AAMR
MCID: ALC028
MIFTS: 65

Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome (AAMR)

Categories: Genetic diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome

MalaCards integrated aliases for Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome:

Name: Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome 58 76 30 6 41 74
Intellectual Disability 45 41 74
Aamr 58 76

Characteristics:

OMIM:

58
Inheritance:
autosomal recessive

Miscellaneous:
onset at birth or in infancy


HPO:

33
alacrima, achalasia, and mental retardation syndrome:
Inheritance autosomal recessive inheritance


Classifications:



Summaries for Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome

OMIM : 58 Alacrima, achalasia, and mental retardation syndrome (AAMR) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of these 3 main features at birth or in early infancy. More variable features include hypotonia, gait abnormalities, anisocoria, and visual or hearing deficits. The disorder shows similarity to the triple A syndrome (231550), but patients with AAMR do not have adrenal insufficiency (summary by Koehler et al., 2013). See also 300858 for a phenotypically similar disorder that shows X-linked inheritance. (615510)

MalaCards based summary : Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome, also known as intellectual disability, is related to syndromic intellectual disability and autosomal dominant non-syndromic intellectual disability, and has symptoms including lethargy and neurobehavioral manifestations. An important gene associated with Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome is GMPPA (GDP-Mannose Pyrophosphorylase A), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Chromatin Regulation / Acetylation. The drugs Prednisolone phosphate and Prednisolone have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, brain and bone, and related phenotypes are nystagmus and gait disturbance

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 76 Alacrima, achalasia, and mental retardation syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of alacrima, achalasia, and mental retardation at birth or in early infancy. More variable features include hypotonia, gait abnormalities, anisocoria, and visual or hearing deficits. The disorder shows similarity to the triple A syndrome, but patients with AAMR do not have adrenal insufficiency.

Related Diseases for Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome

Diseases related to Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1461)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 syndromic intellectual disability 34.2 IQSEC2 MECP2 MED13L TCF4
2 autosomal dominant non-syndromic intellectual disability 33.8 AHDC1 EEF1A2 GRIN1 TCF4
3 x-linked non-specific intellectual disability 33.6 HCFC1 IL1RAPL1 IQSEC2 MECP2
4 iqsec2 33.4 IQSEC2 KDM5C
5 white-sutton syndrome 32.7 KDM5C MECP2
6 hypotonia 31.2 AHDC1 GNB1 MECP2 PURA
7 alpha thalassemia-x-linked intellectual disability syndrome 12.5
8 spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus, and obesity 12.4
9 developmental delay, intellectual disability, obesity, and dysmorphic features 12.4
10 non-syndromic x-linked intellectual disability 12.4
11 non-syndromic intellectual disability 12.4
12 syndromic x-linked intellectual disability snyder type 12.4
13 dandy-walker malformation with intellectual disability, basal ganglia disease and seizures 12.4
14 muscular dystrophy, congenital, with cataracts and intellectual disability 12.3
15 intellectual disability - athetosis - microphthalmia 12.3
16 hivep2-related intellectual disability 12.3
17 corpus callosum agenesis-intellectual disability-coloboma-micrognathia syndrome 12.3
18 syngap1-related intellectual disability 12.3
19 aniridia - ptosis - intellectual disability - familial obesity 12.3
20 hypoparathyroidism-intellectual disability-dysmorphism syndrome 12.3
21 intellectual disability-severe speech delay-mild dysmorphism syndrome 12.3
22 retinitis pigmentosa-intellectual disability-deafness-hypogonadism syndrome 12.3
23 severe intellectual disability-progressive spastic diplegia syndrome 12.3
24 syngap1-related non-syndromic intellectual disability 12.3
25 white matter hypoplasia-corpus callosum agenesis-intellectual disability syndrome 12.3
26 x-linked intellectual disability, siderius type 12.3
27 autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability 12.3
28 syndromic x-linked intellectual disability 7 12.3
29 polyneuropathy-intellectual disability-acromicria-premature menopause syndrome 12.3
30 intellectual disability-developmental delay-contractures syndrome 12.3
31 syndromic x-linked intellectual disability 12 12.3
32 syndromic x-linked intellectual disability type 10 12.3
33 aortic arch anomaly - peculiar facies - intellectual disability 12.3
34 arachnodactyly - intellectual disability - dysmorphism 12.3
35 syndromic x-linked intellectual disability siderius type 12.3
36 syndromic x-linked intellectual disability nascimento type 12.3
37 brachydactyly-mesomelia-intellectual disability-heart defects syndrome 12.3
38 mbd25-related intellectual disability 12.3
39 cask-related intellectual disability 12.3
40 syndromic x-linked intellectual disability 12.2
41 ppp2r5d-related intellectual disability 12.2
42 x-linked intellectual disability, najm type 12.2
43 syndromic x-linked intellectual disability cabezas type 12.2
44 syndromic x-linked intellectual disability shashi type 12.2
45 autosomal dominant non-syndromic intellectual disability 1 12.2
46 autosomal dominant non-syndromic intellectual disability 2 12.2
47 autosomal dominant non-syndromic intellectual disability 3 12.2
48 autosomal dominant non-syndromic intellectual disability 4 12.2
49 autosomal dominant non-syndromic intellectual disability 5 12.2
50 autosomal dominant non-syndromic intellectual disability 6 12.2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome:



Diseases related to Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome

Human phenotypes related to Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome:

33 (show all 17)
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 nystagmus 33 occasional (7.5%) HP:0000639
2 gait disturbance 33 occasional (7.5%) HP:0001288
3 hearing impairment 33 occasional (7.5%) HP:0000365
4 hyperkeratosis 33 occasional (7.5%) HP:0000962
5 strabismus 33 occasional (7.5%) HP:0000486
6 hypohidrosis 33 occasional (7.5%) HP:0000966
7 nasal speech 33 occasional (7.5%) HP:0001611
8 generalized hypotonia 33 occasional (7.5%) HP:0001290
9 orthostatic hypotension 33 occasional (7.5%) HP:0001278
10 sensory impairment 33 occasional (7.5%) HP:0003474
11 anisocoria 33 occasional (7.5%) HP:0009916
12 intellectual disability 33 HP:0001249
13 dysphagia 33 HP:0002015
14 global developmental delay 33 HP:0001263
15 feeding difficulties 33 HP:0011968
16 achalasia 33 HP:0002571
17 alacrima 33 HP:0000522

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

58
Neurologic Central Nervous System:
intellectual disability
autonomic dysfunction
delayed psychomotor development
gait abnormalities (in some patients)

Head And Neck Eyes:
alacrima
nystagmus (in some patients)
strabismus (in some patients)
visual problems (in some patients)
anisocoria (in some patients)

Muscle Soft Tissue:
hypotonia (in some patients)

Cardiovascular Vascular:
postural hypotension (in some patients)

Voice:
nasal voice (in some patients)

Laboratory Abnormalities:
normal serum transferrin profiles

Abdomen Gastrointestinal:
dysphagia
feeding difficulties
achalasia

Head And Neck Ears:
hearing impairment (in some patients)

Skin Nails Hair Skin:
hypohidrosis (in some patients)
hyperkeratosis (in some patients)

Neurologic Peripheral Nervous System:
sensory impairment (in some patients)

Endocrine Features:
no adrenal insufficiency

Clinical features from OMIM:

615510

UMLS symptoms related to Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome:


lethargy, neurobehavioral manifestations

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

27
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased CDKN1A mRNA expression GR00389-S-2 8.62 MECP2 PHC1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome:

47
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10 BBS10 CUL4B EEF1A2 GNB1 GRIN1 KDM5C
2 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 9.93 BBS10 CUL4B EEF1A2 GRIN1 HCFC1 KDM5C
3 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.8 BBS10 C12orf57 CUL4B EEF1A2 GNB1 GRIN1
4 nervous system MP:0003631 9.4 BBS10 CUL4B EEF1A2 GNB1 GRIN1 IL1RAPL1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome

Drugs for Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 462)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 302-25-0
2
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 50-24-8 5755
3
Clobazam Approved, Illicit Phase 4,Phase 3 22316-47-8 2789
4
Tiagabine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 115103-54-3 60648
5
Clonazepam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 1622-61-3 2802
6
Felbamate Approved Phase 4 25451-15-4 3331
7
Levetiracetam Approved, Investigational Phase 4 102767-28-2 441341
8
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 83-43-2 6741
9
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 2921-57-5
10
Topiramate Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable 97240-79-4 5284627
11
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
12
Phenytoin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 57-41-0 1775
13
Acetazolamide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-66-5 1986
14
Rufinamide Approved Phase 4 106308-44-5 129228
15
Valproic Acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 99-66-1 3121
16
Ethosuximide Approved Phase 4 77-67-8 3291
17
Carbamazepine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 298-46-4 2554
18
Oxcarbazepine Approved Phase 4 28721-07-5 34312
19
Vigabatrin Approved Phase 4 68506-86-5, 60643-86-9 5665
20
Zonisamide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68291-97-4 5734
21
Pregabalin Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 148553-50-8 5486971
22
Lamotrigine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3 84057-84-1 3878
23
Nitrazepam Approved Phase 4 146-22-5 4506
24
Phenobarbital Approved, Investigational Phase 4 50-06-6 4763
25
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2 113-45-1 4158
26
Aripiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 129722-12-9 60795
27
Dopamine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 62-31-7, 51-61-6 681
28
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable 19982-08-2 4054
29
Levomilnacipran Approved, Investigational Phase 4 96847-54-0
30
Norepinephrine Approved Phase 4 51-41-2 439260
31
Milnacipran Approved, Investigational Phase 4 92623-85-3 65833
32
Guanfacine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29110-47-2 3519
33
Lovastatin Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2 75330-75-5 53232
34
Celiprolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56980-93-9
35
Riluzole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1744-22-5 5070
36
Risperidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3 106266-06-2 5073
37
Liraglutide Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 204656-20-2 44147092
38
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 2920-86-7
39 Prednisolone acetate Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
40 Methylprednisolone Acetate Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
41 Anticonvulsants Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
42 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
43 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
44 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
45 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
46 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
47 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
48 Analgesics Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
49 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4,Phase 2
50 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 766)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Ketogenic Diet vs.Antiepileptic Drug Treatment in Drug Resistant Epilepsy Unknown status NCT00552526 Phase 4 Antiepileptic drug (AED)
2 Use of Sustained Release Antiepileptic Medication (Depakote® ER) for Pediatric Epilepsy in a Mental Retardation/Developmental Disorder Population Completed NCT00207935 Phase 4
3 Milnacipran in Autism and the Functional Locus Coeruleus and Noradrenergic Model of Autism Completed NCT01337700 Phase 4 Milnacipran;Placebo
4 Guanfacine for the Treatment of Hyperactivity in Pervasive Developmental Disorder Completed NCT01238575 Phase 4 extended-release guanfacine
5 Combining Lovastatin and a Parent-Implemented Language Intervention for Fragile X Syndrome Completed NCT02642653 Phase 4 Lovastatin
6 Phase IV Long-term Maintenance Study of Aripiprazole in the Treatment of Irritability Associated With Autistic Disorder Completed NCT01227668 Phase 4 Aripiprazole;Placebo
7 Celiprolol in Patients With Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Vascular Type Completed NCT00190411 Phase 4 celiprolol;Control
8 Riluzole in Fragile X Syndrome Completed NCT00895752 Phase 4 Riluzole
9 Safety and Clinical Outcomes in Hunter Syndrome Patients 5 Years of Age and Younger Receiving Idursulfase Therapy Completed NCT00607386 Phase 4
10 Efficacy and Safety of Memantine Hydrochloride in Enhancing the Cognitive Abilities of Young Adults With Down Syndrome Completed NCT01112683 Phase 4 Memantine;Placebo
11 Is There a Sensibility Increased in the Growth Hormone at Child With Prader-Willi Syndrome? Completed NCT01298180 Phase 4 Growth hormone (Genotonorm® or Omnitrope®)
12 The Psychiatric and Cognitive Phenotypes in Velocardiofacial Syndrome Recruiting NCT00768820 Phase 4 methylphenidate, fluoxetin, risperidone
13 Oxygen Versus Medical Air for Treatment of CSA in Prader Will Syndrome Recruiting NCT03031626 Phase 4
14 Long-term Evaluation on Height and Weight in Patients With MPS II Who Started Treatment at < 6 Years of Age Active, not recruiting NCT02455622 Phase 4 Elaprase for intravenous (IV) infusion
15 GH in Adults With PWS, Effect on Hypotonia Evaluated by Functional MRI, Relationship With Strength and Body Composition Active, not recruiting NCT03616509 Phase 4 Growth hormone;Placebo
16 Liraglutide Use in Prader-Willi Syndrome Terminated NCT01542242 Phase 4 Liraglutide
17 Clinical and Cost Effectiveness of Positive Behaviour Support: a Trial Unknown status NCT01680276 Phase 3
18 Repetitive Behavior Disorders in People With Severe Mental Retardation Unknown status NCT00491478 Phase 3 sertraline
19 Self-Injury: Diagnosis and Treatment Unknown status NCT00065936 Phase 3 Naltrexone hydrochloride
20 Efficacy of RAD001/Everolimus in Autism and NeuroPsychological Deficits in Children With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Unknown status NCT01730209 Phase 2, Phase 3 Everolimus;Placebo
21 Magnesium Sulfate to Prevent Brain Injury in Premature Infants Unknown status NCT00065949 Phase 3 magnesium sulfate
22 Clinical Trial for Asses the Safety and Efficacy of Vitamin C and Vitamin E in Combination Versus Placebo for Treating Cognitive and Behavior Disorder in Children With Fragile X Syndrome Unknown status NCT02942498 Phase 3 Vitamin C 10mg/Kg Vitamin E 10 mg/Kg;Placebo
23 GWPCARE2 A Study to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol (GWP42003-P) in Children and Young Adults With Dravet Syndrome Unknown status NCT02224703 Phase 3 GWP42003-P;Placebo Control
24 Independent Studies of Dextromethorphan and of Donepezil Hydrochloride for Rett Syndrome Unknown status NCT00069550 Phase 3 dextromethorphan;donepezil hydrochloride
25 Growth Hormone Use in Adults With Prader-Willi Syndrome Unknown status NCT00444964 Phase 3 Nutropin AQ
26 Effect of Rimonabant on Weight Gain and Body Composition in Adults With Prader Willi Syndrome Unknown status NCT00603109 Phase 3 rimonabant;placebo
27 Vitamin E in Aging Persons With Down Syndrome Unknown status NCT00056329 Phase 3 Vitamin E;multivitamin;Placebo
28 Vibration and Cold for Pain Relief During Peripheral Intravenous Cannulation in Children With Intellectual Disability Completed NCT02434731 Phase 3
29 Atypical Neuroleptic Drugs in People With Mental Retardation/Developmental Delay Completed NCT00065273 Phase 3 risperidone;clozapine;olanzapine
30 A Study of the Safety and Effectiveness of Risperidone Versus Placebo for the Treatment of Conduct Disorder in Children With Mild, Moderate, or Borderline Mental Retardation Completed NCT00266552 Phase 3 risperidone
31 A Study of the Safety and Effectiveness of Risperidone for the Treatment of Conduct Disorder and Other Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Children Ages 5 to 12 With Mild, Moderate, or Borderline Mental Retardation Completed NCT00250354 Phase 3 Risperidone oral solution
32 Safety and Efficacy Study of Oral Glycopyrrolate Liquid for the Treatment of Pathologic (Chronic Moderate to Severe) Drooling in Pediatric Patients 3 to 18 Years of Age With Cerebral Palsy or Other Neurologic Conditions Completed NCT00491894 Phase 3 Oral Glycopyrrolate Liquid
33 Short-Term vs. Long-Term Valganciclovir Therapy for Symptomatic Congenital CMV Infections Completed NCT00466817 Phase 3 Valganciclovir
34 Study of Aripiprazole in the Treatment of Pervasive Developmental Disorders Completed NCT00870727 Phase 3 Aripiprazole oral product;Placebo oral capsule
35 Study of Aripiprazole in the Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Autistic Disorder (AD) Completed NCT00337571 Phase 3 Aripiprazole;Placebo
36 Study of Aripiprazole in the Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Autistic Disorder (AD) Completed NCT00332241 Phase 3 Aripiprazole;Placebo
37 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Aripiprazole and D-Cycloserine to Treat Symptoms Associated With Autism Completed NCT00198107 Phase 3 Aripiprazole;Placebo;D-cycloserine
38 Study of Aripiprazole in the Treatment of Serious Behavioral Problems in Children and Adolescents With Autistic Disorder (AD) Completed NCT00365859 Phase 3 Aripiprazole
39 Clinical Evaluation of BW430C in Epilepsy Completed NCT00395694 Phase 3 lamictal
40 Safety and Efficacy of Hunterase Completed NCT01645189 Phase 3
41 Efficacy and Safety Study of STX209 (Arbaclofen) for the Treatment of Social Withdrawal in Children With Fragile X Syndrome Completed NCT01325220 Phase 3 arbaclofen;arbaclofen;arbaclofen;Placebo
42 Efficacy and Safety Study of STX209 (Arbaclofen) for Social Withdrawal in Adolescents and Adults With Fragile X Syndrome Completed NCT01282268 Phase 3 arbaclofen;placebo
43 MD1003-AMN MD1003 in Adrenomyeloneuropathy Completed NCT02961803 Phase 2, Phase 3 MD1003 100 mg capsule;Placebo
44 A Two-Part Study to Investigate the Dose-Ranging Safety and Pharmacokinetics, Followed by the Efficacy and Safety of ZX008 (Fenfluramine Hydrochloride) Oral Solution as an Adjunctive Therapy in Children ≥2 Years Old and Young Adults With Dravet Syndrome Completed NCT02926898 Phase 3 ZX008 - 0.2 mg/kg/day;ZX008 - 0.4 mg/kg/day;ZX008 - 20 mg/day maximum dose;Matching Placebo
45 Study of Intrathecal Idursulfase-IT Administered in Conjunction With Elaprase® in Pediatric Patients With Hunter Syndrome and Early Cognitive Impairment Completed NCT02055118 Phase 2, Phase 3
46 Antiepileptic Efficacy Study of GWP42003-P in Children and Young Adults With Dravet Syndrome (GWPCARE1) Completed NCT02091375 Phase 3 GWP42003-P 20 mg/kg/day Dose;Placebo control
47 Acamprosate in Youth With Fragile X Syndrome Completed NCT01300923 Phase 3 Acamprosate
48 A Study of the Effectiveness and Safety of Risperidone Versus Placebo in the Treatment of Children With Autistic Disorder and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) Completed NCT00261508 Phase 3 risperidone
49 Extension of Study TKT024 Evaluating Long-Term Safety and Clinical Outcomes in MPS II Patients Receiving Idursulfase Completed NCT00630747 Phase 2, Phase 3
50 Stem Cell Transplant for Inborn Errors of Metabolism Completed NCT00176904 Phase 2, Phase 3 Busulfan, Cyclophosphamide, Antithymocyte Globulin

Search NIH Clinical Center for Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 74 / NDF-RT 52 :


Cochrane evidence based reviews: intellectual disability

Genetic Tests for Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome

Genetic tests related to Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome 30 GMPPA

Anatomical Context for Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome:

42
Testes, Brain, Bone, Myeloid, Heart, Thyroid, Bone Marrow

Publications for Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome

Articles related to Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome:

(show top 50) (show all 3104)
# Title Authors Year
1
Biallelic pathogenic variants in the lanosterol synthase gene LSS involved in the cholesterol biosynthesis cause alopecia with intellectual disability, a rare recessive neuroectodermal syndrome. ( 30723320 )
2019
2
Mood, anxiety, and perceived quality of life in adults with epilepsy and intellectual disability. ( 30820944 )
2019
3
Do young people with Asperger syndrome or intellectual disability use social media and are they cyberbullied or cyberbullies in the same way as their peers? ( 30664408 )
2019
4
Newborn vitamin D levels in relation to autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability: A case-control study in california. ( 30883046 )
2019
5
Parenting Stress in Mothers of Children With Autism Without Intellectual Disability. Mediation of Behavioral Problems and Coping Strategies. ( 30906274 )
2019
6
Transition-Age Medicaid Coverage for Adolescents With Autism and Adolescents With Intellectual Disability. ( 30835524 )
2019
7
An IQSEC2 Mutation Associated With Intellectual Disability and Autism Results in Decreased Surface AMPA Receptors. ( 30842726 )
2019
8
Novel Compound Heterozygous Mutations in the TRAPPC9 Gene in Two Siblings With Autism and Intellectual Disability. ( 30853973 )
2019
9
Prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in relation to autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. ( 30789431 )
2019
10
Missense Variants in the Histone Acetyltransferase Complex Component Gene TRRAP Cause Autism and Syndromic Intellectual Disability. ( 30827496 )
2019
11
Prevalence of bullying and perceived happiness in adolescents with learning disability, intellectual disability, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorder: In the Taiwan Birth Cohort Pilot Study. ( 30732217 )
2019
12
Microcephaly/Trigonocephaly, Intellectual Disability, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Atypical Dysmorphic Features in a Boy with Xp22.31 Duplication. ( 30733660 )
2019
13
Evaluation of Factors Related to Prolonged Lengths of Stay for Patients With Autism With or Without Intellectual Disability. ( 30753733 )
2019
14
A Comparison of Video Prompting to Least-to-Most Prompting among Children with Autism and Intellectual Disability. ( 30771131 )
2019
15
Assistive technology: Understanding the needs and experiences of individuals with autism spectrum disorder and/or intellectual disability in Ireland and the UK. ( 30668926 )
2019
16
A distinct neurodevelopmental syndrome with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, characteristic facies, and macrocephaly is caused by defects in CHD8. ( 30670789 )
2019
17
A gene expression signature in developing Purkinje cells predicts autism and intellectual disability co-morbidity status. ( 30679692 )
2019
18
Chromosomal Microarray Analysis as a First-Tier Clinical Diagnostic Test in Patients With Developmental Delay/Intellectual Disability, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Multiple Congenital Anomalies: A Prospective Multicenter Study in Korea. ( 30623622 )
2019
19
Ambulatory Care Sensitive Admissions in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Intellectual Disability, and Population Controls. ( 30549435 )
2019
20
Stopping, rationalising or optimising antipsychotic drug treatment in people with intellectual disability and/or autism. ( 30567853 )
2019
21
Prevalence of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, hearing loss, and blindness, National Health Interview Survey, 2009-2016. ( 30713095 )
2019
22
Effects of Dementia Care Mapping on well-being and quality of life of older people with intellectual disability: A quasi-experimental study. ( 30868692 )
2019
23
Nursing people with intellectual disability and dementia experiencing pain: An integrative review. ( 30786087 )
2019
24
Reanalysis of whole exome sequencing data in patients with epilepsy and intellectual disability/mental retardation. ( 30904718 )
2019
25
Lacosamide in patients with intellectual disability and refractory epilepsy. ( 30840220 )
2019
26
Neuronal mechanisms of mutations in SCN8A causing epilepsy or intellectual disability. ( 30615093 )
2019
27
Loss of function of SVBP leads to autosomal recessive intellectual disability, microcephaly, ataxia, and hypotonia. ( 30607023 )
2019
28
De novo and inherited TCF20 pathogenic variants are associated with intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, hypotonia, and neurological impairments with similarities to Smith-Magenis syndrome. ( 30819258 )
2019
29
Correction to: De novo and inherited TCF20 pathogenic variants are associated with intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, hypotonia, and neurological impairments with similarities to Smith-Magenis syndrome. ( 30909959 )
2019
30
11q24.2q24.3 microdeletion in two families presenting features of Jacobsen syndrome, without intellectual disability: Role of FLI1, ETS1, and SENCR long noncoding RNA. ( 30888095 )
2019
31
Novel mutation in the MED23 gene for intellectual disability: A case report and literature review. ( 30847200 )
2019
32
Familial Xp11.22 microdeletion including SHROOM4 and CLCN5 is associated with intellectual disability, short stature, microcephaly and Dent disease: a case report. ( 30630535 )
2019
33
PUS7 mutations impair pseudouridylation in humans and cause intellectual disability and microcephaly. ( 30778726 )
2019
34
COQ8A and MED25 Mutations in a Child with Intellectual Disability, Microcephaly, Seizures, and Spastic Ataxia: Synergistic Effect of Digenic Variants? ( 30800049 )
2019
35
Mutations of ARX and non-syndromic intellectual disability in Chinese population. ( 30255221 )
2019
36
De Novo Mutations Affecting the Catalytic Cα Subunit of PP2A, PPP2CA, Cause Syndromic Intellectual Disability Resembling Other PP2A-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders. ( 30595372 )
2019
37
De novo DDX3X missense variants in males appear viable and contribute to syndromic intellectual disability. ( 30734472 )
2019
38
De Novo Mutations Affecting the Catalytic Cα Subunit of PP2A, PPP2CA, Cause Syndromic Intellectual Disability Resembling Other PP2A-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders. ( 30735662 )
2019
39
Female-restricted syndromic intellectual disability in a patient from Thailand. ( 30828969 )
2019
40
SHANK3 Mutation and Mosaic Turner Syndrome in a Female Patient With Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Features. ( 30888922 )
2019
41
Correction: The ARID1B spectrum in 143 patients: from nonsyndromic intellectual disability to Coffin-Siris syndrome. ( 30696996 )
2019
42
A de novo mutation in DHD domain of SKI causing spina bifida with no craniofacial malformation or intellectual disability. ( 30883014 )
2019
43
17q21.32-q22 Deletion in a girl with osteogenesis imperfecta, tricho-dento-osseous syndrome, and intellectual disability. ( 29896840 )
2019
44
MYT1L mutation in a patient causes intellectual disability and early onset of obesity: a case report and review of the literature. ( 30796847 )
2019
45
Do health and social support and personal autonomy have an influence on the health-related quality of life of individuals with intellectual disability? ( 30674320 )
2019
46
Effects of the neuromuscular bandage as rehabilitative treatment of patients with drooling and intellectual disability: an interventional study. ( 30675741 )
2019
47
Informational needs of family caregivers of people with intellectual disability who require palliative care: a two-phase integrative review of the literature. ( 30676158 )
2019
48
Disability Is Not Delay: Precision Communication about Intellectual Disability. ( 30679053 )
2019
49
Contribution of rare and common variants to intellectual disability in a sub-isolate of Northern Finland. ( 30679432 )
2019
50
De novo variants in FBXO11 cause a syndromic form of intellectual disability with behavioral problems and dysmorphisms. ( 30679813 )
2019

Variations for Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome:

76
# Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID
1 GMPPA p.Gly182Asp VAR_070203 rs397518462
2 GMPPA p.Thr334Met VAR_070204 rs774778439
3 GMPPA p.Thr334Pro VAR_070205 rs397518461
4 GMPPA p.Arg390Pro VAR_070206 rs146727404
5 GMPPA p.Asn401Thr VAR_070207

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome:

6 (show top 50) (show all 595)
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 subset of 12 genes:DYRK1A NC_000021.8: g.(?_38007970)_(39747620_?)del deletion Pathogenic GRCh37 Chromosome 21, 38007970: 39747620
2 DYRK1A NM_001396.3(DYRK1A): c.613C> T (p.Arg205Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs724159949 GRCh38 Chromosome 21, 37486563: 37486563
3 DYRK1A NM_001396.3(DYRK1A): c.613C> T (p.Arg205Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs724159949 GRCh37 Chromosome 21, 38858865: 38858865
4 DYRK1A NM_001396.3(DYRK1A): c.621_624delTGAGinsGAA (p.Glu208Asnfs) indel Pathogenic rs724159950 GRCh38 Chromosome 21, 37486571: 37486574
5 DYRK1A NM_001396.3(DYRK1A): c.621_624delTGAGinsGAA (p.Glu208Asnfs) indel Pathogenic rs724159950 GRCh37 Chromosome 21, 38858873: 38858876
6 DYRK1A NM_001396.3(DYRK1A): c.763C> T (p.Arg255Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs724159948 GRCh38 Chromosome 21, 37490273: 37490273
7 DYRK1A NM_001396.3(DYRK1A): c.763C> T (p.Arg255Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs724159948 GRCh37 Chromosome 21, 38862575: 38862575
8 DYRK1A NM_001396.4(DYRK1A): c.844dup (p.Ser282Lysfs) duplication Pathogenic rs724159954 GRCh38 Chromosome 21, 37490354: 37490354
9 DYRK1A NM_001396.4(DYRK1A): c.844dup (p.Ser282Lysfs) duplication Pathogenic rs724159954 GRCh37 Chromosome 21, 38862656: 38862656
10 DYRK1A NM_001396.4(DYRK1A): c.945dup (p.Gln316Alafs) duplication Pathogenic rs724159952 GRCh38 Chromosome 21, 37490455: 37490455
11 DYRK1A NM_001396.4(DYRK1A): c.945dup (p.Gln316Alafs) duplication Pathogenic rs724159952 GRCh37 Chromosome 21, 38862757: 38862757
12 DYRK1A NM_001396.3(DYRK1A): c.1036T> C (p.Ser346Pro) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs724159951 GRCh38 Chromosome 21, 37493101: 37493101
13 DYRK1A NM_001396.3(DYRK1A): c.1036T> C (p.Ser346Pro) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs724159951 GRCh37 Chromosome 21, 38865403: 38865403
14 DYRK1A NM_001396.4(DYRK1A): c.1232dup (p.Arg413Thrfs) duplication Pathogenic rs724159956 GRCh38 Chromosome 21, 37496251: 37496251
15 DYRK1A NM_001396.4(DYRK1A): c.1232dup (p.Arg413Thrfs) duplication Pathogenic rs724159956 GRCh37 Chromosome 21, 38868553: 38868553
16 DYRK1A NM_001396.3(DYRK1A): c.1309C> T (p.Arg437Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs724159953 GRCh38 Chromosome 21, 37505352: 37505352
17 DYRK1A NM_001396.3(DYRK1A): c.1309C> T (p.Arg437Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs724159953 GRCh37 Chromosome 21, 38877655: 38877655
18 DYRK1A NM_001396.3(DYRK1A): c.1763C> A (p.Thr588Asn) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs724159955 GRCh38 Chromosome 21, 37512002: 37512002
19 DYRK1A NM_001396.3(DYRK1A): c.1763C> A (p.Thr588Asn) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs724159955 GRCh37 Chromosome 21, 38884305: 38884305
20 LOC101927919; NUS1; SLC35F1 NC_000006.12 deletion Pathogenic GRCh37 Chromosome 6, 117961791: 118280044
21 LOC101927919; NUS1; SLC35F1 NC_000006.12 deletion Pathogenic GRCh38 Chromosome 6, 117640628: 117958881
22 LOC101927919; NUS1 NC_000006.12 deletion Pathogenic GRCh37 Chromosome 6, 117971549: 118218720
23 LOC101927919; NUS1 NC_000006.12 deletion Pathogenic GRCh38 Chromosome 6, 117650386: 117897557
24 covers 24 genes, none of which curated to show dosage sensitivity NC_000006.11 deletion Pathogenic GRCh37 Chromosome 6, 116681080: 119775014
25 TBC1D24 NM_001199107.1(TBC1D24): c.1079G> T (p.Arg360Leu) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs765965968 GRCh38 Chromosome 16, 2498333: 2498333
26 TBC1D24 NM_001199107.1(TBC1D24): c.1079G> T (p.Arg360Leu) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs765965968 GRCh37 Chromosome 16, 2548334: 2548334
27 SEC24D NM_014822.3(SEC24D): c.697G> C (p.Gly233Arg) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs730882211 GRCh38 Chromosome 4, 118815132: 118815132
28 SEC24D NM_014822.3(SEC24D): c.697G> C (p.Gly233Arg) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs730882211 GRCh37 Chromosome 4, 119736287: 119736287
29 PCDHB4 NM_018938.3(PCDHB4): c.915delA (p.Lys305Asnfs) deletion Likely pathogenic rs372292910 GRCh38 Chromosome 5, 141122913: 141122913
30 PCDHB4 NM_018938.3(PCDHB4): c.915delA (p.Lys305Asnfs) deletion Likely pathogenic rs372292910 GRCh37 Chromosome 5, 140502495: 140502495
31 C12orf4 NM_020374.4(C12orf4): c.639_640insACAA (p.Gln214Thrfs) insertion Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs730882197 GRCh38 Chromosome 12, 4525342: 4525343
32 C12orf4 NM_020374.4(C12orf4): c.639_640insACAA (p.Gln214Thrfs) insertion Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs730882197 GRCh37 Chromosome 12, 4634508: 4634509
33 COG6 NM_020751.2(COG6): c.1167-24A> G single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs730882236 GRCh38 Chromosome 13, 39699477: 39699477
34 COG6 NM_020751.2(COG6): c.1167-24A> G single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs730882236 GRCh37 Chromosome 13, 40273614: 40273614
35 FAM177A1 NM_001079519.1(FAM177A1): c.297dup (p.Trp100Metfs) duplication Likely pathogenic rs730882244 GRCh38 Chromosome 14, 35077176: 35077176
36 FAM177A1 NM_001079519.1(FAM177A1): c.297dup (p.Trp100Metfs) duplication Likely pathogenic rs730882244 GRCh37 Chromosome 14, 35546382: 35546382
37 INO80 NM_017553.3(INO80): c.3737G> A (p.Arg1246Gln) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs199722402 GRCh38 Chromosome 15, 40987186: 40987186
38 INO80 NM_017553.3(INO80): c.3737G> A (p.Arg1246Gln) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs199722402 GRCh37 Chromosome 15, 41279384: 41279384
39 INO80 NM_017553.3(INO80): c.1501T> C (p.Ser501Pro) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs730882226 GRCh38 Chromosome 15, 41071953: 41071953
40 INO80 NM_017553.3(INO80): c.1501T> C (p.Ser501Pro) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs730882226 GRCh37 Chromosome 15, 41364151: 41364151
41 MTSS2 NM_138383.2(MTSS2): c.1790C> T (p.Thr597Met) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs531163149 GRCh38 Chromosome 16, 70664131: 70664131
42 MTSS2 NM_138383.2(MTSS2): c.1790C> T (p.Thr597Met) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs531163149 GRCh37 Chromosome 16, 70698034: 70698034
43 MYOCD NM_001146312.2(MYOCD): c.1252A> G (p.Ile418Val) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs137939966 GRCh38 Chromosome 17, 12752540: 12752540
44 MYOCD NM_001146312.2(MYOCD): c.1252A> G (p.Ile418Val) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs137939966 GRCh37 Chromosome 17, 12655857: 12655857
45 ZNF526 NM_133444.2(ZNF526): c.479A> C (p.Lys160Thr) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs730882205 GRCh38 Chromosome 19, 42224882: 42224882
46 ZNF526 NM_133444.2(ZNF526): c.479A> C (p.Lys160Thr) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs730882205 GRCh37 Chromosome 19, 42729034: 42729034
47 CHAF1B NM_005441.2(CHAF1B): c.496A> G (p.Ile166Val) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs140630794 GRCh38 Chromosome 21, 36397429: 36397429
48 CHAF1B NM_005441.2(CHAF1B): c.496A> G (p.Ile166Val) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs140630794 GRCh37 Chromosome 21, 37769727: 37769727
49 SLC2A1 NM_006516.3(SLC2A1): c.724C> T (p.Gln242Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs794729221 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 43395407: 43395407
50 SLC2A1 NM_006516.3(SLC2A1): c.724C> T (p.Gln242Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs794729221 GRCh38 Chromosome 1, 42929736: 42929736

Copy number variations for Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome from CNVD:

7 (show top 50) (show all 230)
# CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 14809 1 110328830 110367887 Amplification AHCYL1 Intellectual disability
2 18404 1 145479805 145564639 Amplification BCL9 Intellectual disability
3 20790 1 154318992 154376502 Deletion LMNA Intellectual disability
4 25568 1 191357783 191487679 Deletion CDC73 Intellectual disability
5 26008 1 195504030 195714208 Amplification CRB1 Intellectual disability
6 26062 1 196392816 196555392 Deletion NEK7 Intellectual disability
7 27599 1 21005560 21375927 Deletion EIF4G3 Intellectual disability
8 29199 1 228844880 228896351 Amplification COG2 Intellectual disability
9 29770 1 235537560 237086860 Deletion Intellectual disability
10 33809 1 48460990 48486903 Deletion SLC5A9 Intellectual disability
11 34281 1 54291861 54350780 Deletion C1orf83 Intellectual disability
12 35404 1 63278601 174979260 Duplication Intellectual disability
13 35871 1 68336738 68470841 Amplification GPR177 Intellectual disability
14 36503 1 76466419 77200494 Duplication Intellectual disability
15 37402 1 90483825 90786224 Duplication Intellectual disability
16 38249 10 100208866 100985609 Amplification HPSE2 Intellectual disability
17 39670 10 118177413 118227458 Amplification PNLIPRP3 Intellectual disability
18 40487 10 128662416 129042087 Deletion Intellectual disability
19 41143 10 13725711 14412872 Deletion FRMD4A Intellectual disability
20 42897 10 42100000 46100000 Deletion ZNF487 Intellectual disability
21 43203 10 45480000 51585000 Deletion Intellectual disability
22 43209 10 45512000 51585000 Deletion Intellectual disability
23 43225 10 45612000 51585000 Deletion Intellectual disability
24 43250 10 45927753 51581847 Deletion Intellectual disability
25 43254 10 45947671 51263703 Deletion Intellectual disability
26 43263 10 45979000 56907000 Deletion Intellectual disability
27 43292 10 46100000 53300000 Deletion Intellectual disability
28 43382 10 46384979 51265056 Deletion Intellectual disability
29 43389 10 46384979 52085077 Deletion Intellectual disability
30 43411 10 46400346 51237832 Deletion Intellectual disability
31 43734 10 48871525 50765047 Deletion Intellectual disability
32 43745 10 48941000 52218000 Deletion Intellectual disability
33 43760 10 49062854 52062367 Deletion Intellectual disability
34 43770 10 49121974 50641724 Deletion Intellectual disability
35 43868 10 50239677 50581445 Duplication Intellectual disability
36 43876 10 50334496 50417153 Deletion ERCC6 Intellectual disability
37 49425 11 106880543 106941637 Amplification ALKBH8 Intellectual disability
38 49436 11 106967286 107042715 Amplification ELMOD1 Intellectual disability
39 51015 11 121813520 134447248 Deletion Intellectual disability
40 51445 11 12633728 121813520 Deletion Intellectual disability
41 51830 11 131586860 131711926 Amplification HNT Intellectual disability
42 52967 11 22232079 25091772 Deletion Intellectual disability
43 55056 11 48800000 51400000 Duplication Intellectual disability
44 58769 11 6934067 9220605 Duplication ZNF214 Intellectual disability
45 59763 11 77603989 77806414 Amplification GAB2 Intellectual disability
46 61307 11 98397080 99732683 Amplification CNTN5 Intellectual disability
47 66448 12 29384845 29425410 Amplification ERGIC2 Intellectual disability
48 66460 12 29545023 29828959 Amplification TMTC1 Intellectual disability
49 66846 12 33200000 35400000 Duplication Intellectual disability
50 71529 12 7138290 7153069 Deletion C1RL Intellectual disability

Expression for Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome.

Pathways for Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome

Pathways related to Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.33 HCFC1 KDM5C MECP2 PHC1

GO Terms for Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome

Cellular components related to Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 dendrite GO:0030425 9.1 GNB1 GRIN1 HCFC1 IL1RAPL1 PURA SHANK3

Biological processes related to Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated GO:0045893 9.8 HCFC1 MECP2 PHF8 RAI1 TCF4
2 neuromuscular process GO:0050905 9.46 GRIN1 MECP2
3 positive regulation of excitatory postsynaptic potential GO:2000463 9.43 GRIN1 SHANK3
4 memory GO:0007613 9.43 GRIN1 MECP2 SHANK3
5 startle response GO:0001964 9.37 GRIN1 MECP2
6 learning GO:0007612 9.33 GRIN1 MECP2 SHANK3
7 regulation of protein complex assembly GO:0043254 9.32 BBS10 HCFC1
8 social behavior GO:0035176 9.13 GRIN1 MECP2 SHANK3
9 regulation of synaptic plasticity GO:0048167 8.8 GRIN1 MECP2 SHANK3

Molecular functions related to Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 protein binding GO:0005515 9.53 BBS10 CUL4B EEF1A2 GMPPA GNB1 GRIN1
2 histone demethylase activity GO:0032452 8.96 KDM5C PHF8

Sources for Alacrima, Achalasia, and Mental Retardation Syndrome

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
20 FMA
29 GO
30 GTR
31 HGMD
32 HMDB
33 HPO
34 ICD10
35 ICD10 via Orphanet
36 ICD9CM
37 IUPHAR
38 KEGG
39 LifeMap
41 LOVD
43 MedGen
45 MeSH
46 MESH via Orphanet
47 MGI
50 NCI
51 NCIt
52 NDF-RT
55 NINDS
56 Novoseek
58 OMIM
59 OMIM via Orphanet
63 PubMed
65 QIAGEN
70 SNOMED-CT via HPO
71 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
72 TGDB
73 Tocris
74 UMLS
75 UMLS via Orphanet
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