MCID: ALC007
MIFTS: 66

Alcohol Dependence

Categories: Cancer diseases, Genetic diseases, Mental diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Alcohol Dependence

MalaCards integrated aliases for Alcohol Dependence:

Name: Alcohol Dependence 56 12 74 36 29 6 15 39 17
Alcoholism 56 12 54 15
Aerodigestive Tract Cancer, Squamous Cell, Alcohol-Related, Protection Against 56 6
Alcohol Dependence, Protection Against 56 13
Alcohol Dependence, Susceptibility to 56 6
Alcoholic Intoxication, Chronic 71
Alcoholism, Susceptibility to 6
Pharyngeal Neoplasms 71

Characteristics:

OMIM:

56
Inheritance:
probably multifactorial, genetically influenced


Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050741
OMIM 56 103780
KEGG 36 H01611
SNOMED-CT 67 66590003
MedGen 41 C0001973
SNOMED-CT via HPO 68 88425004
UMLS 71 C0001973 C0031347

Summaries for Alcohol Dependence

KEGG : 36 Alcohol dependence (AD) is a chronic but often disease that includes problems in controlling one's drinking, being preoccupied with alcohol, continuing to use alcohol even when it causes problems, having to drink more to get the same effect (physical dependence), or having withdrawal symptoms when one rapidly decreases or stops drinking. The contribution of genetic factors to the development of AD is high. The best classical candidate genes for AD are alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Both genes are involved in enzymatic degradation of alcohol. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have reported that the most robust associations for AD have been with such enzyme genes, especially ALDH2 in East Asian populations and ADH1B in European American and African American populations.

MalaCards based summary : Alcohol Dependence, also known as alcoholism, is related to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and alcoholic cardiomyopathy. An important gene associated with Alcohol Dependence is ADH1B (Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1B (Class I), Beta Polypeptide), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Alcoholism and Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction. The drugs tannic acid and Benzocaine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include liver, brain and testes, and related phenotypes are abnormality of the nervous system and alcoholism

Disease Ontology : 12 A substance dependence that is characterized by tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, increasing use, persistent desire to decrease consumption, time spent obtaining or recovering from alcohol caused by a physical and psychological dependence on alcohol.

Wikipedia : 74 Alcohol dependence is a previous (DSM-IV and ICD-10) psychiatric diagnosis in which an individual is... more...

More information from OMIM: 103780

Related Diseases for Alcohol Dependence

Diseases related to Alcohol Dependence via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 2200)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 fetal alcohol spectrum disorder 35.3 CYP2E1 ALDH9A1 ALDH2 ADH7 ADH4 ADH1B
2 alcoholic cardiomyopathy 35.3 CYP2E1 ALDH2 ADH1B
3 alcohol use disorder 34.6 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 HTR2A GGT1 GABRA2
4 restless legs syndrome 33.1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2 ADH1B
5 psychotic disorder 32.7 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA HTR2A DRD2
6 barbiturate dependence 32.6 SLC6A4 OPRM1
7 methanol poisoning 32.5 CYP2E1 ALDH2 ADH1C ADH1B
8 personality disorder 32.4 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 NRXN3 MAOA HTR2A DRD2
9 substance abuse 32.3 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 MAOA HTR2A
10 anxiety 32.2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 MAOA HTR2A
11 depression 32.2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A
12 drug dependence 32.2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 GABRA2 DRD2
13 substance dependence 32.2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 MAOA GABRA2
14 mental depression 32.2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A DRD2
15 tobacco addiction 32.1 TAS2R16 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 NRXN3 MAOA
16 antisocial personality disorder 32.1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A GABRA2 DRD2
17 major depressive disorder 32.0 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA HTR2A DRD2
18 withdrawal disorder 32.0 OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD2
19 bipolar disorder 32.0 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A GGT1 GABRA2
20 conduct disorder 32.0 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA GABRA2 DRD2 ALDH2
21 avoidant personality disorder 32.0 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA
22 mood disorder 32.0 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A DRD2
23 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 31.9 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA HTR2A DRD2
24 cocaine dependence 31.9 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 HTR2A GABRA2
25 opiate dependence 31.9 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD2
26 liver cirrhosis 31.8 GGT1 CYP2E1 ALDH2 ADH1C ADH1B
27 panic disorder 31.7 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A DRD2
28 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 31.7 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A GGT1 DRD2 CYP2E1
29 social phobia 31.7 SLC6A4 MAOA DRD2
30 borderline personality disorder 31.7 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 NRXN3 MAOA HTR2A DRD2
31 pathological gambling 31.6 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A DRD2
32 sleep disorder 31.6 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 HTR2A DRD2
33 post-traumatic stress disorder 31.6 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A DRD2
34 generalized anxiety disorder 31.6 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A DRD2
35 trigeminal neuralgia 31.6 SLC6A4 OPRM1 OPRK1
36 agoraphobia 31.5 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A
37 autism 31.5 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 NRXN3 MAOA HTR2A
38 eating disorder 31.5 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 HTR2A DRD2
39 cocaine abuse 31.5 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRK1 DRD2
40 schizophrenia 31.5 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 NRXN3 MAOA HTR2A
41 autism spectrum disorder 31.5 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 NRXN3 MAOA
42 dysthymic disorder 31.4 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A
43 obsessive-compulsive disorder 31.4 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A DRD2
44 sexual disorder 31.3 SLC6A4 HTR2A DRD2
45 tic disorder 31.3 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 NRXN3 MAOA HTR2A DRD2
46 hypopharynx cancer 31.3 ALDH2 ADH1C ADH1B
47 phobic disorder 31.2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A DRD2
48 oppositional defiant disorder 31.2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD2
49 irritable bowel syndrome 31.2 SLC6A4 OPRM1 HTR2A
50 gilles de la tourette syndrome 31.2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A DRD2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Alcohol Dependence:



Diseases related to Alcohol Dependence

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Alcohol Dependence

Human phenotypes related to Alcohol Dependence:

31
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 abnormality of the nervous system 31 HP:0000707
2 alcoholism 31 HP:0030955

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

56
Neuro:
alcoholism

Misc:
25 to 50% lifetime risk for sons and brothers of severely alcoholic men

Clinical features from OMIM:

103780

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Alcohol Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability GR00106-A-0 9.66 MAOA
2 Decreased viability GR00221-A-1 9.66 GABRA2
3 Decreased viability GR00221-A-2 9.66 GABRA2
4 Decreased viability GR00221-A-4 9.66 GABRA2
5 Decreased viability GR00249-S 9.66 ADH7 GGT1 NRXN3 OPRK1 SLC6A4
6 Decreased viability GR00381-A-1 9.66 ADH1C ADH4 GGT1 SLC6A4
7 Decreased viability GR00381-A-3 9.66 SLC6A4
8 Decreased viability GR00386-A-1 9.66 ADH1C ALDH2 ALDH9A1 TAS2R16
9 Decreased viability GR00402-S-2 9.66 ADH7 ALDH9A1 OPRK1 OPRM1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Alcohol Dependence:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.93 ADH7 ALDH2 CYP2E1 DRD2 GABRA2 GGT1
2 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.61 ALDH2 DRD2 GABRR2 GGT1 HTR2A OPRK1
3 integument MP:0010771 9.28 ALDH2 ALDH9A1 DRD2 GABRA2 GGT1 OPRK1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Alcohol Dependence

Drugs for Alcohol Dependence (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 498)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
tannic acid Approved Phase 4 1401-55-4
2
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
3
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 616-91-1 12035
4
Amisulpride Approved, Investigational Phase 4 53583-79-2, 71675-85-9 2159
5
Pravastatin Approved Phase 4 81093-37-0 54687
6
Lenograstim Approved, Investigational Phase 4 135968-09-1
7
Pentoxifylline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 6493-05-6 4740
8
Sargramostim Approved, Investigational Phase 4 83869-56-1, 123774-72-1
9
Amlodipine Approved Phase 4 88150-42-9 2162
10
Hydrochlorothiazide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 58-93-5 3639
11
Atenolol Approved Phase 4 29122-68-7 2249
12
Losartan Approved Phase 4 114798-26-4 3961
13
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 437-38-7 3345
14
Rocuronium Approved Phase 4 119302-91-9, 143558-00-3 441290
15
Neostigmine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-99-4 4456
16
Atropine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 51-55-8, 5908-99-6 174174
17
Baclofen Approved Phase 4 1134-47-0 2284
18
Lorazepam Approved Phase 4 846-49-1 3958
19
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 19982-08-2 4054
20
Citalopram Approved Phase 4 59729-33-8 2771
21
Fluoxetine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 54910-89-3 3386
22
Diazepam Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 439-14-5 3016
23
Dutasteride Approved, Investigational Phase 4 164656-23-9 152945 6918296
24
Sodium oxybate Approved Phase 4 502-85-2 5360545
25
Oxazepam Approved Phase 4 604-75-1 4616
26
Paroxetine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 61869-08-7 43815
27
Carbamazepine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 298-46-4 2554
28
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 113775-47-6 5311068 68602
29
Bromocriptine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 25614-03-3 31101
30
Risperidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 106266-06-2 5073
31
Icodextrin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 337376-15-5
32
Methadone Approved Phase 4 76-99-3 4095
33
Chlorzoxazone Approved Phase 4 95-25-0 2733
34
Simvastatin Approved Phase 4 79902-63-9 54454
35
Ribavirin Approved Phase 4 36791-04-5 37542
36
Remifentanil Approved Phase 4 132875-61-7 60815
37
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676
38
Magnesium Sulfate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 7487-88-9 24083
39
Opium Approved, Illicit Phase 4 8008-60-4
40
Glycerol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56-81-5 753
41
Belladonna Approved, Experimental Phase 4
42
Topiramate Approved Phase 4 97240-79-4 5284627
43
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 51-43-4 5816
44
Racepinephrine Approved Phase 4 329-65-7 838
45
Warfarin Approved Phase 4 81-81-2 6691 54678486
46
Isoniazid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 54-85-3 3767
47
Spironolactone Approved Phase 4 52-01-7, 1952-01-7 5833
48
Naltrexone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 16590-41-3 5360515
49
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
50
Acamprosate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 77337-76-9 71158

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 1355)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Topiramate for Hospitalized Patients With Alcoholism: a 12-Week Open-Label Study Unknown status NCT01135602 Phase 4 Topiramate
2 The Role of Pharmacotherapy in Prevention of Relapse in Alcohol Dependence Unknown status NCT00120601 Phase 4 Naltrexone;Acamprosate
3 A Randomized Controlled Study Comparing Fluoxetine With Bupropion for Impulsivity and Suicidality in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder and Comorbid Alcoholism (Abuse or Dependence) Unknown status NCT00449007 Phase 4 fluoxetine;bupropion
4 Safety of Acamprosate for Alcohol Dependence in the Elderly: An Open-Label Study Unknown status NCT00655967 Phase 4 Acamprosate (Campral);Acamprosate
5 Prospective Assessment of Valproate on Ethanol Withdrawal Unknown status NCT03235531 Phase 4 Valproate;Lorazepam
6 Antabuse in Severe Alcoholism: an Open Controlled Study Unknown status NCT00431262 Phase 4 antabuse (disulfiram)
7 Baclofen Bij de Behandeling Van Acute Alcoholontwenning Unknown status NCT03293017 Phase 4 Diazepam 10 MG;Baclofen 30mg;Baclofen 60mg
8 Association of the Amisulpride Treatment Response in Patients With Schizophrenia With the Findings of Brain Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Unknown status NCT02095938 Phase 4 amisulpride
9 the Safety and Effect in TB Patients With NAC Unknown status NCT02889757 Phase 4 Acteylcysteine
10 The Effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on Treatment of Alcohol and Cocaine Use Disorders: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Unknown status NCT03018236 Phase 4 Alcohol N-acetylcysteine;Alcohol Placebo;Cocaine N-acetylcysteine;Cocaine Placebo
11 Randomized Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Pravastatin on Survival and Recurrence of Advanced Gastroesophageal Cancer Unknown status NCT01038154 Phase 4 Pravastatin
12 Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor Plus N-Acetyl Cysteine In Severe Alcoholic Hepatitis Unknown status NCT02971306 Phase 4 standard medical therapy;G-CSF;n-Acetylcysteine
13 Effect of Active Telephone Calls in the Compliance of Hypertensive Patients With Treatment: An Open and Randomized Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT00813722 Phase 4 amlodipine (calcium chanel blocker) and losartan (at1 antagonist);atenolol (beta blocker) and hydrochlorothiazide (diuretic)
14 Recovery of Muscle Function After Deep Neuromuscular Block by Means of Dia-phragm Ultrasonography and Adductor Pollicis Acceleromyography: Comparison of Neostigmine vs. Sugammadex as Reversal Drugs. Unknown status NCT02698969 Phase 4 Sugammadex;Neostigmine;Atropine;Rocuronium;Fentanyl;Propofol;Sevoflurane
15 A Controlled Trial of Topiramate Treatment for Alcohol Dependence in Veterans With PTSD Completed NCT01749215 Phase 4 Topiramate;placebo
16 Double Blind Placebo Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial of Pregabalin for Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT02205879 Phase 4 Pregabalin;Placebo
17 Timing of Smoking Intervention in Alcohol Treatment Completed NCT00000444 Phase 4 nicotine replacement patch
18 Extended-release Naltrexone (Vivitrol) for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence in Urban Primary Care: a Feasibility Study Completed NCT00620750 Phase 4 Extended release injectable naltrexone (Vivitrol)
19 Naltrexone Treatment of Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT00000452 Phase 4 naltrexone (Revia)
20 The Treatment of Late Life Major Depression Complication by Alcohol Completed NCT00018824 Phase 4 NALTREXONE;Placebo
21 A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Lamotrigine In Individuals With Bipolar Disorder and Comorbid Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT01015586 Phase 4 Lamotrigine;Placebo
22 Zonisamide vs. Placebo in the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT00595556 Phase 4 zonisamide;Placebo
23 Exploratory, Interventional, Open-label, Fixed-dose Study With Selincro® As-needed Use, in Alcohol Dependent Patients With Liver Impairment Completed NCT02197598 Phase 4 nalmefene
24 Naltrexone and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Patients With Alcoholism and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Completed NCT00006489 Phase 4 Naltrexone;Placebo
25 Etiology and Treatment of Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT00000442 Phase 4 naltrexone (Revia)
26 Citicoline for Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT02074735 Phase 4 Placebo;Citicoline
27 Quetiapine for Bipolar Disorder and Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT00457197 Phase 4 Placebo;Quetiapine
28 Disulfiram Combined With Lorazepam for Treatment of Patients With Alcohol Dependence and Primary or Secondary Anxiety Disorder Completed NCT00721526 Phase 4 disulfiram plus lorazepam
29 Adjunctive Topiramate for Treatment of Alcohol Dependence in Patients With Bipolar Disorder Completed NCT00572117 Phase 4 Topiramate
30 Targeted Naltrexone for Early Problem Drinkers Completed NCT00000455 Phase 4 naltrexone
31 Nalmefene in Nicotine and Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT00000437 Phase 4 Naltrexone Tablet and Nicotine Patch;Naltrexone Tablet and Placebo Patch;Placebo Tablet and Nicotine Patch;Placebo Tablet and Placebo Patch
32 Naltrexone: Consummatory Behaviors in Alcoholic Women Completed NCT00000448 Phase 4 naltrexone;Placebo
33 Primary Care Based Disease Management for Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT00419315 Phase 4
34 Effectiveness of Naltrexone in a Community Setting Completed NCT00000445 Phase 4 naltrexone (Revia)
35 Campral (Acamprosate) Treatment of Alcohol Dependence in a Family Medicine Setting: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study Completed NCT00381043 Phase 4 Acamprosate (Campral)
36 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Acamprosate in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals With Comorbid Bipolar Disorder Completed NCT00466661 Phase 4 Acamprosate;Placebo
37 Injectable Naltrexone Treatment of Alcohol Dependence in Serious Mental Illness (SMI): An Open Prospective Pilot Trial Completed NCT00453609 Phase 4 long-lasting injectable naltrexone
38 Comparison of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Enhancement Therapy Plus Naltrexone for Alcoholism Completed NCT00000456 Phase 4 naltrexone (Revia)
39 Sertraline Pharmacotherapy for Alcoholism Subtypes Completed NCT00368550 Phase 4 Sertraline;Placebo
40 Injectable Versus Oral Naltrexone Treatment of Alcohol Dependence In Serious Mental Illness (SMI): A Pilot Study Completed NCT00453804 Phase 4 injectable naltrexone;oral naltrexone
41 The Use of Acamprosate in Individuals With Alcohol Dependence and Comorbid Anxiety or Depression Completed NCT00330174 Phase 4 Acamprosate
42 Phase Four Randomized, Multicentre, Open-Label, Comparative Trial Of Disulfiram, Nalterexone And Acamprosate In The Treatment Of Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT00435435 Phase 4 Disulfiram;Acamprosate;Naltexone
43 Genetic and Brain Mechanisms of Naltrexone?s Treatment Efficacy for Alcoholism Completed NCT00920829 Phase 4 Naltrexone 50 Mg;Placebo
44 Alcohol Research Center Grant. Component #1: Naltrexone Effects on Alcohol Reactivity and Consumption, Evaluating the Genetic Variability of Naltrexone Response Completed NCT00366626 Phase 4 Naltrexone;Placebo
45 Defining an Endopheneotype for Alcohol Treatment With Naltrexone Completed NCT00817089 Phase 4 Placebo Oral Tablet;Naltrexone
46 Sertraline for Alcohol Dependence and Depression Completed NCT00004554 Phase 4 naltrexone (Revia);sertraline (Zoloft);Placebo
47 12 Week Prospective Double Blind Placebo Controlled Randomized Trial of Seroquel SR for Alcohol Dependence and Comorbid Anxiety Completed NCT00352469 Phase 4 Seroquel XR
48 Identifying Multiple Mechanisms of Change in Alcoholism Treatment Completed NCT01168960 Phase 4
49 Non-Response to Naltrexone (NTX): Next Steps in Managing Alcoholism Completed NCT00115037 Phase 4 Naltrexone;placebo
50 Acamprosate and Integrative Behavior Therapy in the Outpatient Treatment of Alcohol Dependents Completed NCT00159107 Phase 4 Acamprosate;Placebo

Search NIH Clinical Center for Alcohol Dependence

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


Citalopram
Citalopram hydrobromide
Disulfiram
Naltrexone
Naltrexone hydrochloride
Ondansetron
Ondansetron Hydrochloride

Genetic Tests for Alcohol Dependence

Genetic tests related to Alcohol Dependence:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Alcohol Dependence 29 ADH1B ADH1C GABRA2 HTR2A

Anatomical Context for Alcohol Dependence

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Alcohol Dependence:

40
Liver, Brain, Testes, Cortex, Heart, Bone, Amygdala

Publications for Alcohol Dependence

Articles related to Alcohol Dependence:

(show top 50) (show all 34273)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms in men with type I and Type II alcoholism. 56 6 54 61
15863807 2005
2
Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes. 61 56 6
17923853 2008
3
Major genetic components underlying alcoholism in Korean population. 61 56 6
18056758 2008
4
Functional variants in TAS2R38 and TAS2R16 influence alcohol consumption in high-risk families of African-American origin. 56 6 61
17250611 2007
5
Functional variant in a bitter-taste receptor (hTAS2R16) influences risk of alcohol dependence. 56 6 61
16385453 2006
6
Alcoholism susceptibility loci: confirmation studies in a replicate sample and further mapping. 61 6 56
10923994 2000
7
Genome-wide search for genes affecting the risk for alcohol dependence. 61 6 56
9603606 1998
8
A regulatory variation in OPRK1, the gene encoding the kappa-opioid receptor, is associated with alcohol dependence. 54 61 56
18319328 2008
9
Association of alcohol dehydrogenase genes with alcohol dependence: a comprehensive analysis. 54 56 61
16571603 2006
10
CHRM2 gene predisposes to alcohol dependence, drug dependence and affective disorders: results from an extended case-control structured association study. 54 61 56
16000316 2005
11
Meta-analysis of the association of a functional serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism with alcohol dependence. 56 54 61
15635638 2005
12
Evidence of common and specific genetic effects: association of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene with alcohol dependence and major depressive syndrome. 56 54 61
15229186 2004
13
A functional neuropeptide Y Leu7Pro polymorphism associated with alcohol dependence in a large population sample from the United States. 56 54 61
12215082 2002
14
Hangover symptoms in Asian Americans with variations in the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) gene. 6 61 54
10627091 2000
15
Association between the functional variant of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene and type 1 alcoholism. 61 56 54
10395222 1999
16
Linkage disequilibrium at the ADH2 and ADH3 loci and risk of alcoholism. 61 6 54
10090900 1999
17
Integrating GWASs and human protein interaction networks identifies a gene subnetwork underlying alcohol dependence. 61 56
24268660 2013
18
Ordered subset linkage analysis based on admixture proportion identifies new linkage evidence for alcohol dependence in African-Americans. 56 61
23239122 2013
19
A systematic gene-based screen of chr4q22-q32 identifies association of a novel susceptibility gene, DKK2, with the quantitative trait of alcohol dependence symptom counts. 56 61
20332099 2010
20
ADH single nucleotide polymorphism associations with alcohol metabolism in vivo. 61 56
19193628 2009
21
Associations of ADH and ALDH2 gene variation with self report alcohol reactions, consumption and dependence: an integrated analysis. 56 61
18996923 2009
22
The OPRD1 and OPRK1 loci in alcohol or drug dependence: OPRD1 variation modulates substance dependence risk. 56 61
17622222 2008
23
Neurokinin 1 receptor antagonism as a possible therapy for alcoholism. 56 61
18276852 2008
24
Smoking and alcoholism target genes associated with plasticity and glutamate transmission in the human ventral tegmental area. 56 61
17928304 2008
25
Neurexin 3 polymorphisms are associated with alcohol dependence and altered expression of specific isoforms. 56 61
17804423 2007
26
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic basis for partial protection against alcoholism in Asians, heterozygous for the variant ALDH2*2 gene allele. 61 6
17885622 2007
27
The genetics of alcohol metabolism: role of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase variants. 6 61
17718394 2007
28
Genomewide linkage study in the Irish affected sib pair study of alcohol dependence: evidence for a susceptibility region for symptoms of alcohol dependence on chromosome 4. 61 56
16534506 2006
29
Joint analysis of the NACP-REP1 marker within the alpha synuclein gene concludes association with alcohol dependence. 56 61
15731118 2005
30
Association of the -141C Del variant of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) with positive family history and suicidality in German alcoholics. 56 61
15389757 2005
31
Haplotype-based localization of an alcohol dependence gene to the 5q34 {gamma}-aminobutyric acid type A gene cluster. 61 56
15630072 2005
32
Genomic screen for loci associated with alcohol dependence in Mission Indians. 56 61
15274051 2004
33
A genome wide search for alcoholism susceptibility genes. 61 56
15211641 2004
34
Variations in GABRA2, encoding the alpha 2 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor, are associated with alcohol dependence and with brain oscillations. 61 6
15024690 2004
35
Confirmation and fine mapping of the chromosome 1 alcohol dependence risk locus. 61 56
15094791 2004
36
Ethanol consumption and DRD2 gene TaqI a polymorphism among socially drinking males. 61 56
12749054 2003
37
A global perspective on genetic variation at the ADH genes reveals unusual patterns of linkage disequilibrium and diversity. 61 6
12050823 2002
38
Evidence for a locus on chromosome 1 that influences vulnerability to alcoholism and affective disorder. 61 56
11329392 2001
39
Genetics of event-related brain potentials in response to a semantic priming paradigm in families with a history of alcoholism. 56 61
11102287 2001
40
Regulation of the mammalian alcohol dehydrogenase genes. 6 61
10697413 2000
41
Involvement of acetaldehyde for full protection against alcoholism by homozygosity of the variant allele of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase gene in Asians. 61 6
10780266 1999
42
Association of a polymorphism of the 5HT2A receptor gene promoter region with alcohol dependence. 61 56
10089015 1999
43
Recent progress toward the identification of genes related to risk for alcoholism. 56 61
9880654 1998
44
Evidence for genetic linkage to alcohol dependence on chromosomes 4 and 11 from an autosome-wide scan in an American Indian population. 56 61
9603607 1998
45
Population and pedigree studies reveal a lack of association between the dopamine D2 receptor gene and alcoholism. 61 56
1979357 1990
46
Segregation analysis of alcoholism in families ascertained through a pair of male alcoholics. 56 61
2339688 1990
47
Allelic association of human dopamine D2 receptor gene in alcoholism. 61 56
1969501 1990
48
Biological markers for increased risk of alcoholism and for quantitation of alcohol consumption. 56 61
2298906 1990
49
Genetic investigations of alcohol metabolism and of alcoholism. 56 61
3189329 1988
50
Neurogenetic adaptive mechanisms in alcoholism. 56 61
2882604 1987