recession for small-angle vertical strabismus. ( 27647113 )
2016
28
Validity of ophthalmology surgical competency assessment rubric for strabismus surgery in resident training. ( 27079603 )
2016
29
Post-operative strabismus control and motor alignment for basic intermittent exotropia. ( 27500110 )
2016
30
Importance of Proprioceptive Information for Postural Control in Children with Strabismus before and after Strabismus Surgery. ( 27656133 )
2016
31
Augmented superior rectus transposition surgery for vertical strabismus in moebius syndrome. ( 28478475 )
2016
32
A novel homozygous splice site mutation in NALCN identified in siblings with cachexia, strabismus, severe intellectual disability, epilepsy and abnormal respiratory rhythm. ( 26923739 )
2016
33
Proparacaine-Induced Mydriasis During Strabismus Surgery. ( 27960641 )
2016
34
Changing Strabismus Surgery Distribution at Shanxi Province Eye Hospital in Central China. ( 27977036 )
2016
35
Dexmedetomidine Injection during Strabismus Surgery Reduces Emergence Agitation without Increasing the Oculocardiac Reflex in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial. ( 27617832 )
2016
36
Case Report: Red Urine After Day Care Strabismus Surgery. ( 28045721 )
2016
37
Multiprofissional electronic protocol in ophtalmology with enfasis in strabismus. ( 27556541 )
2016
38
Evaluation of the Risk of Postoperative Infection in Adjustable Suture Strabismus Surgery. ( 27560605 )
2016
39
Balance in subjects with congenital or early onset strabismus: Influence of age. ( 27109787 )
2016
40
Efficacy of mitomycin-C and infliximab in reducing adhesionand fibrosis following strabismus surgery. ( 27966305 )
2016
41
Retained strabismus suture material masquerading as nonspecific orbital inflammation. ( 27112911 )
2016
42
Does Correction of Strabismus Improve Quality of Life in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results of a Parent Survey by Ophthalmologists. ( 27599387 )
2016
43
Hypertropic and exotropic strabismus fixus following neurotoxic snake bite. ( 27841205 )
2016
44
Cataract, strabismus and chorioretinal coloboma in paediatric HIV infection. ( 27956343 )
2016
45
Unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia, strabismus and transient torsional nystagmus in focal pontine infarction. ( 27448548 )
2016
46
Treatment of exophthalmos and strabismus surgery in thyroid-associated orbitopathy. ( 26775634 )
2016
47
Strabismus and Near Point of Convergence and Amblyopia in 4-6 Year-Old Children. ( 27485705 )
2016
48
Diplopia, Convergent Strabismus, and Eye Abduction Palsy in a 12-Year-Old Boy with Autoimmune Thyroiditis. ( 27379191 )
2016
49
Accessory Extraocular Muscle as a Cause of Restrictive Strabismus. ( 27835055 )
2016
50
Fixation preference test: reliability for the detection of amblyopia in patients with strabismus and interexaminer agreement. ( 27933481 )
2016

Variations for Strabismus

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Strabismus:

6
id Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 NALCN NM_052867.3(NALCN): c.3390G> A (p.Pro1130=) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs869312873 GRCh37 Chromosome 13, 101742197: 101742197
2 GNB1 NM_002074.4(GNB1): c.284T> C (p.Leu95Pro) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs869312824 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 1736004: 1736004
3 GNB1 NM_002074.4(GNB1): c.233A> G (p.Lys78Arg) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs869312823 GRCh38 Chromosome 1, 1806509: 1806509
4 GNB1 NM_002074.4(GNB1): c.228T> G (p.Asp76Glu) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs869312822 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 1737953: 1737953
5 MPP4 NM_033066.2(MPP4): c.946T> C (p.Trp316Arg) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs1057519443 GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 202539978: 202539978
6 DHX30 NM_138615.2(DHX30): c.1478G> A (p.Arg493His) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs1057519436 GRCh37 Chromosome 3, 47888040: 47888040
7 DHX30 NM_138615.2(DHX30): c.1685A> G (p.His562Arg) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs1060499733 GRCh37 Chromosome 3, 47888247: 47888247

Copy number variations for Strabismus from CNVD:

7
id CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 195555 5 152100000 155600000 Deletion AK124699 strabismus
2 195560 5 152100000 155600000 Deletion C5ORF21 strabismus
3 195565 5 152100000 155600000 Deletion C5ORF3 strabismus
4 195570 5 152100000 155600000 Deletion GALNT10 strabismus
5 195575 5 152100000 155600000 Deletion HAND1 strabismus
6 195580 5 152100000 155600000 Deletion MFAP3 strabismus
7 195585 5 152100000 155600000 Deletion NR2F1 strabismus
8 195590 5 152100000 155600000 Deletion SAP30L strabismus

Expression for Strabismus

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Strabismus.

Pathways for Strabismus

GO Terms for Strabismus

Biological processes related to Strabismus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 midbrain development GO:0030901 8.96 FGFR2 PHOX2A
2 membranous septum morphogenesis GO:0003149 8.62 FGFR2 VANGL2

Molecular functions related to Strabismus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cation channel activity GO:0005261 8.62 MCOLN1 NALCN

Sources for Strabismus

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 MedGen
42 MeSH
43 MESH via Orphanet
44 MGI
46 NCI
47 NCIt
48 NDF-RT
51 NINDS
52 Novoseek
54 OMIM
55 OMIM via Orphanet
59 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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