Abdominal Wall Defect

Categories: Gastrointestinal diseases, Respiratory diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Abdominal Wall Defect

Summaries for Abdominal Wall Defect

Genetics Home Reference : 25 An abdominal wall defect is an opening in the abdomen through which various abdominal organs can protrude. This opening varies in size and can usually be diagnosed early in fetal development, typically between the tenth and fourteenth weeks of pregnancy. There are two main types of abdominal wall defects: omphalocele and gastroschisis. Omphalocele is an opening in the center of the abdominal wall where the umbilical cord meets the abdomen. Organs (typically the intestines, stomach, and liver) protrude through the opening into the umbilical cord and are covered by the same protective membrane that covers the umbilical cord. Gastroschisis is a defect in the abdominal wall, usually to the right of the umbilical cord, through which the large and small intestines protrude (although other organs may sometimes bulge out). There is no membrane covering the exposed organs in gastroschisis. Fetuses with omphalocele may grow slowly before birth (intrauterine growth retardation) and they may be born prematurely. Individuals with omphalocele frequently have multiple birth defects, such as a congenital heart defect. Additionally, underdevelopment of the lungs is often associated with omphalocele because the abdominal organs normally provide a framework for chest wall growth. When those organs are misplaced, the chest wall does not form properly, providing a smaller than normal space for the lungs to develop. As a result, many infants with omphalocele have respiratory insufficiency and may need to be supported with a machine to help them breathe (mechanical ventilation). Rarely, affected individuals who have breathing problems in infancy experience recurrent lung infections or asthma later in life. Affected infants often have gastrointestinal problems including a backflow of stomach acids into the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux) and feeding difficulty; these problems can persist even after treatment of omphalocele. Large omphaloceles or those associated with multiple additional health problems are more often associated with fetal death than cases in which omphalocele occurs alone (isolated). Omphalocele is a feature of many genetic syndromes. Nearly half of individuals with omphalocele have a condition caused by an extra copy of one of the chromosomes in each of their cells (trisomy). Up to one-third of people born with omphalocele have a genetic condition called Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Affected individuals may have additional signs and symptoms associated with these genetic conditions. Individuals who have gastroschisis rarely have other birth defects and seldom have chromosome abnormalities or a genetic condition. Most affected individuals experience intrauterine growth retardation and are small at birth; many affected infants are born prematurely. With gastroschisis, the protruding organs are not covered by a protective membrane and are susceptible to damage due to direct contact with amniotic fluid in the womb. Components of the amniotic fluid may trigger immune responses and inflammatory reactions against the intestines that can damage the tissue. Constriction around exposed organs at the abdominal wall opening late in fetal development may also contribute to organ injury. Intestinal damage causes impairment of the muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract (peristalsis) in most children with gastroschisis. In these individuals, peristalsis usually improves in a few months and intestinal muscle contractions normalize. Rarely, children with gastroschisis have a narrowing or absence of a portion of intestine (intestinal atresia) or twisting of the intestine. After birth, these intestinal malformations can lead to problems with digestive function, further loss of intestinal tissue, and a condition called short bowel syndrome that occurs when areas of the small intestine are missing, causing dehydration and poor absorption of nutrients. Depending on the severity of the condition, intravenous feedings (parenteral nutrition) may be required. The health of an individual with gastroschisis depends largely on how damaged his or her intestine was before birth. When the abdominal wall defect is repaired and normal intestinal function is recovered, the vast majority of affected individuals have no health problems related to the repaired defect later in life.

MalaCards based summary : Abdominal Wall Defect, also known as gastroschisis, is related to shprintzen omphalocele syndrome and omphalocele-cleft palate syndrome, lethal. The drugs Bupivacaine and Ketorolac have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include liver, small intestine and heart.

Wikipedia : 75 Abdominal wall defects are a type of congenital defect that allows the stomach, the intestines, or other... more...

Related Diseases for Abdominal Wall Defect

Diseases related to Abdominal Wall Defect via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 452)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 shprintzen omphalocele syndrome 12.7
2 omphalocele-cleft palate syndrome, lethal 12.7
3 omphalocele, exstrophy of the cloaca, imperforate anus, and spinal defects complex 12.6
4 omphalocele, diaphragmatic hernia, and radial ray defects 12.4
5 omphalocele, x-linked 12.3
6 shprintzen-goldberg craniosynostosis syndrome 12.2
7 diaphragmatic agenesis radial aplasia omphalocele 12.1
8 familial omphalocele syndrome with facial dysmorphism 12.1
9 oeis complex 11.8
10 beckwith-wiedemann syndrome 11.7
11 pagod syndrome 11.7
12 game friedman paradice syndrome 11.7
13 cloacal exstrophy 11.7
14 gastroschisis 11.7
15 omphalocele 11.6
16 otopalatodigital syndrome, type ii 11.6
17 donnai-barrow syndrome 11.6
18 paraomphalocele 11.5
19 amniotic band syndrome 11.5
20 omphalocele, autosomal 11.5
21 miller-dieker lissencephaly syndrome 11.4
22 boomerang dysplasia 11.4
23 fibrochondrogenesis 11.4
24 acrocephalopolydactyly 11.4
25 schisis association 11.4
26 manitoba oculotrichoanal syndrome 11.4
27 gonadal dysgenesis, dysmorphic facies, retinal dystrophy, and myopathy 11.2
28 fryns microphthalmia syndrome 11.2
29 kagami-ogata syndrome 11.2
30 hyperthermia induced defects 11.2
31 hyperekplexia 11.2
32 hypertelorism, teebi type 11.1
33 3mc syndrome 3 11.1
34 3mc syndrome 1 11.1
35 3mc syndrome 2 11.1
36 robinow syndrome, autosomal recessive 2 11.1
37 froster-huch syndrome 11.1
38 ichthyosis follicularis atrichia photophobia syndrome 11.1
39 methimazole antenatal exposure 11.1
40 ventral hernia 10.5
41 neural tube defects 10.3
42 exstrophy of bladder 10.3
43 peritonitis 10.3
44 colonic atresia 10.2
45 intestinal obstruction 10.2
46 macroglossia 10.2
47 prune belly syndrome 10.2
48 mercury poisoning 10.2
49 gastric dilatation 10.2
50 cryptorchidism, unilateral or bilateral 10.2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Abdominal Wall Defect:

Diseases related to Abdominal Wall Defect

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Abdominal Wall Defect

Drugs & Therapeutics for Abdominal Wall Defect

Drugs for Abdominal Wall Defect (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 112)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
Ketorolac Approved Phase 4 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
Glycerol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56-81-5 753
Sorbitol Approved Phase 4 50-70-4 5780
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1406-66-2, 54-28-4 14986
6 Coconut Approved Phase 4
Vitamin E Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-02-9 14985
8 Tocotrienol Investigational Phase 4 6829-55-6
9 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4
10 Ketorolac Tromethamine Phase 4
11 Protective Agents Phase 4
12 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
13 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
14 Fat Emulsions, Intravenous Phase 4
15 Liver Extracts Phase 4
16 Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Phase 4
17 Soy Bean Phase 4
18 Soybean oil, phospholipid emulsion Phase 4
19 Olive Phase 4
20 Cathartics Phase 4
21 Tocotrienols Phase 4
22 Tocopherols Phase 4
23 Laxatives Phase 4
leucovorin Approved Phase 3 58-05-9 143 6006
Dopamine Approved Phase 3 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
Metoclopramide Approved, Investigational Phase 3 364-62-5 4168
Folic acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 59-30-3 6037
28 Micronutrients Phase 3
29 Trace Elements Phase 3
30 Hematinics Phase 3
31 Vitamins Phase 3
32 Folate Phase 3
33 Vitamin B9 Phase 3
34 Vitamin B Complex Phase 3
35 Nutrients Phase 3
36 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 3
37 Antiemetics Phase 3
38 Dopamine Agents Phase 3
39 Dopamine D2 Receptor Antagonists Phase 3
40 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 3
41 Autonomic Agents Phase 3
42 Omega 3 Fatty Acid Phase 2, Phase 3
Bilirubin Phase 2, Phase 3 635-65-4, 69853-43-6 5280352 21252250
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 2 103-90-2 1983
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 2 15687-27-1 3672
Oxycodone Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 2 76-42-6 5284603
Erythromycin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2 114-07-8 441411 12560
Glucagon Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 16941-32-5
49 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 2
50 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 110)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of EXPAREL® When Infiltrated Into the Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) for Prolonged Postoperative Analgesia in Subjects Undergoing Unilateral Abdominal Hernia Repair Completed NCT01801124 Phase 4 EXPAREL
2 Liposomal Bupivacaine (Exparel) for Postoperative Pain Control for Open and Laparoscopic Abdominal Hernia Repair Completed NCT02128646 Phase 4 EXPAREL;Ketorolac
3 Results of Open Mesh Versus Suture Repair in Treatment of Abdominal Wall (Multicentric, Prospective, Randomised, Internet-based, Clinical Trial) Completed NCT01018524 Phase 4
4 A Randomized, Prospective, Double-blind, Multi-Center Study To Examine And Compare The Outcomes Associated With The Use Of Flex HD®, A Human Acellular Dermal Matrix, And Strattice™, A Porcine Acellular Dermal Matrix Allograft, When Used As A Reinforcing Material In The Repair Of Large Abdominal Wall Hernias By A Component Separation Technique Completed NCT01987700 Phase 4
5 Prospective Trial Comparing the Performance Profiles of Two Non-Cross-Linked Porcine Dermal Matrices in Abdominal Wall Reconstruction Recruiting NCT02228889 Phase 4
6 The Use of Gastrografin to Help Alleviate Bowel Obstruction Related to Poor Bowel Motility in Gastroschisis Patients. Recruiting NCT03334578 Phase 4 Gastrografin
7 Evaluation of Routine Administration of Glycerin Suppositories to Improve Bowel Function in Patients With Uncomplicated Gastroschisis Recruiting NCT03355326 Phase 4 Glycerin Suppository
8 A Multicenter, Prospective, Single-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Study of the Repair of Challenging Abdominal Wall Defects: Strattice(TM) TM in Abdominal Wall Repair Terminated NCT01083472 Phase 4
9 Low Dose Parenteral Fat for the Prevention of Parenteral Nutrition Associated Cholestasis in Neonates With Congenital/Acquired Gastrointestinal Disorders Terminated NCT01373918 Phase 4 Intralipid;Intralipid
10 Incidence and Severity of Parenteral Nutrition Associated Cholestasis in Neonates Subjected to Major Surgery, Using Two Mixed Intravenous Lipid Emulsions Terminated NCT02633384 Phase 4
11 Randomized Trial of AMNIOECHANGE in Gastroschisis Affected Foetuses Unknown status NCT00127946 Phase 3
12 Randomized Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of High Dose of Folic Acid to Prevent the Occurrence of Congenital Malformations Unknown status NCT01244347 Phase 3 folic acid;folic acid
13 The Use of Probiotics in the Management of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in HIV-exposed Premature and Very-low Birth Weight Infants Completed NCT01868737 Phase 3
14 The North American Study for the Treatment of Refractory Ascites (NASTRA) Clinical Trial Completed NCT00006166 Phase 3
15 The Use of Metoclopramide vs. Placebo in Infants With Gastroschisis. A Pilot Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial Recruiting NCT02098915 Phase 3 intravenous metoclopramide
16 Fish Oil Lipid Emulsion for the Treatment of Parenteral-Nutrition-Associated Liver Disease in Infants Active, not recruiting NCT02370251 Phase 2, Phase 3 Omegaven
17 Abdominal Wall Closure After TRAM / DIEP Flap - Comparison of TIGR Mesh vs Polypropylene Mesh. Unknown status NCT01136603 Phase 2
18 The Buckypaper as a New Device in the Treatment of Some Solid Cancer and Hematopoietic System Tumors and as a New Fixing Device for Prosthetic Surgery. In Vivo Study on Effects of BP Implantation, Preliminary to Human Surgical Applications Unknown status NCT02328352 Phase 1, Phase 2
19 A Multi-Centre, Prospective Randomized Trial to Evaluate Routine Use of a Silastic Spring-Loaded Silo for Infants With Gastroschisis Completed NCT00539292 Phase 2
20 Compassionate Use of an Intravenous Fish Oil Lipid Emulsion (Omegaven®) for the Treatment of Intestinal Failure Associated Liver Disease in Children Completed NCT02328768 Phase 2 Omegaven
21 The Effect of Multimodal Pain Therapy After Hernia Repair Recruiting NCT03792295 Phase 2 acetominophen, ibuprofen, oxycodone;Oxycodone
22 Phase 2 Study of Oral Probiotics Reduce the Incidence and Severity of Necrotizing Enterocolitis for Very Low Birth Weight Infants -Multi-Center Randomized Control Trial Terminated NCT00540033 Phase 2
23 Phase 1-2 Trial of Glucagon-like Peptide 2 (GLP-2) in Infants and Children With Intestinal Failure Terminated NCT01573286 Phase 1, Phase 2 Glucagon-Like Peptide 2;Glucagon like peptide-2
24 An Open-label, Single-arm, Phase 1 Study Examining the Safety and Efficacy of Fibrin Sealant Plus Silver Microparticles to Prevent Incisional Hernias (HiP_1 Trial) Following Abdominal Surgery Not yet recruiting NCT02584153 Phase 1 Fibrin Sealant;Silver Microparticles
25 The Use of Elemental Formula in Neonates Post Small Bowel Resection: Improved Success to Wean From Total Parenteral Nutrition? Unknown status NCT01891279
26 Evaluation of Abdominal Tissue Oxygenation in Premature Infants Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy Unknown status NCT01855347
27 Evaluation of Feeding Intolerance in Premature Infants Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy Unknown status NCT02534090
28 Full-thickness Skin vs. Synthetic Mesh in the Repair of Large Incisional Hernia - a Prospective Randomized Controlled Study Unknown status NCT01413412
29 The Effect of Music Therapy On Infants Born With Gastroschisis Unknown status NCT01469208
30 Mesh Used Repairs in Emergency Abdominal Wall Hernias Unknown status NCT01578538
31 Study for the Evaluation of the Efficiency of a Device for the Diagnosis of an Internal Rectal Prolapse, a Pelvic Floor Ptosis and for the Determination of an Internal Hernia Into the Douglas Pouch Unknown status NCT00836680
32 A Prospective Randomized Study to Evaluate Two Different Surgical Methods for Treatment for Abdominal Wall Diastasis Unknown status NCT01586741
33 Abdominal CT Angiography of Mesenteric Vessels for Diagnosing Internal Herniation After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Unknown status NCT03114761
34 Case-control Study of Mesh-infection After a Size Tailored Hernia Repair With C-Qur V-Patch Unknown status NCT01761708
35 PreOperative Steroid in Abdominal Wall Reconstruction: A Double-blinded Randomized Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT02594241 Methyl-Prednisolone;Physiological saline
36 Post-Operative Pain After Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair, Impact of Mesh Impregnation With Bupivacaine Solution vs. Normal Saline Solution Unknown status NCT03035617 Bupivacaine
37 Probiotics Supplementation and Length of Hospital Stay in Neonates With Gastrointestinal Surgery Unknown status NCT03266315
38 Health Related Quality of Life of Patients With Abdominal Wall Defects Completed NCT03960320
39 A Multicenter, Prospective, Observational Evaluation of Repair of Infected or Contaminated Hernias (RICH) Using LTM Completed NCT00617357
40 Repair of Large Abdominal Hernia Defects By A Novel Biologic Mesh: A Prospective Multi-Center Observational Study Completed NCT00892333
41 Quality of Life Evaluations in Patients With Abdominal Wall Hernias Completed NCT01115400
42 Abdominal Hernia in Cirrhotic Patients: Surgery or Conservative Treatment? Completed NCT02787772
43 Clinical and Biological Outcomes of Human Milk and Formula Intake After Gastroschisis Repair Completed NCT02575846
44 The Permacol Dutch Cohort Study Completed NCT02166112
45 Collagen Alterations in Patients With Abdominal Wall Hernias Completed NCT02734563
46 Intra-Abdominal Hypertension in Neonatal Intensive Care Patients Completed NCT00747552
47 Bedside Silo Versus Attempted Operative Closure for Gastroschisis Completed NCT01506531
48 A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Combination Therapy of Acetaminophen Plus Ibuprofen Versus Tylenol #3 for the Treatment of Pain After Outpatient Surgery Completed NCT00245375 Tylenol #3;Combination Tylenol and Ibuprofen
49 Probiotics in Infants With Gastroschisis Completed NCT01316510
50 Prospective Case-control Study on the Incidence of Incisional Hernias at 12 Months After Closure of Midline Laparotomies in Patients Treated for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Completed NCT02012270

Search NIH Clinical Center for Abdominal Wall Defect

Genetic Tests for Abdominal Wall Defect

Anatomical Context for Abdominal Wall Defect

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Abdominal Wall Defect:

Liver, Small Intestine, Heart, Lung, Colon, Skin, Testes

Publications for Abdominal Wall Defect

Articles related to Abdominal Wall Defect:

(show top 50) (show all 2991)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Multifunctional prosthetic polyester-based hybrid mesh for repairing of abdominal wall hernias and defects. 38
31426976 2019
Amnioexchange for gastroschisis does not help, and may even harm. 38
31127645 2019
A randomised controlled trial of amnioexchange for fetal gastroschisis. 38
31033140 2019
Gastroschisis at school age: what do parents report? 38
31325028 2019
Mode of delivery in pregnancies with gastroschisis according to delivery institution. 38
29562799 2019
Growth pattern of infants with gastroschisis in the neonatal period. 38
31221296 2019
Predicting Morbidity and Mortality in Neonates Born With Gastroschisis. 38
31421366 2019
Shared genomic segments in high-risk multigenerational pedigrees with gastroschisis. 38
31385443 2019
Gestational Outcomes of Pregnancies with Prenatally Detected Gastroschisis and Omphalocele. 38
30892123 2019
Maternal nutrient intake and fetal gastroschisis: A case-control study. 38
31215128 2019
Impact of state tobacco control policies on birth defects. 38
31398414 2019
Neonatal surgery in low- vs. high-volume institutions: a KID inpatient database outcomes and cost study after repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia, esophageal atresia, and gastroschisis. 38
31372730 2019
Diagnosis of fetal non-chromosomal abnormalities on routine ultrasound examination at 11-13 weeks' gestation. 38
31408229 2019
Risk Factors for Inpatient Mortality in Patients Born with Gastroschisis in the United States. 38
31412402 2019
Gastroschisis: State of the Art in Translating Experimental Research to the Bedside. 38
31426117 2019
Effects of gestational age at delivery and type of labor on neonatal outcomes among infants with gastroschisis. 38
31409162 2019
Comparative study of peritoneal adhesions after intraperitoneal implantation in rats of meshes of polypropylene versus polypropylene/polyglecaprone versus polyester/porcine collagen. 38
31432994 2019
Prevalence of selected birth defects by maternal nativity status, United States, 1999-2007. 38
30920179 2019
Transamniotic Stem Cell Therapy. 38
31302870 2019
Epidemiology and mortality of pediatric surgical conditions: insights from a tertiary center in Uganda. 38
31324976 2019
Factors that Influence Longitudinal Growth from Birth to 18 Months of Age in Infants with Gastroschisis. 38
31365930 2019
A 25-year study of gastroschisis outcomes in a middle-income country. 38
30898402 2019
Author response to "Gastroschisis may be good, bad, not so ugly and falsely beautiful". 38
30952454 2019
Gastroschisis may be good, bad, not so ugly, and falsely beautiful. 38
30954229 2019
An evaluation of nutritional and vasoactive stimulants as risk factors for gastroschisis: a pilot study. 38
29415587 2019
Mesh fixation using novel bio-adhesive coating compared to tack fixation for IPOM hernia repair: in vivo evaluation in a porcine model. 38
31069501 2019
Sirenomelia associated with an anterior abdominal wall defect: a case report. 38
31300067 2019
Associations of Neonatal Noncardiac Surgery with Brain Structure and Neurodevelopment: A Prospective Case-Control Study. 38
31235385 2019
Selected acculturation factors and birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997-2011. 38
31021057 2019
The Impact of Technology on the Diagnosis of Congenital Malformations. 38
31241162 2019
Epidemiology and Outcome of Major Congenital Malformations in a Large German County. 38
29715697 2019
Fetal intra-abdominal bowel dilation in prediction of complex gastroschisis. 38
31264279 2019
Surgical Site Infection in a Tertiary Neonatal Surgery Centre. 38
29579761 2019
Gastroschisis as a thrombotic disruption. 38
30924593 2019
Gastroschisis during gestation: prognostic factors of neonatal mortality from prenatal care to postsurgery. 38
31022657 2019
Fetal abdominal wall defects in an Australian tertiary setting: contemporary characteristics, ultrasound accuracy, and outcome. 38
31242785 2019
Influence of periconception smoking behavior on birth defect risk. 38
30790570 2019
Trisomy 18 in a First-Trimester Fetus with Thoraco-Abdominal Ectopia Cordis. 38
31215820 2019
Gastroschisis and mode of delivery: It's complex. 38
31131917 2019
A novel internal abdominal oblique muscle flap to close a major abdominal wall defect. 38
31045244 2019
The evolution of the serial transverse enteroplasty for pediatric short bowel syndrome at a single institution. 38
30803790 2019
CD161 contributes to prenatal immune suppression of IFNγ-producing PLZF+ T cells. 38
31145102 2019
Bioinformatic Analysis of Gene Variants from Gastroschisis Recurrence Identifies Multiple Novel Pathogenetic Pathways: Implication for the Closure of the Ventral Body Wall. 38
31075877 2019
Long-term outcomes of ultrashort bowel syndrome due to malrotation with midgut volvulus managed at an interdisciplinary pediatric intestinal rehabilitation center. 38
30826119 2019
Mode of delivery and mortality among neonates with gastroschisis: A population-based cohort in Texas. 38
31087678 2019
Sutureless closure: a versatile treatment for the diverse presentations of gastroschisis. 38
30692617 2019
Gastroschisis Following Treatment with High-Dose Methimazole in Pregnancy: A Case Report. 38
31123878 2019
Abdominal wall transplantation in organ transplantation: Our experience. 38
30948213 2019
Gastroschisis and Autism-Dual Canaries in the Californian Coalmine. 38
30725103 2019
Gastroschisis and Autism-Dual Canaries in the Californian Coalmine-Reply. 38
30725105 2019

Variations for Abdominal Wall Defect

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Abdominal Wall Defect:

# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 46;X;t(X;10)(p11.2;q24.3) Translocation Uncertain significance

Expression for Abdominal Wall Defect

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Abdominal Wall Defect.

Pathways for Abdominal Wall Defect

GO Terms for Abdominal Wall Defect

Sources for Abdominal Wall Defect

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
38 LifeMap
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
55 Novoseek
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
71 Tocris
73 UMLS via Orphanet
Loading form....