MCID: ACH005
MIFTS: 54

Achalasia

Categories: Cardiovascular diseases, Gastrointestinal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Achalasia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Achalasia:

Name: Achalasia 12 77 30 56 6 15 74
Cardiospasm 12 77 54
Hypertensive Lower Esophageal Sphincter 12 74
Esophageal Achalasia 12 74
Lack of Reflex Relaxation of Lower Oesophageal Sphincter 12
Achalasia of Esophagus 12
Achalasia of Cardia 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9164
ICD9CM 36 530.0
MeSH 45 D004931
NCIt 51 C84699
SNOMED-CT 69 17460002 45564002
ICD10 34 K22.0

Summaries for Achalasia

Disease Ontology : 12 An esophageal disease that is characterized by an inability of the esophagus to move food toward the stomach resulting from the lower esophogeal sphincter not fully relaxing during swallowing.

MalaCards based summary : Achalasia, also known as cardiospasm, is related to achalasia-addisonianism-alacrima syndrome and idiopathic achalasia. An important gene associated with Achalasia is AAAS (Aladin WD Repeat Nucleoporin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Neuroscience and G alpha (s) signalling events. The drugs Methylene blue and Acetylcholine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include smooth muscle, lung and testes, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and cardiovascular system

Wikipedia : 77 Esophageal achalasia, often referred to simply as achalasia, is a failure of smooth muscle fibers to... more...

Related Diseases for Achalasia

Diseases related to Achalasia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 283)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 achalasia-addisonianism-alacrima syndrome 34.3 AAAS GMPPA MC2R
2 idiopathic achalasia 34.0 AAAS VIPR1
3 megaesophagus 32.8 TP53 VIP
4 hirschsprung disease 1 32.2 NOS1 RET VIP
5 hypertrophic pyloric stenosis 30.1 NOS1 RET
6 small cell carcinoma 29.7 ENO2 KIT TP53
7 achalasia, familial esophageal 12.7
8 achalasia-microcephaly syndrome 12.5
9 alacrima, achalasia, and mental retardation syndrome 12.5
10 moyamoya disease 6 with or without achalasia 12.5
11 deafness, congenital, with vitiligo and achalasia 12.4
12 mental retardation, x-linked, syndromic 17 12.0
13 jackhammer esophagus 11.4
14 sjogren syndrome 11.3
15 posterior column ataxia with retinitis pigmentosa 11.0
16 muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle, autosomal recessive 18 11.0
17 gmppa-cdg 11.0
18 dysphagia 10.5
19 gastroesophageal reflux 10.4
20 esophageal cancer 10.4
21 chagas disease 10.4
22 esophagitis 10.3
23 squamous cell carcinoma 10.3
24 adenocarcinoma 10.3
25 acute thyroiditis 10.3 ENO2 NOS1
26 cutaneous ganglioneuroma 10.2 ENO2 KIT
27 gastric leiomyosarcoma 10.2 ENO2 KIT
28 autonomic nervous system benign neoplasm 10.2 ENO2 VIP
29 plexiform schwannoma 10.2 ENO2 KIT
30 conventional fibrosarcoma 10.2 ENO2 KIT
31 endometrial small cell carcinoma 10.2 ENO2 KIT
32 multiple mucosal neuroma 10.2 ENO2 RET
33 degos 'en cocarde' erythrokeratoderma 10.2
34 somatostatinoma 10.2 ENO2 VIP
35 rete testis adenocarcinoma 10.2 ENO2 KIT
36 prostate small cell carcinoma 10.2 ENO2 KIT
37 angiomyoma 10.2 ENO2 KIT
38 anorexia nervosa 10.2
39 heart sarcoma 10.2 ENO2 KIT
40 rete testis neoplasm 10.2 ENO2 KIT
41 diffuse pulmonary fibrosis 10.2 ENO2 VIP
42 dyskinesia of esophagus 10.2
43 type ii mixed cryoglobulinemia 10.2
44 sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma 10.2 KIT TP53
45 ganglioneuroblastoma 10.2 ENO2 VIP
46 adenosarcoma 10.2 KIT TP53
47 hernia, hiatus 10.2
48 atypical follicular adenoma 10.1 ENO2 TP53
49 central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal neoplasm 10.1 ENO2 TP53
50 cerebellum cancer 10.1 ENO2 TP53

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Achalasia:



Diseases related to Achalasia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Achalasia

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Achalasia:

47
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.09 AAAS ENO2 KIT MC2R NOS1 RET
2 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.01 GUCY1A1 KIT MC2R NOS1 RET TP53
3 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.92 AAAS KIT MC2R NOS1 RET TP53
4 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 9.86 AAAS ENO2 KIT MC2R NOS1 RET
5 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.85 AAAS KIT NOS1 RET TP53 VIPR1
6 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.81 AAAS GUCY1A1 KIT MC2R NOS1 RET
7 nervous system MP:0003631 9.56 AAAS ENO2 GUCY1A1 KIT MC2R NOS1
8 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.17 ENO2 GUCY1A1 KIT NOS1 RET TP53

Drugs & Therapeutics for Achalasia

Drugs for Achalasia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 81)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Methylene blue Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Not Applicable 61-73-4
2
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Not Applicable 51-84-3 187
3
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 53-03-2 5865
4 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
5 abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4,Not Applicable
6 Botulinum Toxins Phase 4,Not Applicable
7 Neuromuscular Agents Phase 4,Not Applicable
8 Acetylcholine Release Inhibitors Phase 4,Not Applicable
9 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4,Not Applicable
10 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1
11 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 4,Not Applicable
12 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 4
13 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
14 glucocorticoids Phase 4
15 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
16 Hormones Phase 4
17 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
18
Ceftazidime Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 78439-06-2, 72558-82-8 5481173
19 Anesthetics Phase 3,Not Applicable
20 Cephalosporins Phase 3,Not Applicable
21 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
22 Antitubercular Agents Phase 3,Not Applicable
23 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
24 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
25 Tin Fluorides Phase 3
26 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2, Phase 3,Not Applicable
27 beta-Lactams Phase 3
28 Lactams Phase 3
29
Nitric Oxide Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 10102-43-9 145068
30
Naloxegol Approved Phase 2 854601-70-0
31 Cola Phase 2
32 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 2
33 Narcotics Phase 2
34 Narcotic Antagonists Phase 2
35
Amyl Nitrite Approved Not Applicable 463-04-7, 8017-89-8 10026
36
Diphenhydramine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 147-24-0, 58-73-1 3100
37
Ondansetron Approved Not Applicable 99614-02-5 4595
38
Promethazine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 60-87-7 4927
39
Histamine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 51-45-6 774
40
tannic acid Approved Not Applicable 1401-55-4
41
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
42
Mirabegron Approved Early Phase 1 223673-61-8 9865528
43
Ropivacaine Approved Not Applicable 84057-95-4 71273 175805
44
Esomeprazole Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 161796-78-7, 119141-88-7, 161973-10-0 9568614 4594
45
Domperidone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Not Applicable 57808-66-9 3151
46
Dopamine Approved Not Applicable 62-31-7, 51-61-6 681
47 Hemostatics Not Applicable
48 Anesthetics, Local Not Applicable
49 Analgesics Not Applicable
50 Hypnotics and Sedatives Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 95)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Personalized Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for Achalasia Unknown status NCT01570621 Phase 4
2 Botox or Botox With Esophageal Dilation in Patients With Achalasia Enrolling by invitation NCT03654066 Phase 4 Botulinum toxin type A
3 Assessing the Efficacy of Steroid Treatment of Achalasia Enrolling by invitation NCT01903486 Phase 4 Apo-Prednisone Cordorol, Detasone - Prednisone
4 Comparison of Esophageal and Anorectal Manometry Catheters Terminated NCT00204763 Phase 4
5 Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for Primary Esophageal Achalasia Completed NCT01560559 Phase 3
6 Single-Versus Multiple-dose Antimicrobial Prophylaxis for Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy in Achalasia Recruiting NCT03784365 Phase 3 3Rd Generation Cephalosporins
7 Single- Versus Multiple-dose Antimicrobial Prophylaxis for The Prevention of Infectious Complications Associated With Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy(POEM) for Achalasia Active, not recruiting NCT03404739 Phase 2, Phase 3 Saline Solution;Ceftazidime
8 Efficacy of Dark Chocolate in Achalasia Patients Unknown status NCT00790465 Phase 1, Phase 2
9 Endolumenal Partial Myotomy for the Treatment of Esophageal Achalasia Unknown status NCT01302288 Phase 2
10 Prospective Study on the Feasibility and Effectiveness of Per-Oral Endoscopic Myotomy (P.O.E.M.) for Treatment of Primary Esophageal Motility Disorders Unknown status NCT01524458 Phase 1, Phase 2
11 Endolumenal Partial Myotomy for Esophageal Motility Disorders Unknown status NCT01302301 Phase 2
12 Per-Oral Endoscopic Myotomy (P.O.E.M.) for Treatment of Primary Esophageal Motility Disorders Unknown status NCT01524471 Phase 2
13 Prospective Study on the Feasibility and Results of POEM in Idiopathic Achalasia Completed NCT02259283 Phase 2
14 Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM) for the Treatment of Achalasia Completed NCT02073578 Phase 1, Phase 2
15 Pneumatic Dilatation or Surgical Myotomy for Achalasia Completed NCT02086669 Phase 2
16 Study of IW-1701, A Stimulator of Soluble Guanylate Cyclase (sGC), in Patients With Type I or II Achalasia Completed NCT02931565 Phase 2 IW-1701;Matching Placebo
17 Endoscopic Myotomy for the Treatment of Achalasia (Motility Disorder) of the Esophagus - POEM Procedure Completed NCT01873300 Phase 1, Phase 2
18 Movantik for Opioid-Related Esophageal Disorders Terminated NCT02998606 Phase 2 Naloxegol;Placebo Oral Capsule
19 Evaluation of the Safety and Effectiveness of Tailored Transoral Incisionless Fundoplication (TIF) Using EsophyX for the Treatment of GERD Withdrawn NCT01025739 Phase 2
20 Hot Water Drinking Therapy in Achalasia Unknown status NCT01863966 Not Applicable
21 Clinical Impact of Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for Esophageal Achalasia Unknown status NCT01649843 Not Applicable
22 Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM) For The Treatment Of Achalasia: A Registry Unknown status NCT02162589
23 Achalasia: Mechanisms Underlying Treatment Failure Unknown status NCT02055469
24 POEM Versus Pneumatic Dilatation in Achalasia Cardia Unknown status NCT02025790 Not Applicable
25 POEM vs. Pneumatic Dilation for Esophageal Achalasia Unknown status NCT01768091 Not Applicable
26 Outcome of Symptoms in Patients Undergoing a Heller Myotomy Unknown status NCT00519220
27 Snare-assisted POEM for Treatment of Esophageal Achalasia Unknown status NCT02999451 Not Applicable
28 Comparison Study of Conventional POEM and Hybrid POEM for Esophageal Achalasia Unknown status NCT01742494 Not Applicable
29 Bacteremia and Procalcitonin Levels in Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for Achalasia Unknown status NCT01750385 Not Applicable no antibiotic prophylaxis;second-generation cephalosporin
30 A Randomized Comparison of Laparoscopic Myotomy and Pneumatic Dilatation for Achalasia Unknown status NCT00188344 Not Applicable
31 POEM- Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for Esophageal Motility Disorders Unknown status NCT01512719 Not Applicable
32 POEM for Spastic Esophageal Disorders Unknown status NCT02425033 Not Applicable
33 Peroral Endoscopic Remyotomy for Failed Heller Myotomy Unknown status NCT01637311 Not Applicable
34 To Assess the Feasibility of Same Day Discharge Following a POEM Procedure Unknown status NCT02572193 Not Applicable
35 Laparoscopy Heller Myotomy With Fundoplication Associated Versus Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM) Unknown status NCT02138643 Not Applicable
36 Clinical Outcomes of Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy Unknown status NCT02989883 Not Applicable
37 Reversibility of Dysmotility After Gastric Banding Unknown status NCT00680030
38 Pyloric Sphincter Pressure and Geometry Assessment Using EndoFlip Unknown status NCT02446119
39 Functional Endoscopy in Neurogenic Dysphagia Unknown status NCT01995929
40 The Role That Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM) Could Play in the Treatment of Achalasia Completed NCT01584635 Not Applicable
41 Endoscopic Peroral Myotomy for Treatment of Achalasia Completed NCT01405469 Not Applicable
42 A Clinical Study of Per Oral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM) in Patients Suffering From Achalasia Completed NCT01692106 Not Applicable
43 Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM) for Esophageal Motility Completed NCT02314741 Not Applicable
44 Evaluation of a Novel Endoscopic Treatment for Achalasia Completed NCT01770249 Not Applicable
45 Genetic Evaluation of AAAS Gene in Early-Onset Achalasia and Alacrima Patients Completed NCT00856921
46 Prospective Study to Assess the Diagnostic Utility of Amyl Nitrite in Patients With Suspected Achalasia Undergoing High Resolution Esophageal Manometry (HREM) Completed NCT02428959 Not Applicable Amyl Nitrite
47 A Prospective Study Comparing Two Reconstructive Operation Techniques After Myotomy of Achalasia Completed NCT01933373 Not Applicable
48 Do Patients Who Have Had Surgery for Achalasia Suffer From Reflux Completed NCT00519441 Not Applicable
49 Efficacy & Safety of Submucosal Endoscopic Myotomy With Mucosal Flap (SEMF) in the Treatment of Patients With Achalasia Completed NCT01438398 Not Applicable
50 POEM Anterior Versus Posterior Approach Completed NCT02454335 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Achalasia

Genetic Tests for Achalasia

Genetic tests related to Achalasia:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Achalasia 30

Anatomical Context for Achalasia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Achalasia:

42
Smooth Muscle, Lung, Testes, Colon, Heart, Thyroid, Breast

Publications for Achalasia

Articles related to Achalasia:

(show top 50) (show all 3229)
# Title Authors Year
1
Epidemiological analysis of achalasia in Japan using a large-scale claims database. ( 30607612 )
2019
2
Per-oral endoscopic myotomy with endoscopic septum division in a case of achalasia with large epiphrenic diverticulum. ( 30623151 )
2019
3
Feasibility of the peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) procedure with a new small-caliber endoscope (thin-POEM) in patients with achalasia. ( 30630196 )
2019
4
Importance of Barium Swallow Test and Chest CT Scan for Correct Diagnosis of Achalasia in the Primary Care Setting. ( 30662021 )
2019
5
Is EndoFLIP Useful for Predicting Clinical Outcomes after Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy in Patients with Achalasia? ( 30665277 )
2019
6
Outcome of peroral endoscopic myotomy in children with achalasia. ( 30671667 )
2019
7
Meta-analysis of clinical outcome after treatment for achalasia based on manometric subtypes. ( 30690706 )
2019
8
Peroral endoscopic myotomy is more effective than balloon dilation in all achalasia subtypes. ( 30695124 )
2019
9
Efficacy and safety of pneumatic dilation in achalasia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. ( 30697952 )
2019
10
Achalasia: Insights into Diagnostic and Therapeutic Advances for an Ancient Disease. ( 30720423 )
2019
11
Esophagogastric Junction Distensibility on Functional Lumen Imaging Probe Topography Predicts Treatment Response in Achalasia-Anatomy Matters! ( 30741739 )
2019
12
Plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23 in achalasia, eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). ( 30744559 )
2019
13
Eosinophilic esophagitis and achalasia - just a coincidence? ( 30754060 )
2019
14
Anterior Dor or Posterior Toupet with Heller Myotomy for Achalasia Cardia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. ( 30756164 )
2019
15
Per-oral endoscopic myotomy and simultaneous diverticuloseptotomy in coincident epiphrenic diverticulum and achalasia. ( 30766944 )
2019
16
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for the treatment of pediatric achalasia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ( 30767141 )
2019
17
Validation of new Japanese classification system for esophageal achalasia. ( 30771041 )
2019
18
The laparoscopic approach for epiphrenic diverticula with achalasia. ( 30773891 )
2019
19
Corrigendum to: "Modern Management of Esophageal Achalasia: From Pathophysiology to Treatment," Curr Prob Surg 2018; 55 (1):1-38. ( 30777151 )
2019
20
Management of Esophageal Achalasia after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: Narrative Review of the Literature. ( 30778843 )
2019
21
Achalasia cardia: A diagnosis often delayed! ( 30783924 )
2019
22
First genotype-phenotype study reveals HLA-DQβ1 insertion heterogeneity in high-resolution manometry achalasia subtypes. ( 30788115 )
2019
23
High-resolution manometric guidance during laparoscopic Heller myotomy: Impact on quality of life and symptom severity for children with achalasia. ( 30808541 )
2019
24
Incidence and risk factors for esophageal cancer following achalasia treatment: national population-based case-control study. ( 30809653 )
2019
25
Achalasia Cardia Resulting in Bronchial Obstruction - A Case Series and Literature Review. ( 30845387 )
2019
26
Unexpected appearance of esophageal spastic activity after pneumatic dilatation in a patient with type II achalasia. ( 30851163 )
2019
27
Anterior versus posterior myotomy during poem for the treatment of achalasia: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. ( 30851179 )
2019
28
Achalasia: treatment, current status and future advances. ( 30866609 )
2019
29
Mast cell infiltration associated with loss of interstitial cells of Cajal and neuronal degeneration in achalasia. ( 30868687 )
2019
30
Bridging the Gap between Advancements in the Evolution of Diagnosis and Treatment towards Better Outcomes in Achalasia. ( 30881999 )
2019
31
Extending Myotomy Both Downward and Upward Improves the Final Outcome in Manometric Pattern III Achalasia Patients. ( 30892984 )
2019
32
Bridging therapy for achalasia in a second trimester pregnant patient. ( 30911523 )
2019
33
Peroral endoscopic myotomy for the treatment of achalasia and other esophageal motor disorders: Short-term and medium-term results at a Mexican tertiary care center. ( 29496268 )
2019
34
Valuing innovative endoscopic techniques: per-oral endoscopic myotomy for the management of achalasia. ( 29684386 )
2019
35
Gastro-oesophageal fistula in an achalasia patient following myotomy as an unusual cause of heartburn. ( 30286658 )
2019
36
Long-term outcome of myotomy and fundoplication based on intraoperative real-time high-resolution manometry in achalasia patients. ( 30598591 )
2019
37
The 2 years' long-term efficacy and safety of peroral endoscopic myotomy for the treatment of achalasia: a systematic review. ( 30606216 )
2019
38
Outcomes of pneumatic dilatation and Heller's myotomy for achalasia in England between 2005 and 2016. ( 30606814 )
2019
39
Esophageal achalasia and pregnancy: own observations in 43 patients and a review of the literature. ( 29931525 )
2018
40
Esophagography in Patients With Esophageal Achalasia Diagnosed With High-resolution Esophageal Manometry. ( 29969858 )
2018
41
Impact of preoperative balloon dilatation on outcomes of laparoscopic surgery in young patients with esophageal achalasia. ( 29892807 )
2018
42
Dynamic lumen obstructing angulation in advanced sigmoid-type achalasia successfully treated by additional proximal curve myotomy. ( 29452435 )
2018
43
Preliminary study of 1940 nm thulium laser usage in peroral endoscopic myotomy for achalasia. ( 29342262 )
2018
44
A novel method of endoscopic-assisted esophageal clearance in advanced achalasia. ( 29344565 )
2018
45
Self-expandable metal stent placement in a child for treatment of achalasia after failed Heller myotomy. ( 29344561 )
2018
46
Anal Achalasia: The Rat Tail Gas Sign. ( 29913152 )
2018
47
Screening for dysplasia with Lugol chromoendoscopy in longstanding idiopathic achalasia. ( 29748564 )
2018
48
Gastrointestinal: A rare case of concomitant type III achalasia and chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. ( 29469232 )
2018
49
EVALUATION OF ESOPHAGEAL ACHALASIA: FROM SYMPTOMS TO THE CHICAGO CLASSIFICATION. ( 29972404 )
2018
50
Incidence, morbidity and mortality of patients with achalasia in England: findings from a study of nationwide hospital and primary care data. ( 29925629 )
2018

Variations for Achalasia

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Achalasia:

6
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 46;XY;t(7;19)(q32;q13.1)dn Translocation Pathogenic

Expression for Achalasia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Achalasia.

Pathways for Achalasia

Pathways related to Achalasia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.79 ENO2 NOS1 RET VIP
2 11.5 MC2R VIP VIPR1
3 10.7 GUCY1A1 NOS1
4 10.61 KIT RET TP53

GO Terms for Achalasia

Cellular components related to Achalasia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 receptor complex GO:0043235 8.8 KIT RET VIPR1

Biological processes related to Achalasia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 negative regulation of apoptotic process GO:0043066 9.16 TP53 VIP
2 nitric oxide mediated signal transduction GO:0007263 8.96 GUCY1A1 NOS1
3 negative regulation of potassium ion transport GO:0043267 8.62 NOS1 VIP

Molecular functions related to Achalasia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 protein binding GO:0005515 9.36 ENO2 GMPPA GUCY1A1 KIT MC2R NOS1

Sources for Achalasia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
20 FMA
29 GO
30 GTR
31 HGMD
32 HMDB
33 HPO
34 ICD10
35 ICD10 via Orphanet
36 ICD9CM
37 IUPHAR
38 KEGG
39 LifeMap
41 LOVD
43 MedGen
45 MeSH
46 MESH via Orphanet
47 MGI
50 NCI
51 NCIt
52 NDF-RT
55 NINDS
56 Novoseek
58 OMIM
59 OMIM via Orphanet
63 PubMed
65 QIAGEN
70 SNOMED-CT via HPO
71 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
72 TGDB
73 Tocris
74 UMLS
75 UMLS via Orphanet
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