MCID: VLV044
MIFTS: 45

Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia malady

Reproductive, Cancer categories

Summaries for Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Sources:
64Wikipedia, 33MalaCards
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Wikipedia:64 The term Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) refers to particular changes that can occur in the skin... more...

MalaCards: Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia, also known as vulval intraepithelial neoplasia, is related to squamous cell carcinoma and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. An important gene associated with Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia is KRT5 (keratin 5), and among its related pathways are Glioma and Cell Cycle. The compounds (4-aminophenyl)mercuric acetate and doxycycline have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, lung and t cells, and related mouse phenotypes are nervous system and vision/eye.

Aliases & Classifications for Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Sources:
49Orphanet, 61UMLS
See all sources

Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Global: Cancer
Anatomical: Reproductive


Aliases & Descriptions:

vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia 49
vulval intraepithelial neoplasia 61
vulvar intraepithelial tumor 49


Related Diseases for Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Sources:
17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
See all sources

Diseases related to Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 169)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1squamous cell carcinoma31.4CCND1, CDKN2A, CD44, MMP2, MMP1, MMP9
2cervical intraepithelial neoplasia31.1TERT, BIRC5, CDKN2A
3lichen sclerosus31.0CD44
4vulva squamous cell carcinoma11.0
5vulva cancer10.9
6vulvar disease10.7
7squamous cell papilloma10.6
8vulvar squamous papilloma10.6
9anal squamous cell carcinoma10.4
10epidermodysplasia verruciformis10.3
11vulvar keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma10.3
12trachoma10.3
13systemic lupus erythematosus10.3
14anal carcinoma in situ10.3
15keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma10.3
16vulvar melanoma10.3
17acne10.3
18vascular cancer10.3
19trichofolliculoma10.3
20chordoma10.0KRT5
21psoriasis10.0KRT5
22myelodysplastic syndromes10.0BIRC5
23meningioma10.0TERT
24chondrosarcoma10.0MMP1
25myeloid leukemia10.0BIRC5
26galactosemia10.0TIMP1
27pheochromocytoma10.0TERT
28liver cirrhosis10.0TIMP1
29epidermolysis bullosa10.0KRT5
30hepatitis b10.0TERT
31fibromatosis10.0TIMP2
32hypertensive heart disease10.0MMP1
33cholesteatoma10.0MMP9
34hypertension10.0MMP9
35nijmegen breakage syndrome10.0H2AFX
36abdominal aortic aneurysm10.0MMP9
37bronchopulmonary dysplasia10.0TIMP1
38cervical adenocarcinoma10.0CDKN2A
39hepatoblastoma10.0BIRC5
40dilated cardiomyopathy10.0MMP1
41herpes simplex10.0TIMP2
42meningitis10.0MMP9
43gallbladder cancer10.0TP53
44renal clear cell carcinoma10.0BIRC5
45ulcerative colitis10.0TP53
46neuroblastoma10.0TP53
47parathyroid carcinoma10.0CCND1
48gastritis10.0TP53
49actinic keratosis10.0TP53
50leiomyosarcoma10.0TP53

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia:



Diseases related to vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia

Clinical Features for Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Drugs & Therapeutics for Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Sources:
5CenterWatch, 42NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials
See all sources

Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Search NIH Clinical Center for Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Search CenterWatch for Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Genetic Tests for Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Anatomical Context for Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Sources:
33MalaCards
See all sources

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia:

33
Skin, Lung, T cells, Endothelial

Animal Models for Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia or affiliated genes

Sources:
37MGI, 28inGenious Targeting Laboratory
See all sources

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia:

37 (show all 19)
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00036319.9SOX2, TIMP2
2MP:00053919.7SOX2, H2AFX
3MP:00053769.4VWF, SOX2
4MP:00053909.1CCND1, SOX2, CD44
5MP:00053699.0TP53, MMP9, MMP2, CDKN2A
6MP:00020068.6TIMP1, CCND1, CDKN2A, MMP9, H2AFX, TERT
7MP:00053888.5CCND1, CD44, MMP2, MMP9, TP53
8MP:00053858.2TIMP1, CCND1, CD44, H2AFX, TP53
9MP:00107718.1CCND1, SOX2, CDKN2A, MMP9, KRT5, TP53
10MP:00053797.6CCND1, SOX2, CDKN2A, CD44, H2AFX, TERT
11MP:00028737.4TIMP2, CCND1, SOX2, CD44, MMP2, BIRC5
12MP:00053897.3CCND1, SOX2, CDKN2A, CD44, MMP9, H2AFX
13MP:00053867.0TIMP2, CCND1, SOX2, CDKN2A, CD44, MMP9
14MP:00053816.8CCND1, SOX2, CDKN2A, CD44, MMP9, VWF
15MP:00053786.4CDKN2A, SOX2, CCND1, TIMP1, CD44, MMP2
16MP:00053976.2TIMP2, TIMP1, CCND1, CDKN2A, CD44, MMP9
17MP:00053846.1CCND1, SOX2, CDKN2A, CD44, MMP9, H2AFX
18MP:00107685.4TIMP1, CCND1, SOX2, CDKN2A, CD44, MMP2
19MP:00053875.3TP53, TIMP2, TIMP1, CCND1, SOX2, CDKN2A

Publications for Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Sources:
51PubMed
See all sources

Articles related to Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia:

(show top 50)    (show all 205)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Alterations in classical and nonclassical HLA expression in recurrent and progressive HPV-induced usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and implications for immunotherapy. (24415578)
2014
2
Safety and efficacy of topical cidofovir to treat high-grade perianal and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive men and women. (23032420)
2013
3
Pathways of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma. (23190170)
2013
4
Treatment of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia with topical 5% imiquimod cream. (23219095)
2013
5
Treatment of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia with CO(2) laser vaporization and excision surgery. (23609594)
2013
6
Fascin and cyclin D1 immunoreactivity in non-neoplastic vulvar squamous epithelium, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous carcinoma: correlation with Ki67 and p16 protein expression. (24218024)
2013
7
Rapid spontaneous regression of acute-onset vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia 3 in young women: a case series. (22207153)
2012
8
CO2 laser total superficial vulvectomy: an outpatient treatment for wide multifocal vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3. (23084682)
2012
9
Genital warts and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: natural history and effects of treatment and human immunodeficiency virus infection. (21934446)
2011
10
A case of usual (basaloid)-type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia that failed to respond to imiquimod cream: clinical implications. (21249413)
2011
11
Premalignant epithelial disorders of the vulva: squamous vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, vulvar Paget's disease and melanoma in situ. (20504079)
2010
12
Specific intraepithelial localization of mast cells in differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and its possible contribution to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma development. (20727018)
2010
13
Imiquimod-induced clearance of HPV is associated with normalization of immune cell counts in usual type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. (21351262)
2010
14
Patients with usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia-related vulvar cancer have an increased risk of cervical abnormalities. (19513077)
2009
15
Women's perception of the outcome of the surgical management of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. (19160655)
2008
16
Letter to the Editor concerning "Topical imiquimod can reverse vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: a randomized, double blinded study." Gynecologic Oncology 107 (2007) 219-222. (18295871)
2008
17
Disturbed patterns of immunocompetent cells in usual-type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. (18701485)
2008
18
Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia--the need for auditable measures of management. (17382455)
2008
19
Use of the female sexual function index in women with vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. (16809252)
2006
20
Chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus 2 infection in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia associated with human papillomavirus. (17009637)
2006
21
A randomized phase II trial of indole-3-carbinol in the treatment of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. (16681761)
2006
22
Medical management of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. (16205189)
2005
23
Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: aspects of the natural history and outcome in 405 women. (16319258)
2005
24
Presence and type of oncogenic human papillomavirus in classic and in differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and keratinizing vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. (16032717)
2005
25
Is the assumed natural history of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia III based on enough evidence? A systematic review of 3322 published patients. (15863172)
2005
26
Human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus and p53 mutation in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. (15568402)
2004
27
Treatment of bowenoid and basaloid vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 with imiquimod 5% cream. (15603097)
2004
28
The role of angiogenesis in vulvar cancer, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar lichen sclerosus as determined by microvessel density analysis. (12713988)
2003
29
Human papillomavirus infection and p53 protein expression in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma. (12937780)
2003
30
Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia treated with cavitational ultrasonic surgical aspiration. (11925129)
2002
31
Alterations of the p16/Rb/cyclin-D1 pathway in vulvar carcinoma, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, and lichen sclerosus. (12454817)
2002
32
Successful treatment of recurrent vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia resistant to interferon and isotretinoin with cidofovir. (11360253)
2001
33
Trends in vulvar neoplasia. Increasing incidence of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva in young women. (10986677)
2000
34
The contribution of MIB 1 in the accurate grading of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. (10690171)
1999
35
Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia III: occult cancer and the impact of margin status on recurrence. (9840558)
1998
36
Increased prevalence of vulvovaginal condyloma and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia in women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. (9166302)
1997
37
Trends in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: the influence of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. (9277660)
1997
38
Monoclonal origin of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and some vulvar hyperplasias. (9006346)
1997
39
Is vulvoscopy a reliable diagnostic technique for high grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia? (9174839)
1997
40
Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1. (8641620)
1996
41
Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia III: a viral disease of undetermined progressive potential. (7896198)
1995
42
Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. Epidemiological and clinical study of 45 cases. (1333375)
1992
43
Analysis of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia for the presence of human papillomavirus DNA. (2030868)
1991
44
Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA is integrated into chromosome region 12q14-q15 in a cell line derived from a vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. (2153440)
1990
45
Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: a clinicopathological study of carcinoma in situ of the vulva. (2539316)
1989
46
Combination of surgical excision and carbon dioxide laser vaporization for multifocal vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. (3348303)
1988
47
Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: a report of two cases. (3744920)
1986
48
Management of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia by carbon dioxide laser. (6806733)
1982
49
Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: the concept and its application. (6281161)
1982
50
Treatment of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) with local bleomycin. (6159122)
1980

Genetic Variations for Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Expression for genes affiliated with Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Sources:
1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
See all sources
Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Sources:
30KEGG, 54Reactome, 52QIAGEN, 38NCBI BioSystems Database, 12EMD Millipore, 4Cell Signaling Technology
See all sources

Pathways related to Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 39)
idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1
Hide members
10.0TP53
210.0H2AFX
310.0BIRC5, MMP1
49.9BIRC5, MMP2
59.8MMP9, MMP1
6
Hide members
9.5TIMP2, TIMP1, MMP2
79.5MMP1, KRT5, TP53
8
Immune response Oncostatin M signaling via JAK-Stat in human cells
Hide members
9.5MMP1, CCND1, TIMP1
99.5CCND1, MMP2, BIRC5
10
G-protein signaling Ras family GTPases in kinase cascades (scheme)
Hide members
9.4TIMP1, MMP1, TP53
11
Hide members
9.4TP53, BIRC5, CCND1
129.3MMP9, MMP2, CCND1
13
Hide members
9.3CCND1, MMP1, TP53
14
Transcription P53 signaling pathway
Hide members
9.3TP53, MMP2, CDKN2A
15
Hide members
9.3TP53, CDKN2A, CCND1
169.3TP53, CDKN2A, CCND1
17
Hide members
9.3TP53, CDKN2A, CCND1
189.3TP53, MMP9, CCND1
19
Hide members
9.2CCND1, CDKN2A, H2AFX
209.2TIMP2, TIMP1, MMP2, MMP9
219.2TIMP2, TIMP1, MMP2, MMP9
229.2TP53, TERT, BIRC5, MMP9
239.1MMP9, MMP2, CD44
249.1TP53, H2AFX, CCND1
259.1TP53, CD44, CDKN2A
269.1MMP9, MMP1, MMP2, CCND1
27
Hide members
9.0TP53, BIRC5, MMP9, CCND1
289.0CCND1, CDKN2A, TERT, TP53
29
Cell adhesion Cell-matrix glycoconjugates
Hide members
9.0TIMP2, CD44, MMP1, MMP9
30
Hide members
8.9TIMP2, TIMP1, MMP2, MMP1, MMP9
31
Hide members
8.8TIMP2, TIMP1, MMP2, MMP1, TP53
328.3CCND1, CDKN2A, CD44, MMP9, TP53
33
Hide members
8.3TIMP2, TIMP1, CD44, MMP2, MMP1, MMP9
34
Cell adhesion ECM remodeling
Hide members
8.3MMP9, MMP1, MMP2, CD44, TIMP1, TIMP2
358.3CCND1, CD44, MMP2, MMP9, TP53
36
Hide members
8.2TIMP2, TIMP1, CCND1, SOX2, CDKN2A, TP53
37
Hide members
8.1TP53, CD44, CDKN2A, SOX2, CCND1
388.0CCND1, CDKN2A, MMP2, MMP1, MMP9, BIRC5
39
Hide members
7.5TIMP2, TIMP1, CDKN2A, CD44, MMP2, MMP9

Compounds for genes affiliated with Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Sources:
45Novoseek, 11DrugBank, 2BitterDB, 60Tocris Bioscience, 24HMDB, 50PharmGKB, 29IUPHAR
See all sources

Compounds related to Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 185)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1(4-aminophenyl)mercuric acetate4510.6TIMP1
2doxycycline45 1111.3MMP1
3matrigel4510.2MMP1, CCND1
4methyl selenol459.6TIMP2, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1
5pdtc459.5MMP2, MMP1, MMP9
6norcantharidin459.5BIRC5, TIMP2, CCND1, MMP2
7latanoprost45 1110.3TIMP2, TIMP1, MMP2, MMP1, MMP9
8hydroxamate459.3TIMP1, TIMP2, MMP1, MMP9, MMP2
91,10-phenanthroline45 210.3TIMP1, TIMP2, MMP2, MMP1, MMP9
10batimastat45 60 1111.2MMP1, MMP2, TIMP1, TIMP2, MMP9
11depsipeptide459.2TP53, CDKN2A, CCND1, H2AFX
12hydroxyproline45 11 2411.1MMP9, TIMP2, MMP2, TIMP1, MMP1
13silymarin459.1BIRC5, MMP9, MMP2, CCND1, TIMP2
14etoposide45 50 60 1112.1CD44, H2AFX, TERT, TIMP1
15vitamin a45 11 2411.1KRT5, TIMP1, MMP2, BIRC5, MMP9, MMP1
16p00001459.0BIRC5, CD44, TIMP2, CDKN2A, CCND1
17guanine45 11 2410.9CCND1, VWF
18celecoxib45 60 29 50 11 2413.9MMP9, MMP2, MMP1, CCND1, BIRC5
19arsenite45 249.9CCND1, CDKN2A, MMP9, TP53, BIRC5, TERT
20pioglitazone45 50 29 1111.8MMP9, TIMP1, MMP1, TIMP2, MMP2
21h2o2458.8MMP2, TIMP2, CDKN2A, VWF, MMP1
22roscovitine458.8TP53, CDKN2A, CCND1, H2AFX, BIRC5
23aprotinin45 119.5MMP9, VWF, MMP1, MMP2, TIMP2, TIMP1
24curcumin458.5TP53, BIRC5, MMP9, MMP1, MMP2, CCND1
25adriamycin458.4TERT, TP53, BIRC5, CD44, CCND1, CDKN2A
26pd 98,059458.4MMP2, MMP1, MMP9, TERT, CCND1, TIMP1
2712-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate458.4TIMP2, TIMP1, CD44, MMP2, MMP1, MMP9
28methotrexate45 50 1110.4MMP1, CDKN2A, MMP2, MMP9, BIRC5, TIMP1
29sb 20358045 609.2MMP9, TP53, CCND1, TIMP2, MMP1, MMP2
30actinomycin d458.1CDKN2A, CD44, MMP9, BIRC5, TP53, TIMP2
31folate458.1VWF, MMP9, MMP2, CDKN2A, CCND1, TIMP1
32nicotine45 50 29 1111.1MMP2, CDKN2A, MMP1, MMP9, VWF, BIRC5
33paclitaxel45 50 1110.0TP53, BIRC5, TIMP2, TIMP1, CCND1, CDKN2A
34genistein45 29 60 2 11 2412.9TERT, CCND1, MMP2, TIMP2, MMP9, MMP1
35cytochalasin d45 608.9VWF, MMP9, TIMP2, TIMP1, CD44, MMP2
36hyaluronic acid45 248.9TIMP1, CD44, MMP2, MMP1, MMP9, VWF
37doxorubicin45 50 119.7CCND1, H2AFX, BIRC5, TERT, TP53, MMP1
38cisplatin45 50 60 1110.7CD44, CCND1, TIMP1, H2AFX, BIRC5, TERT
39serine457.6TIMP2, TIMP1, CCND1, CD44, MMP2, MMP1
40lactate457.6VWF, BIRC5, MMP9, CD44, TIMP1, TIMP2
41oligonucleotide457.4CCND1, TIMP2, TERT, TP53, CDKN2A, MMP1
42progesterone45 60 29 11 2411.4MMP1, CD44, BIRC5, TIMP2, TIMP1, TP53
43alanine457.2CDKN2A, KRT5, TIMP1, CD44, BIRC5, MMP2
44paraffin457.2TERT, KRT5, BIRC5, VWF, MMP1, MMP2
45ly294002457.1TIMP1, TIMP2, TERT, H2AFX, TP53, MMP9
46cysteine457.0CDKN2A, TIMP1, TERT, CD44, MMP2, MMP9
47testosterone45 60 11 2410.0KRT5, CDKN2A, CCND1, CD44, TERT, BIRC5
48n acetylcysteine456.6CCND1, TIMP1, TERT, BIRC5, CDKN2A, TP53
49vegf456.2TIMP2, TIMP1, CCND1, CDKN2A, MMP9, VWF
50retinoic acid45 246.5CD44, CDKN2A, SOX2, TIMP1, TIMP2, CCND1

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Sources:
16Gene Ontology
See all sources

Cellular components related to Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1replication forkGO:0056579.5TP53, H2AFX
2proteinaceous extracellular matrixGO:0055788.4VWF, MMP9, MMP1, MMP2

Biological processes related to Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 8)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1mitotic G1 DNA damage checkpointGO:0315719.6TP53, CCND1
2response to X-rayGO:0101659.6TP53, CCND1
3positive regulation of cell cycle arrestGO:0711589.6CDKN2A, TP53
4replicative senescenceGO:0903999.5CDKN2A, TERT, TP53
5collagen catabolic processGO:0305749.5MMP9, MMP1, MMP2
6extracellular matrix disassemblyGO:0226179.1MMP9, MMP1, MMP2, TIMP1, TIMP2
7cell cycle arrestGO:0070508.9TP53, CDKN2A, SOX2
8extracellular matrix organizationGO:0301988.4TIMP2, TIMP1, CD44, MMP2, MMP1, MMP9

Molecular functions related to Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 7)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1metalloendopeptidase inhibitor activityGO:0081919.9TIMP1, TIMP2
2MDM2/MDM4 family protein bindingGO:0973719.7TP53, CDKN2A
3metalloendopeptidase activityGO:0042229.2MMP9, MMP1, MMP2
4chaperone bindingGO:0510879.1VWF, BIRC5, TP53
5collagen bindingGO:0055188.8VWF, MMP9, CD44
6enzyme bindingGO:0198998.7CCND1, H2AFX, BIRC5, TP53
7protein bindingGO:0055155.2TP53, TIMP1, CCND1, SOX2, CDKN2A, CD44

Products for genes affiliated with Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

  • Antibodies
  • Proteins
  • Lysates
  • Antibodies

Sources for Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
29IUPHAR
30KEGG
35MeSH
36MESH via Orphanet
37MGI
40NCIt
41NDF-RT
44NINDS
45Novoseek
47OMIM
48OMIM via Orphanet
51PubMed
52QIAGEN
58SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
61UMLS
62UMLS via Orphanet