Adjustment Disorder

Categories: Mental diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Adjustment Disorder

MalaCards integrated aliases for Adjustment Disorder:

Name: Adjustment Disorder 12 15
Adjustment Disorders 54 71
Adjustment Reaction 12 71
Adjustment Disease 12


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:507
ICD9CM 34 309 309.9
SNOMED-CT 67 17226007 63608001
UMLS 71 C0001546 C0040701

Summaries for Adjustment Disorder

Disease Ontology : 12 A disease of mental health that is an abnormal and excessive emotional and behavioral reaction to a life stress that develops within 3 months of a life stress, and which is stronger or greater than what would be expected for the type of event that occurred.

MalaCards based summary : Adjustment Disorder, also known as adjustment disorders, is related to neurotic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. An important gene associated with Adjustment Disorder is NPY (Neuropeptide Y). The drugs Dopamine and Risperidone have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, breast and brain, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and homeostasis/metabolism

Wikipedia : 74 An adjustment disorder (AjD) occurs when an individual has significant difficulty adjusting to or coping... more...

Related Diseases for Adjustment Disorder

Diseases related to Adjustment Disorder via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 116)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neurotic disorder 33.1 SLC6A4 HTR2A FLNA BDNF
2 post-traumatic stress disorder 31.2 SLC6A4 NPY HTR2A BDNF
3 depression 30.7 SLC6A4 HTR2A BDNF
4 personality disorder 30.3 SLC6A4 HTR2A BDNF
5 mental depression 30.3 SLC6A4 SCLY HTR2A BDNF
6 mood disorder 30.1 SLC6A4 NPY HTR2A BDNF
7 hypochondriasis 30.0 SLC6A4 HTR2A BDNF
8 acute stress disorder 29.9 SLC6A4 OGN CFI BDNF
9 major depressive disorder 29.8 SLC6A4 NPY HTR2A HCRT GAL BDNF
10 melancholia 29.6 SLC6A4 HTR2A BDNF
11 borderline personality disorder 29.6 SLC6A4 HTR2A BDNF
12 sleep disorder 29.6 SLC6A4 HTR2A HCRT BDNF
13 substance abuse 29.6 SLC6A4 OGN NPY HTR2A BDNF
14 somatization disorder 29.5 SLC6A4 SCLY HTR2A DCXR
15 schizoaffective disorder 29.5 SLC6A4 HTR2A BDNF
16 alcohol use disorder 29.5 SLC6A4 HTR2A GAL BDNF
17 social phobia 29.4 SLC6A4 CGAS CFI
18 generalized anxiety disorder 29.4 TSPO SLC6A4 NPY HTR2A BDNF
19 antisocial personality disorder 29.3 SLC6A4 HTR2A CFI
20 eating disorder 29.1 SLC6A4 NPY HTR2A HCRT BDNF
21 disease of mental health 29.1 SLC6A4 NPY HTR2A HCRT BDNF
22 agoraphobia 29.1 SLC6A4 SCLY HTR2A CFI
23 psychotic disorder 28.9 SLC6A4 HTR2A CFI BDNF
24 dysthymic disorder 28.8 SLC6A4 SCLY HTR2A HCRT CGAS CFI
25 alcohol dependence 28.8 TSPO SLC6A4 NPY HTR2A HCRT BDNF
26 anxiety 28.7 TSPO SLC6A4 NPY HTR2A HCRT GAL
27 multiple personality disorder 10.5 SCLY OGN
28 inhibited male orgasm 10.4 SLC6A4 OGN
29 uterine corpus sarcoma 10.4 INSRR FLNA
30 von economo's disease 10.4 HCRT GAL
31 barbiturate dependence 10.4 SLC6A4 EHD1
32 synovium neoplasm 10.4 FLNA EHD1
33 alcoholic psychosis 10.3 SLC6A4 HTR2A
34 chronic dacryocystitis 10.3 FLNA DCXR
35 dacryocystitis 10.3 FLNA DCXR
36 intermittent explosive disorder 10.3 SLC6A4 HTR2A
37 senile entropion 10.3 FLNA DCXR
38 tendinosis 10.3 NPY BDNF
39 obsessive-compulsive personality disorder 10.3 SLC6A4 HTR2A
40 psychosexual disorder 10.3 SLC6A4 HTR2A
41 acute inflammation of lacrimal passage 10.3 FLNA DCXR
42 postpartum depression 10.2 SLC6A4 SCLY BDNF
43 drug dependence 10.2 SLC6A4 NPY BDNF
44 normal pressure hydrocephalus 10.2 NPY HCRT BDNF
45 senile ectropion 10.2 FLNA DCXR
46 separation anxiety disorder 10.2 SLC6A4 LXN CGAS
47 leptin deficiency or dysfunction 10.2 NPY HCRT BDNF
48 bruxism 10.2 SLC6A4 HTR2A HCRT
49 chronic fatigue syndrome 10.2 SLC6A4 NPY HTR2A
50 retrograde amnesia 10.2 SLC6A4 BDNF

Comorbidity relations with Adjustment Disorder via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Acute Cystitis Anxiety
Deficiency Anemia Dysthymic Disorder
Heart Disease Hypertension, Essential
Major Depressive Disorder Schizophreniform Disorder

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Adjustment Disorder:

Diseases related to Adjustment Disorder

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Adjustment Disorder

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Adjustment Disorder:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.93 BDNF CGAS FLNA GAL HCRT HTR2A
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.77 BDNF CFI CGAS EHD1 FLNA GAL
3 normal MP:0002873 9.23 ANKS1A BDNF EHD1 FLNA INSRR NPY

Drugs & Therapeutics for Adjustment Disorder

Drugs for Adjustment Disorder (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 38)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Dopamine Approved Phase 3 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
Risperidone Approved, Investigational Phase 3 106266-06-2 5073
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 525-66-6 4946
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 113775-47-6 68602 5311068
Sevoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 28523-86-6 5206
6 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 3
7 Dopamine Agents Phase 3
8 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 3
9 Serotonin Agents Phase 3
10 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 3
11 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 3
12 Serotonin Antagonists Phase 3
13 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
14 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
15 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
16 Adrenergic Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
17 Adrenergic beta-Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
18 Vasodilator Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
19 Adrenergic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
20 Anesthetics Phase 2, Phase 3
21 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 2, Phase 3
22 Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists Phase 2, Phase 3
23 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 2, Phase 3
24 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 2, Phase 3
25 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 2, Phase 3
26 Anesthetics, General Phase 2, Phase 3
27 Anesthetics, Inhalation Phase 2, Phase 3
28 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 2, Phase 3
29 Analgesics Phase 2, Phase 3
Serotonin Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 3 50-67-9 5202
31 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 1
Nicotine Approved 54-11-5 942 89594
tannic acid Approved 1401-55-4
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
35 Sympathomimetics
36 Autonomic Agents
37 Protective Agents
38 Antidepressive Agents

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 57)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in Patients With Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Multiple Sclerosis. A Randomized Controlled Trial. Unknown status NCT01743664 Phase 3
2 Effects of Risperidone on Cognitive-Motor Performance and Motor Movements in Chronically Medicated Children Completed NCT00399698 Phase 3 Risperdal
3 Treating Adjustment Disorders Stemming From Romantic Betrayals: An Open-label Trial of Impairing Memory Reconsolidation Using Propranolol Recruiting NCT03151681 Phase 2, Phase 3 Propranolol Pill
4 Transbucal Dexmedetomidine for the Prevention of Emergence Agitation After Sevoflurane Anaesthesia in Pre-school Children Recruiting NCT02720705 Phase 2, Phase 3 Dexmedetomidine;saline
5 The Efficacy of Parent Involvement in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression Completed NCT00883519 Phase 1, Phase 2
6 The Impact of Integrating Emotion Focused Components Into Psychological Therapy Completed NCT02822443 Phase 2
7 Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents (IPT-AG) in School-based Clinics Completed NCT00270244 Phase 2
8 Post-traumatic Stress Disorders in Police, Correctional Service Officers, and 911 Operators: A Cost-effectiveness and Efficacy Comparison of Treatment as Usual and a Novel Intervention Recruiting NCT03152175 Phase 2 Propranolol Hydrochloride;Placebo
9 An Open Clinical Trial of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescence and Parents Completed NCT00619411 Phase 1
10 Psychological First Aid With Children in a High Risk Group - a Repeated Single Case Design Completed NCT01612104 Phase 1
11 Does an Integrative Neuro-psychotherapy Program Foster the Adjustment in Depressed Stroke Patients? A Randomized Controlled Study. Terminated NCT01039857 Phase 1
12 Psychological Flexibility and Effectiveness of Psychotherapy Treatment in Patients With Adjustment Disorder Unknown status NCT02291068
13 Neuropattern - Clinical Trial of a Psychobiological Stress Diagnostic Tool (Neuropattern - Erprobung Einer Psychobiologischen Stressdiagnostik) Unknown status NCT01062880
14 Effects of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy on Emotional Processing Unknown status NCT03358056
15 Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Stress Disorders: a Randomized Trial Completed NCT02540317
16 Study of the Psychometric Properties of the Scale of Well-being at Work: The Serenat Study Completed NCT02905071
17 Efficiency of Screening for Depression in Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy Completed NCT00951184
18 Psychiatric Day Hospital Treatment Completed NCT00153959
19 Differential Efficacy of Two Ways of Applying Homework Assignments in the Treatment of Adjustment Disorders: Application Supported by Information and Communication Technologies Versus Traditional Application Completed NCT02452411
20 ZIEL - Zurück Ins Eigene Leben - Internet-based Self-help for Negative Life Events Completed NCT03379155
21 Effectiveness of Musical Training in Reducing Depressive Symptoms, Enhancing Self-esteem and Quality of Life Among Hong Kong Chinese Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors - A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT03399864
22 Couples Coping With Multimorbidity: Does Solitary Expressive Writing Foster Psycho-social Adaptation? Completed NCT01912157
23 Promoting Wellbeing in Military Spouses With Training Completed NCT03308344
24 Registry of Mastectomy for Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Completed NCT00555503
25 Reducing Distress and Depressive-symptoms in Rural Women Using CaringGuidance™-After Breast Cancer Diagnosis: Randomized Controlled Pilot Study Completed NCT03465813
26 Treating Cancer-Related Fatigue Through Systematic Light Exposure Completed NCT01873794
27 Outcomes of the Work Rehabilitation Method Redesigning Daily Occupations (ReDO) - a Quasi-experimental Study Among Women With Stress-related Disorders Completed NCT01234961
28 An Investigation to Examine a Telephone Based Stress Management and Coping Skills Intervention for Patients Waiting for Lung Transplant Completed NCT00113139
29 MINDFUL-PC: Integrating Mindfulness Into the Patient-Centered Medical Home - A Pilot Study Completed NCT02972203
30 Therapeutic Termination of Pregnancy: Maternal and Paternal Mental Health Before and in the Long-term Completed NCT04080141
31 SAFARI-Return to Work: Promoting Health and Productivity in Workers With Common Mental Disorders Completed NCT01805583
32 Effectiveness of Two Stress Management Programs in the Adaptation Disorder With Anxiety (ADA) : Computer-based or Face- to -Face to Face Versus Control Group.Open Multicenter Prospective Randomized Controlled Therapeutic 3 Parallel Groups Recruiting NCT02621775
33 Neurobiological Effects of Work-related Adjustment Disorder Recruiting NCT03334045
34 Treatment of Depression: Efficacy and Efficiency of Two Self-administered Online Intervention Protocols Based on Behavioral Activation and Physical Activity Recruiting NCT02369393
35 A Problem Solving Based Intervention in Primary Health Care for Facilitating Return-to-work Among People Suffering From Common Mental Disorders - a Cluster-randomized Trial Recruiting NCT03346395
36 Development and Validation of a New Instrument to Evaluate Parents' Adjustment to Their Child's Chronic Disease: the Family Adjustment Inventory Recruiting NCT04049890
37 Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) to Evaluate the Efficacy and Cost-effectiveness of an Internet-based Self-help Program for People With Adjustment Problems After an Accident Recruiting NCT03785912
38 Multiprofessional Rehabilitation for Exhaustion Disorder Recruiting NCT03360136
39 The Efficacy of a Depression Intervention for Adolescents With Depression and Sleep Disturbances Recruiting NCT02429674
40 Mindfulness Influences on Self-regulation: Mental and Physical Health Implications -- Integrating Mindfulness Into the Patient-Centered Medical Home (Phase 3) Recruiting NCT03609450
41 Effectiveness of a Mindfulness Smartphone App ("Staying Calm in the OR") to Reduce Distress in People With Cancer Waiting for Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial Recruiting NCT04184557
42 Bounce Back Now: A Low-Cost Intervention to Facilitate Post-Disaster Recovery Recruiting NCT03403738
43 Piloting an ICU Follow-up Clinic to Improve Health Related Quality of Life After a Prolonged Intensive Care Stay Recruiting NCT04186468
44 Efficacy of an Internet-based CBT Program for Adjustment Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial Active, not recruiting NCT02758418
45 Integrated Mental Health Care and Vocational Rehabilitation to Individuals on Sick Leave Due to Burnout, Adjustment Disorder or Psychological Stress in Denmark (the Danish IBBIS Study): A Multi-center Randomized Controlled Trial Active, not recruiting NCT02885519
46 Return to Work Among Patients With Stress Related Mental Disorders - An Intervention in the Swedish Primary Care (PRIMA) Active, not recruiting NCT03022760
47 MINDFUL-PC: Integrating Mindfulness Into the Patient-Centered Medical Home - A Comparative Effectiveness Trial of Chronic Illness Self-Management and Action Plan Initiation Among Primary Care Patients Active, not recruiting NCT03265600
48 Preventing Sickness Absenteeism Among Employees With Common Mental Disorders and Stress-related Symptoms: a Cluster Randomized Trial of a Problem-solving Based Intervention Versus Care-as-usual Conducted at the Occupational Health Services Active, not recruiting NCT02563743
49 Creating Meaning Following Cancer: An Cognitive-existential Intervention to Improve Existential and Global Quality of Life Active, not recruiting NCT01141933
50 Mental Health Screenings in Adolescents With Type I Diabetes Active, not recruiting NCT02835014

Search NIH Clinical Center for Adjustment Disorder

Genetic Tests for Adjustment Disorder

Anatomical Context for Adjustment Disorder

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Adjustment Disorder:

Eye, Breast, Brain, Lung, Liver, Testes, Heart

Publications for Adjustment Disorder

Articles related to Adjustment Disorder:

(show top 50) (show all 1084)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): psychometric properties of the online Spanish version in a clinical sample with emotional disorders. 61
32039720 2020
Pediatric fibrocartilaginous embolism inducing paralysis. 61
31659479 2020
Outreach Psychiatric Emergency Service. 61
32036703 2020
Risk factors of ICD-11 adjustment disorder in the Lithuanian general population exposed to life stressors. 61
32002141 2020
Mental health conditions in bereaved military service widows: A prospective, case-controlled, and longitudinal study. 61
31765052 2020
One-Year Postpartum Mental Health Outcomes of Mothers of Infants with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. 61
31925632 2020
Clinical Features and Long-Term Outcomes of Living Donors of Liver Transplantation Who Developed Psychiatric Disorders. 61
32001667 2020
Association of Early Treatment With Chronicity and Hazard of Hospitalization After New Adjustment Disorder. 61
31994408 2020
The efficacy, safety and acceptability of emergency embedded Psychiatry Assessment and Planning Units: An evaluation of Psychiatry Assessment and Planning Units in close proximity to their associated emergency departments. 61
31973563 2020
The Unholy Trinity: Childhood Trauma, Adulthood Anxiety, and Long-Term Pain. 61
31936285 2020
Longitudinal associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and stress-related exhaustion, depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances. 61
31870352 2019
Self-Injury in Adolescents: A Five-Year Study of Characteristics and Trends. 61
31698397 2019
Prevalence of adjustment disorder among cancer patients, and the reach, effectiveness, cost-utility and budget impact of tailored psychological treatment: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. 61
31870421 2019
[Post-traumatic stress disorder and psychogenic pain]. 61
31864517 2019
Somatization and Coping in Ethnic Minority Recruits. 61
30793179 2019
Social status and modern-type depression: A review. 61
31743626 2019
The effects of inpatient music therapy on self-reported symptoms at an academic cancer center: a preliminary report. 61
30825024 2019
Association between stillbirth ≥23 weeks gestation and acute psychiatric illness within 1 year of delivery. 61
31226297 2019
Prevalence of overreporting on symptom validity tests in a large sample of psychosomatic rehabilitation inpatients. 61
31775575 2019
Measuring ICD-11 adjustment disorder: the development and initial validation of the International Adjustment Disorder Questionnaire. 61
31721147 2019
Incident psychiatric comorbidity following stress disorder diagnoses in Danish school-aged children: prospective population-based study. 61
31755399 2019
The Adjustment Disorder Diagnosis, Its Importance to Liaison Psychiatry, and its Psychobiology. 61
31766628 2019
Efficacy of synchronous telepsychology interventions for people with anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and adjustment disorder: A rapid evidence assessment. 61
29809025 2019
Depression in the medically ill. 61
31749372 2019
The impact of psychiatric and medical comorbidity on the risk of mortality: a population-based analysis. 61
31775914 2019
Effectiveness and Safety of Bupropion in Children and Adolescents with Depressive Disorders: A Retrospective Chart Review. 61
31671492 2019
Mental Health Conditions and Hyperthyroidism. 61
31582535 2019
The quality of assessments for childhood psychopathology within a regional medical center. 61
29771555 2019
Psychological morbidity and chronic disease among adults with nontraumatic spinal cord injuries: a cohort study of privately insured beneficiaries. 61
31153961 2019
Suicidality in Women with Adjustment Disorder and Depressive Episodes Attending an Irish Perinatal Mental Health Service. 61
31635207 2019
Stress related disorders and subsequent risk of life threatening infections: population based sibling controlled cohort study. 61
31645334 2019
ZIEL: Internet-Based Self-Help for Adjustment Problems: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial. 61
31614528 2019
Association Between Severe Maternal Morbidity and Psychiatric Illness Within 1 Year of Hospital Discharge After Delivery. 61
31503165 2019
Can Between-Session Homework Be Delivered Digitally? A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial of CBT for Adjustment Disorders. 61
31614596 2019
Cost-Effectiveness of Therapist-Guided Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Stress-Related Disorders: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial. 61
31586370 2019
Pediatric Psychiatric Emergency Department Utilization and Fine Particulate Matter: A Case-Crossover Study. 61
31553231 2019
Trauma- and stressor-related disorders among hematological cancer patients with and without stem cell transplantation: protocol of an interview-based study according to updated diagnostic criteria. 61
31477049 2019
Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Military Service Members Hospitalized Following a Suicide Attempt versus Suicide Ideation. 61
31489903 2019
Sociodemographic Characteristics of Adult Saudi Patients with Mood Disorder Subtypes. 61
31543738 2019
Childhood Adversity, Resilience, and Mental Health: A Sequential Mixed-Methods Study of Chinese Young Adults. 61
31524036 2019
Revalidation of Adjustment Disorder-New Module-4 screening of adjustment disorder in a non-clinical sample: Psychometric reevaluation and correlates with other ICD-11 mental disorders. 61
30983131 2019
Prophylactic SSRI treatment for women suffering from mood and anxiety symptoms undergoing in vitro fertilization-a prospective placebo-controlled study. 61
30225529 2019
Pharmacotherapy of psychiatric inpatients with adjustment disorder: current status and changes between 2000 and 2016. 61
31440829 2019
ICD-11 Adjustment Disorder among Organ Transplant Patients and Their Relatives. 61
31438589 2019
Adjustment Disorder and Suicidal Behaviours Presenting in the General Medical Setting: A Systematic Review. 61
31426568 2019
Relationship between induced abortion and the incidence of depression, anxiety disorder, adjustment disorder, and somatoform disorder in Germany. 61
31048110 2019
Adjustment Disorder: Current Developments and Future Directions. 61
31315203 2019
Stability of Psychiatric Diagnoses in Candidates to Liver Transplantation Referred to a Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry Service. 61
31195696 2019
Do patients with ICD who report anxiety symptoms on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale suffer from anxiety? 61
30955912 2019
Exploring characteristics associated with first benzodiazepine prescription in patients with affective disorders and related diagnoses. 61
31044486 2019

Variations for Adjustment Disorder

Expression for Adjustment Disorder

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Adjustment Disorder.

Pathways for Adjustment Disorder

GO Terms for Adjustment Disorder

Biological processes related to Adjustment Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 response to drug GO:0042493 9.71 TSPO SLC6A4 HTR2A GAL
2 neuropeptide signaling pathway GO:0007218 9.54 NPY HCRT GAL
3 temperature homeostasis GO:0001659 9.43 HTR2A HCRT
4 memory GO:0007613 9.43 SLC6A4 HTR2A BDNF
5 detection of temperature stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain GO:0050965 9.32 LXN HTR2A
6 sleep GO:0030431 9.16 HTR2A HCRT
7 negative regulation of potassium ion transport GO:0043267 8.96 HTR2A HCRT
8 feeding behavior GO:0007631 8.8 NPY HCRT GAL

Molecular functions related to Adjustment Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 serotonin binding GO:0051378 8.96 SLC6A4 HTR2A
2 neuropeptide hormone activity GO:0005184 8.8 NPY HCRT GAL

Sources for Adjustment Disorder

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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