MCID: VRC001
MIFTS: 51

Varicocele malady

Cardiovascular diseases category

Summaries for Varicocele

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63Wikipedia, 32MalaCards
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Wikipedia:63 Varicocele /ˈværɨkɵsiːl/ is an abnormal enlargement of the pampiniform venous plexus in the... more...

MalaCards: Varicocele, also known as scrotal varices, is related to infertility and male infertility. An important gene associated with Varicocele is AZF1 (azoospermia factor 1), and among its related pathways are Glycoprotein hormones and Nongenotropic Androgen signaling. The compounds estrogen and 11 deoxycortisol have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testis, testes and prostate, and related mouse phenotypes are endocrine/exocrine gland and reproductive system.

Aliases & Classifications for Varicocele

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8Disease Ontology, 10DISEASES, 44Novoseek, 60UMLS, 27ICD9CM, 56SNOMED-CT, 34MeSH, 25ICD10
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Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Anatomical: Cardiovascular diseases


Aliases & Descriptions:

varicocele 8 10 44 60
scrotal varices 8


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:12337
ICD9CM27 456.4
MeSH34 D014646
ICD1025 I86.1

Related Diseases for Varicocele

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Sources:
17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
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Diseases related to Varicocele via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 108)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1infertility31.3SHBG, AZF1, GNRH1, USP9Y, CGA, PRL
2male infertility30.8ACR, SHBG, PRL, GNRH1, HSPA2
3azoospermia30.7ACPP, GNRH1, AMH, AZF1, USP9Y, SHBG
4prostatitis30.5ACPP
5oligospermia30.4AZF1, AMH, GNRH1, USP9Y, CGA, CGB5
6cryptorchidism30.2CGB5, CGA, SHBG, AZF1, AMH, GNRH1
7gynecomastia30.0PRL, GNRH1, CGA, CGB5, SHBG
8impotence30.0SHBG, PRL
9klinefelter's syndrome29.8AZF1, GNRH1, CGA, PRL, SHBG
10ischemia29.8BLVRB
11hypogonadism29.8CGA, SHBG, PRL, CGB5, GNRH1
12hydrocele10.3
13ankylosing spondylitis10.0
14angiokeratoma of fordyce10.0
15angiokeratoma10.0
16constipation10.0
17hepatitis10.0
18nephrotic syndrome10.0
19renal cell carcinoma10.0
20spondylitis10.0
21turner syndrome10.0GNRH1
22diabetes insipidus10.0PRL
23insulin resistance10.0SHBG
24systemic lupus erythematosus10.0PRL
25hermaphroditism10.0AMH
26obesity10.0SHBG
27hypogonadotropism10.0GNRH1, PRL
28peritonitis10.0AQP1
29mccune albright syndrome10.0GNRH1
30cushing's syndrome10.0PRL
31prostatic hypertrophy10.0GNRH1, ACPP
32thyroiditis10.0CGA
33pseudohermaphroditism10.0AMH
34seminoma10.0CGA, CGB5
35penile disease10.0GNRH1, PRL
36hypothalamic disease10.0GNRH1, PRL, CGA
37sexual disorder10.0SHBG, PRL, GNRH1
38germinoma10.0CGB5, CGA
39prolactinoma10.0GNRH1, PRL, CGA
40teratoma10.0CGB5, CGA
41ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome10.0GNRH1, CGA, CGB5
42premature ovarian failure10.0GNRH1, SHBG, PRL
43dysgerminoma10.0CGA, CGB5
44abrikosov's tumor10.0AMH, GNRH1, CGA
45ovarian cyst10.0CGB5, CGA, GNRH1
46leydig cell tumor10.0GNRH1, CGA, CGB5
47hypogonadism, hypergonadotropic10.0PRL, SHBG
48acromegaly10.0PRL, SHBG, GNRH1
49ovarian disease10.0SHBG, GNRH1, PRL, CGA
50pregnancy loss10.0CGA, CGB5, GNRH1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Varicocele:



Diseases related to varicocele

Clinical Features for Varicocele

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Drugs & Therapeutics for Varicocele

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Sources:
5CenterWatch, 41NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 60UMLS, 40NDF-RT
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Approved drugs:

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Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Varicocele

Search NIH Clinical Center for Varicocele

Search CenterWatch for Varicocele

Genetic Tests for Varicocele

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Anatomical Context for Varicocele

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32MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Varicocele:

32
Testis, Testes, Prostate, Kidney, Smooth muscle, Endothelial, Pituitary, Brain, Spinal cord, Colon

Animal Models for Varicocele or affiliated genes

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Sources:
36MGI
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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Varicocele:

36
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00053799.8HSF2, AMH, GNRH1, CGA, PRL, INHBB
2MP:00053899.4AQP1, HSPA2, HSF2, AMH, GNRH1, CGA

Publications for Varicocele

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50PubMed
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Articles related to Varicocele:

(show top 50)    (show all 552)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Prolidase enzyme activity in varicose venous walls related to sperm count in patients with varicocele. (23171426)
2013
2
Study of sperm protein profile in men with and without varicocele using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. (23374786)
2013
3
Cell cycle specificity of spermatogenic cell apoptosis in rats with experimental varicocele. (24133916)
2013
4
Giant varicocele inducing chronic pelvic pain in a girl. (23333132)
2013
5
Altered Metalloproteinase-9 expression as the least common denominator between Varicocele, Inguinal Hernia and Chronic Venous Disorders. (24184457)
2013
6
Increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1I+ and metallothionein in varicocele and varicose veins. (22345328)
2012
7
The relationship between anogenital distance and the efficacy of varicocele repair. (22520827)
2012
8
Decreased mRNA expressions of T-type channel alpha1H and alpha1G in the sperm of varicocele patients and their implication]. (22574369)
2012
9
Varicocele in adolescents: a review and guideline for the daily practice. (23269332)
2012
10
Percutaneous retrograde endovascular occlusion for pediatric varicocele. (21376204)
2011
11
The impact of varicocele and varicocele repair on serum testosterone. (21681090)
2011
12
Current management principles for adolescent varicocele. (22130100)
2011
13
Laparoendoscopic single-site varicocele repair in adolescents-initial experience at a single institution. (21823982)
2011
14
Radiologically assessed testicular changes in infertile males with varicocele. (21615451)
2011
15
Testicular contrast harmonic imaging to evaluate intratesticular perfusion alterations in patients with varicocele. (19942233)
2010
16
Hereditary behavior of varicocele. (19834129)
2010
17
Reactive hydrocele after laparoscopic Palomo varicocele ligation in pediatrics. (20876949)
2010
18
Increased testicular 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) and nuclear factor I_B (NF-I_B) expressions in experimental rat varicocele. (21341550)
2010
19
The role of testicular volume in adolescents with varicocele: the better way and time of surgical treatment. (20728113)
2010
20
The effect of varicocele on seminal plasma and serum inhibin-B levels in adolescent and adult men. (19590975)
2010
21
Apoptosis-related phenotype of ejaculated spermatozoa in patients with varicocele. (18314115)
2009
22
Re: Is varicocele associated with underlying venous abnormalities? Varicocele and the prostatic venous plexus: H. Sakamoto and Y. Ogawa J Urol 2008; 180: 1427-1431. (19246052)
2009
23
Surgical treatment of varicocele in children with open and laparoscopic Palomo technique: a systematic review of the literature. (19375741)
2009
24
A decision analysis of treatments for nonobstructive azoospermia associated with varicocele. (18706552)
2009
25
Comparison of semen profile and frequency of chromosome aneuploidies in sperm nuclei of patients with varicocele before and after varicocelectomy. (19400849)
2009
26
Comparison of prevalence of varicocele in first-degree relatives of patients with varicocele and male kidney donors. (18279919)
2008
27
Effect of varicocelectomy on serum inhibin B levels in infertile patients with varicocele. (18932107)
2008
28
The effects of varicocele and its surgical correction on vas deferens motility. (18040696)
2008
29
Comment on: Anatomic and hemodynamic evaluation of renal venous flow in varicocele formation using color Doppler sonography with emphasis on renal vein entrapment syndrome (Scand J Urol Nephrol 2007; 41(1): 42-6). (18365925)
2008
30
The effects of experimental left varicocele on the epididymis. (18942025)
2008
31
Varicocele repair: does it still have a role in infertility treatment? (18460942)
2008
32
Does varicocele grade determine extent of alteration to spermatogenesis in adolescents? (18166185)
2008
33
Effects on the ipsilateral testis during progression of experimental varicocele in rat. (18509270)
2008
34
Bilateral but not unilateral testicular hypotrophy predicts for severe impairment of semen quality in men with varicocele undergoing infertility evaluation. (18538693)
2008
35
The vasodilator effect of testosterone on the human internal spermatic vein and its relation to varicocele grade. (18554631)
2008
36
The effect of varicocele repair on experimental varicocele-induced testicular germ cell apoptosis. (17673437)
2008
37
Incidence of the retroaortic left renal vein in patients with varicocele. (17460002)
2007
38
Re: varicocele in brothers of patients with varicocele. (17987587)
2007
39
Testicular hypotrophy in varicocele: pre and postoperative echographic follow-up in the pediatric age. (17124484)
2006
40
Is the laparoscopic Palomo procedure for pediatric varicocele safe and effective? Nine years of unicentric experience. (16432660)
2006
41
Antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy for treating primary varicocele in children. (16536779)
2006
42
Treatment of varicocele in subfertile men: The Cochrane Review--a contrary opinion. (16426727)
2006
43
Sperm output in patients with primary infertility and hepatitis B or C virus; negative influence of HBV infection during concomitant varicocele. (16565700)
2006
44
"Scrotal varicocele, exclude a renal tumour". Is this evidence based? (16784945)
2006
45
Deletions in L-type calcium channel alpha1 subunit testicular transcripts correlate with testicular cadmium and apoptosis in infertile men with varicoceles. (15749491)
2005
46
Immunoexpression of aquaporin-1 in adolescent varicocele testes: possible significance for fluid reabsorption. (15667881)
2005
47
Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the heat shock protein 90 gene in varicocele-associated infertility. (15992426)
2005
48
Apoptosis-related proteins in the testes of infertile men with varicocele. (12010237)
2002
49
Effect of experimental left varicocele on rat Leydig cell function]. (7897932)
1995
50
Improved semen quality in subfertile males with varicocele-associated oligospermia following treatment with clomiphene citrate. (7364070)
1980

Genetic Variations for Varicocele

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Expression for genes affiliated with Varicocele

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1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Varicocele

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Varicocele.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Varicocele

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53Reactome, 37NCBI BioSystems Database, 29KEGG
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Pathways related to Varicocele according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1
Hide members
10.4GNRH1, CGA
210.3SHBG, GNRH1
3
Hide members
10.3HMOX2, BLVRB
4
Hide members
10.3HMOX2, BLVRB
510.3BLVRB, ACPP

Compounds for genes affiliated with Varicocele

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44Novoseek, 59Tocris Bioscience, 28IUPHAR, 11DrugBank, 24HMDB, 49PharmGKB
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Compounds related to Varicocele according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 91)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1estrogen4410.7HSF2, ACPP
211 deoxycortisol4410.6SHBG, CGA, PRL
3estradiol benzoate4410.6CGB5, GNRH1, PRL, CGA
4leuprolide44 59 28 1113.6GNRH1, PRL, CGB5, CGA
5goserelin44 28 1112.6ACPP, GNRH1, SHBG, CGA
6metoclopramide44 1111.6GNRH1, PRL, CGA
7cyproteroneacetate4410.6GNRH1, PRL, SHBG, ACPP
8bromocriptine28 44 1112.6GNRH1, CGA, SHBG, PRL
9flutamide44 59 1112.6SHBG, GNRH1, CGA, ACPP, PRL
1017-hydroxypregnenolone4410.6SHBG, CGB5, CGA, ACPP
11toremifene44 1111.5SHBG, PRL, GNRH1
12leuprolide acetate4410.5GNRH1, CGA, CGB5, PRL, SHBG
13cetrorelix44 28 1112.5CGB5, CGA, GNRH1
14clomiphene citrate4410.5PRL, CGB5, CGA, GNRH1, SHBG
15buserelin44 28 1112.5ACPP, CGB5, PRL, CGA, GNRH1
16dopamine44 28 11 2413.5BLVRB, HMOX2, GNRH1, SHBG
17naloxone44 49 28 1113.5GNRH1, CGB5, PRL, CGA
18danazol44 11 2412.5GNRH1, SHBG, PRL
19altrenogest4410.5CGA, GNRH1
20percoll4410.5ACR, CGB5, CGA, LDHC
21cabergoline28 44 1112.5PRL, GNRH1, CGA
22progestin4410.5CGB5, GNRH1, PRL, SHBG, CGA
23diethylstilbestrol44 28 1112.5GNRH1, CGB5, SHBG, ACPP, CGA
2417-hydroxyprogesterone44 2411.5SHBG, GNRH1, ACPP, CGA, CGB5, PRL
25dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate4410.5CGB5, PRL, CGA, GNRH1, ACPP, SHBG
26mifepristone44 59 28 1113.5AMH, GNRH1, CGA, CGB5, PRL, SHBG
27dhea4410.5ACPP, CGB5, PRL, SHBG
28androstenedione44 2411.5CGB5, GNRH1, PRL, CGA, ACPP, SHBG
29gnrh4410.4BLVRB, INHBB, ACPP, CGA, GNRH1, SHBG
3011-ketotestosterone4410.4CGA, CGB5
31metrodin4410.4CGA, GNRH1
32estrone44 28 11 2413.4GNRH1, CGB5, PRL, SHBG
33dihydrotestosterone44 28 11 2413.4CGA, ACPP, CGB5, GNRH1, PRL, SHBG
34sodium nitroprusside4410.4AQP1, GNRH1, CGA, BLVRB, CGB5
35acth4410.4PRL, ACPP, SHBG, CGB5, GNRH1
36epinephrine44 11 2412.4GNRH1, CGB5, PRL, SHBG, CGA
37tamoxifen44 49 28 1113.4SHBG, PRL, CGA, CGB5, AMH, GNRH1
38ribonucleic acid4410.4GNRH1, CGA, CGB5, PRL, HMOX2
39deslorelin4410.4GNRH1, CGA
40estradiol44 11 2412.3ACPP, BLVRB, SHBG, PRL, CGB5, CGA
41pergonal4410.3CGA, GNRH1
42lactate4410.2GNRH1, LDHC, ACR, ACPP, CGA, GLA
43creatinine4410.2AQP1, LDHC, ACPP, GLA, SHBG, CGB5
44steroid4410.2SHBG, GNRH1, CGB5, CGA, BLVRB, ACPP
45progesterone44 59 28 11 2414.2BLVRB, HMOX2, ACPP, CGB5, SHBG, PRL
46adenylate4410.2BLVRB, CGA, CGB5, SHBG, NT5E, GNRH1
47testosterone44 59 11 2413.2CGB5, LDHC, ACPP, CGA, BLVRB, SHBG
48norepinephrine44 11 2412.1GNRH1, CGA, CGB5, SHBG, PRL
49arginine4410.0SHBG, ACR, ACPP, HMOX2, GLA, BLVRB
50(+-)-pgf2-alpha449.9GNRH1, CGA, CGB5

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Varicocele

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16Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Varicocele according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1extracellular regionGO:0055769.8ACR, ACPP, INHBB, GLA, SHBG, PRL

Biological processes related to Varicocele according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1porphyrin-containing compound metabolic processGO:00677810.3HMOX2, BLVRB
2heme catabolic processGO:04216710.2HMOX2, BLVRB
3ovulation cycleGO:04269810.0PRL, GNRH1

Molecular functions related to Varicocele according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1protein homodimerization activityGO:04280310.1SHBG, GLA, INHBB, ACPP, HSF2
2hormone activityGO:0051799.8INHBB, PRL, CGA, GNRH1, AMH

Products for genes affiliated with Varicocele

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Sources for Varicocele

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3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
50PubMed
51QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
60UMLS
61UMLS via Orphanet