MCID: ACT150
MIFTS: 51

Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Categories: Endocrine diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

MalaCards integrated aliases for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency:

Name: Acute Adrenal Insufficiency 59 55
Addisonian Crisis 59 73
Acute Adrenocortical Insufficiency 59
Acute Adrenal Failure 59
Adrenocortical Crisis 59
Adrenal Crisis 59

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

59
acute adrenal insufficiency
Inheritance: Autosomal recessive,Not applicable,X-linked dominant; Age of onset: All ages; Age of death: any age;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 59  
Rare endocrine diseases


Summaries for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

MalaCards based summary : Acute Adrenal Insufficiency, also known as addisonian crisis, is related to classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency and adrenal insufficiency, congenital, with 46,xy sex reversal, partial or complete. An important gene associated with Acute Adrenal Insufficiency is CYP21A2 (Cytochrome P450 Family 21 Subfamily A Member 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Aldosterone synthesis and secretion and Interleukin-4 and 13 signaling. The drugs Hydrocortisone and Epinephrine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include adrenal gland, skin and pituitary, and related phenotypes are seizures and muscular hypotonia

Wikipedia : 76 Adrenal crisis (also known as Addisonian crisis and acute adrenal insufficiency) is a medical emergency... more...

Related Diseases for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Diseases in the Acute Adrenal Insufficiency family:

Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency

Diseases related to Acute Adrenal Insufficiency via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 92)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency 31.3 CYP21A2 POMC
2 adrenal insufficiency, congenital, with 46,xy sex reversal, partial or complete 30.8 CYP11A1 CYP21A2 POMC
3 hypoadrenocorticism, familial 30.4 CYP11A1 CYP21A2 POMC
4 conn's syndrome 27.4 CYP11A1 CYP21A2 POMC REN
5 euthyroid sick syndrome 10.2 IL6 POMC
6 pancreas disease 10.1 IL6 POMC
7 hypoaldosteronism 10.1 POMC REN
8 inappropriate adh syndrome 10.1 POMC REN
9 hyperaldosteronism, familial, type i 10.1 POMC REN
10 female reproductive system disease 10.1 IL6 POMC
11 familial glucocorticoid deficiency 10.1 POMC REN
12 adrenal cortex disease 10.1 POMC REN
13 adrenal gland disease 10.1 POMC REN
14 apparent mineralocorticoid excess 10.1 POMC REN
15 premenstrual tension 10.1 POMC REN
16 apnea, obstructive sleep 10.0 IL6 REN
17 endocrine organ benign neoplasm 10.0 POMC REN
18 mineral metabolism disease 10.0 POMC REN
19 pericardial effusion 10.0 IL6 REN
20 organ system benign neoplasm 10.0 POMC REN
21 chronic fatigue syndrome 10.0 IL6 POMC
22 aortic valve disease 1 10.0 POMC REN
23 obstructive jaundice 10.0 IL6 REN
24 aortic disease 10.0 IL6 REN
25 cell type benign neoplasm 9.9 POMC REN
26 overnutrition 9.9 IL6 POMC
27 hypokalemia 9.9 POMC REN
28 pneumonia 9.9
29 antiphospholipid syndrome 9.9
30 burns 9.9
31 diabetes insipidus 9.9 POMC REN
32 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome, type i, with or without reversible metaphyseal dysplasia 9.9 CYP11A1 CYP21A2
33 leydig cell tumor 9.9 CYP11A1 CYP21A2
34 substance dependence 9.9 IL6 POMC
35 cytochrome p450 oxidoreductase deficiency 9.9 CYP21A2 POMC
36 sleep apnea 9.8 IL6 REN
37 sex differentiation disease 9.8 CYP21A2 POMC
38 spinal cord injury 9.8
39 thrombocytopenia 9.8
40 lung cancer 9.8
41 heparin-induced thrombocytopenia 9.8
42 adrenal rest tumor 9.8 CYP21A2 POMC
43 pituitary-dependent cushing's disease 9.8 CYP21A2 POMC
44 iga glomerulonephritis 9.8 IL6 REN
45 arthritis 9.8
46 adrenal gland hyperfunction 9.8 CYP21A2 POMC
47 aldosterone-producing adenoma 9.7 CYP21A2 REN
48 arteries, anomalies of 9.7 IL6 REN
49 mood disorder 9.7 IL6 POMC
50 lymphedema 9.7

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Acute Adrenal Insufficiency:



Diseases related to Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Human phenotypes related to Acute Adrenal Insufficiency:

59 32 (show all 46)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 seizures 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001250
2 muscular hypotonia 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001252
3 muscle weakness 59 32 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001324
4 failure to thrive 59 32 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001508
5 nausea and vomiting 59 32 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002017
6 constipation 59 32 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002019
7 renal insufficiency 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000083
8 delayed puberty 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000823
9 fatigue 59 32 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0012378
10 arthralgia 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002829
11 hypoglycemia 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001943
12 hyperuricemia 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002149
13 myocardial infarction 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001658
14 abdominal pain 59 32 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002027
15 weight loss 59 32 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001824
16 dry skin 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000958
17 vitiligo 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001045
18 autoimmunity 59 32 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002960
19 anorexia 59 32 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002039
20 vertigo 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002321
21 hyponatremia 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002902
22 hypercalcemia 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0003072
23 diarrhea 59 32 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002014
24 stroke 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001297
25 renal salt wasting 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000127
26 adrenal hypoplasia 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000835
27 increased circulating renin level 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000848
28 hyperkalemia 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002153
29 increased circulating acth level 59 32 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0003154
30 hypovolemia 59 32 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0011106
31 orthostatic hypotension 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001278
32 hyperpigmentation of the skin 59 32 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000953
33 normocytic anemia 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001897
34 decreased urinary potassium 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0012364
35 sparse axillary hair 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002215
36 decreased female libido 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0030018
37 androgen insufficiency 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0008226
38 hyperkalemic metabolic acidosis 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0005976
39 salt craving 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0030083
40 acute respiratory tract infection 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0011948
41 hypotension 59 Very frequent (99-80%)
42 primary adrenal insufficiency 59 Obligate (100%)
43 decreased circulating aldosterone level 32 frequent (33%) HP:0004319
44 decreased circulating cortisol level 32 obligate (100%) HP:0008163
45 hypocortisolemia 59 Obligate (100%)
46 hypoaldosteronism 59 Frequent (79-30%)

Drugs & Therapeutics for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Drugs for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 61)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Hydrocortisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable 50-23-7 5754
2
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable 51-43-4 5816
3
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2 53-03-2 5865
4
Racepinephrine Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable 329-65-7 838
5
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
6
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2 50-24-8 5755
7
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2 83-43-2 6741
8 tannic acid Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4
9
Butyric Acid Experimental, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2 107-92-6 264
10 glucocorticoids Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
11 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
12 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
13 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
14 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
15 Adrenergic beta-Agonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
16 Mydriatics Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
17 Cortisol succinate Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
18 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
19 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2
20 Hormones Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
21 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2
22 Vasoconstrictor Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
23 Anti-Asthmatic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
24 Hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
25 Hydrocortisone acetate Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
26 Hydrocortisone-17-butyrate Phase 4,Phase 2
27 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
28 Epinephryl borate Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
29 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
30 Autonomic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
31 Bronchodilator Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
32 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
33 Tin Fluorides Phase 4
34 Prednisolone acetate Phase 4,Phase 2
35 Methylprednisolone acetate Phase 4,Phase 2
36 Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate Phase 4,Phase 2
37 Prednisolone hemisuccinate Phase 4,Phase 2
38 Prednisolone phosphate Phase 4,Phase 2
39 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
40 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
41 Antiemetics Phase 4,Phase 2
42 Protective Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
43
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 2 525-66-6 4946
44 Adrenergic Antagonists Phase 2
45 Adrenergic beta-Antagonists Phase 2
46 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 2
47 Vasodilator Agents Phase 2
48 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 2
49 Antibodies Phase 1
50 Immunoglobulins Phase 1

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 21)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Taper Or Abrupt Steroid Stop: TOASSTtrial Recruiting NCT03153527 Phase 4 Prednisone
2 Comparison of Two Strategies of Glucocorticoid Withdrawal in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Recruiting NCT02997605 Phase 4 GlucoCorticoid
3 Adrenal Insufficiency in Septic Shock Terminated NCT00842933 Phase 4 Corticosteroid;Corticosteroid
4 Open-label Comparison of Chronocort® Versus Standard Glucocorticoid Replacement Therapy Not yet recruiting NCT03532022 Phase 3 Chronocort®;Standard Care
5 Vaginal Prednisone Administration for Prevention of Adrenal Crisis Completed NCT02689960 Phase 2 100mg prednisone suppository
6 Phase II Pilot Study of Early Cortisol Replacement to Prevent Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Completed NCT00004669 Phase 2 hydrocortisone
7 Pharmacokinetics of Hydrocortisone After Subcutaneous Administration in Chronic Adrenal Insufficiency Completed NCT01450930 Phase 2 Hydrocortisone intramuscular first;Hydrocortisone subcutaneously first
8 Propranolol Versus Prednisolone for Treatment of Symptomatic Hemangiomas Terminated NCT00967226 Phase 2 propranolol;Prednisolone
9 Safety and Immune Response of BMS-936559 in HIV-Infected People Taking Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Completed NCT02028403 Phase 1 BMS-936559;Placebo for BMS-936559
10 Study to Investigate Adrenal Crisis (Six-year Follow-up) Completed NCT03499990
11 Prospective Study on the Incidence of Adrenal Crisis in Patients With Chronic Adrenal Insufficiency Completed NCT01184209
12 National Education Programme for Patients With Chronic Adrenal Insufficiency Completed NCT02694926 Not Applicable
13 Management of Adrenal Emergency in Germany Completed NCT03426332
14 Survey in Patients With Chronic Adrenal Insufficiency in Germany Completed NCT00444119
15 Adrenal Suppression and Adrenal Recovery Induced by Megestrol Acetate Completed NCT00575029 Not Applicable megestrol acetate
16 Natriuresis as a Predictor of the Haemodynamic Response to Steroid Replacement Therapy in Patients in Septic Shock Recruiting NCT03258619
17 Inhalation/Nasal Corticosteroids and Prevalence of Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) Axis Suppression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Patients Recruiting NCT02501486 Not Applicable
18 A European Post-Authorisation Observational Study (Registry) of Patients With Chronic Adrenal Insufficiency (AI) Recruiting NCT01661387
19 Adherence in Chronic Adrenal Insufficiency Recruiting NCT03399383 Not Applicable
20 Predisposing Factors for the Incidence of Adrenal Crisis Active, not recruiting NCT03410160
21 Rheumatoid Arthritis Adrenal Recovery Study Not yet recruiting NCT03294876

Search NIH Clinical Center for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Genetic Tests for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Anatomical Context for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Acute Adrenal Insufficiency:

41
Adrenal Gland, Skin, Pituitary, Lung, Spinal Cord, Liver, B Cells

Publications for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Articles related to Acute Adrenal Insufficiency:

(show top 50) (show all 107)
# Title Authors Year
1
Refractory collapse and severe burn: Think about acute adrenal insufficiency. ( 29306651 )
2017
2
GroupA 1. Epidemiology of primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency: Prevalence and incidence, acute adrenal insufficiency, long-term morbidity and mortality. ( 29174931 )
2017
3
Group 5: Acute adrenal insufficiency in adults and pediatric patients. ( 29174201 )
2017
4
SOCIETY FOR ENDOCRINOLOGY ENDOCRINE EMERGENCY GUIDANCE: Emergency management of acute adrenal insufficiency (adrenal crisis) in adult patients. ( 27935813 )
2016
5
Acute adrenal insufficiency: an aide-memoire of the critical importance of its recognition and prevention. ( 26968598 )
2016
6
Conduct protocol in emergency: Acute adrenal insufficiency. ( 27992012 )
2016
7
Acute Adrenal Insufficiency Associated with Rathke's Cleft Cyst. ( 26984082 )
2016
8
Acute adrenal insufficiency secondary to bilateral adrenal B-cell lymphoma: a case report and review of the literature. ( 27170834 )
2016
9
An acute adrenal insufficiency revealing pituitary metastases of lung cancer in an elderly patient. ( 27200139 )
2016
10
Transient acute adrenal insufficiency associated with adenovirus serotype 40 infection. ( 24928932 )
2014
11
Acute adrenal insufficiency as a first presentation of myelodysplastic syndrome and sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma: a case report. ( 25988040 )
2014
12
Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting as acute adrenal insufficiency: a rare clinical presentation. ( 24669348 )
2014
13
Peri-portal lymphedema in association with an acute adrenal insufficiency: case report. ( 24661563 )
2014
14
Acute adrenal insufficiency following arthroplasty: a case report and review of the literature. ( 24028157 )
2013
15
Idiopathic bilateral adrenal haemorrhage related to acute adrenal insufficiency. ( 23729712 )
2013
16
Rare presentation of shock and acute mesenteric ischaemia secondary to acute adrenal insufficiency in an 11-year-old male. ( 22970910 )
2013
17
Acute adrenal insufficiency due to primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. ( 24251172 )
2013
18
Acute adrenal insufficiency in cervical spinal cord injury. ( 22120347 )
2012
19
Acute adrenal insufficiency. ( 22712152 )
2012
20
A case of acute adrenal insufficiency unmasked during sunitinib treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. ( 22581915 )
2012
21
Acute adrenal insufficiency in a neonate with bilateral adrenal hemorrhage and combined prothrombotic risk factors. ( 22652827 )
2012
22
Community acquired bilateral upper lobe pneumonia with acute adrenal insufficiency: A new face of Achromobacter Xylosoxidans. ( 23173016 )
2012
23
Acute adrenal insufficiency associated with tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis and lymphadenopathy: case report. ( 22649455 )
2012
24
Acute adrenal insufficiency due to bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. ( 21466057 )
2011
25
Acquired long QT interval in a recurrent septic female patient with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia due to primary acute adrenal insufficiency. ( 21161542 )
2011
26
Hypoglycaemic seizure and neonatal acute adrenal insufficiency after maternal exposure to prednisone during pregnancy: a case report. ( 19902248 )
2010
27
Acute adrenal insufficiency may affect outcome in the trauma patient. ( 19385286 )
2009
28
Primary antiphospholipid syndrome presenting as hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome and acute adrenal insufficiency following it: a rare case. ( 19365633 )
2009
29
Evaluation of serum cortisol in the postmortem diagnosis of acute adrenal insufficiency. ( 18520491 )
2008
30
Acute adrenal insufficiency associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. ( 18575053 )
2008
31
Treatment of acute adrenal insufficiency. ( 17542196 )
2007
32
Acute adrenal insufficiency after a single dose of etomidate. ( 17456730 )
2007
33
[Acute adrenal insufficiency in the newborn]. ( 16962294 )
2006
34
Acute adrenal insufficiency. ( 17127145 )
2006
35
Reversible acute adrenal insufficiency caused by fluconazole in a critically ill patient. ( 16954446 )
2006
36
Images in cardiology: Acute adrenal insufficiency complicated by cardiogenic shock. ( 15772180 )
2005
37
Atypical presentation of shock from acute adrenal insufficiency in an adolescent male. ( 15942517 )
2005
38
Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage and acute adrenal insufficiency in a blunt abdominal trauma: a case-report and literature review. ( 15167178 )
2004
39
Acute adrenal insufficiency after large-dose glucocorticoids for spinal cord injury. ( 15562077 )
2004
40
Acute adrenal insufficiency presenting as high output ileostomy. ( 12648340 )
2003
41
Unusual presentations of thoracic tumors: Case 1. Acute adrenal insufficiency due to metastatic lung cancer. ( 11533102 )
2001
42
Acute adrenal insufficiency after cardiac surgery. ( 10708203 )
2000
43
Hyponatremia as a consequence of acute adrenal insufficiency and hypothyroidism. ( 10748385 )
2000
44
Acute adrenal insufficiency in a patient with asthma after changing from fluticasone propionate to budesonide. ( 10329837 )
1999
45
Acute adrenal insufficiency during pregnancy and puerperium: case report and literature review. ( 10546275 )
1999
46
Acute adrenal insufficiency precipitated by isolated involvement of the adrenal gland by tuberculosis. ( 10714806 )
1999
47
Transient ionized hypocalcemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism accompanying acute adrenal insufficiency. ( 15251746 )
1998
48
Acute adrenal insufficiency following unilateral radical nephrectomy: a case report. ( 9893218 )
1998
49
Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage resulting in acute adrenal insufficiency as an unusual complication of hepatic arterial chemoembolization. ( 9540911 )
1998
50
Acute adrenal insufficiency after coronary artery bypass grafting. ( 9262637 )
1997

Variations for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Expression for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency.

Pathways for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Pathways related to Acute Adrenal Insufficiency according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
12.44 CYP11A1 CYP21A2 POMC
2 11.43 IL6 POMC
3
Show member pathways
11.29 CYP11A1 POMC
4 11.17 IL6 POMC
5 11.1 CYP11A1 CYP21A2 POMC
6
Show member pathways
10.97 CYP11A1 CYP21A2
7
Show member pathways
10.74 CYP11A1 CYP21A2 POMC

GO Terms for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Biological processes related to Acute Adrenal Insufficiency according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 steroid metabolic process GO:0008202 9.32 CYP11A1 CYP21A2
2 regulation of blood pressure GO:0008217 9.26 POMC REN
3 steroid biosynthetic process GO:0006694 9.16 CYP11A1 CYP21A2
4 sterol metabolic process GO:0016125 8.96 CYP11A1 CYP21A2
5 glucocorticoid biosynthetic process GO:0006704 8.62 CYP11A1 CYP21A2

Molecular functions related to Acute Adrenal Insufficiency according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 iron ion binding GO:0005506 9.16 CYP11A1 CYP21A2
2 heme binding GO:0020037 8.96 CYP11A1 CYP21A2
3 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen GO:0016705 8.62 CYP11A1 CYP21A2

Sources for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
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42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
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51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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