MCID: ALC007
MIFTS: 68

Alcohol Dependence

Categories: Cancer diseases, Genetic diseases, Mental diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Alcohol Dependence

MalaCards integrated aliases for Alcohol Dependence:

Name: Alcohol Dependence 57 12 75 37 29 6 15 40 17
Alcoholism 57 12 55 15
Aerodigestive Tract Cancer, Squamous Cell, Alcohol-Related, Protection Against 57 6
Alcohol Dependence, Protection Against 57 13
Alcohol Dependence, Susceptibility to 57 6
Alcoholic Intoxication, Chronic 72
Alcoholism, Susceptibility to 6
Pharyngeal Neoplasms 72

Characteristics:

OMIM:

57
Inheritance:
probably multifactorial, genetically influenced


Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050741
OMIM 57 103780
KEGG 37 H01611
SNOMED-CT 68 66590003
MedGen 42 C0001973
UMLS 72 C0001973 C0031347

Summaries for Alcohol Dependence

KEGG : 37
Alcohol dependence (AD) is a chronic but often disease that includes problems in controlling one's drinking, being preoccupied with alcohol, continuing to use alcohol even when it causes problems, having to drink more to get the same effect (physical dependence), or having withdrawal symptoms when one rapidly decreases or stops drinking. The contribution of genetic factors to the development of AD is high. The best classical candidate genes for AD are alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Both genes are involved in enzymatic degradation of alcohol. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have reported that the most robust associations for AD have been with such enzyme genes, especially ALDH2 in East Asian populations and ADH1B in European American and African American populations.

MalaCards based summary : Alcohol Dependence, also known as alcoholism, is related to psychotic disorder and methanol poisoning. An important gene associated with Alcohol Dependence is ADH1B (Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1B (Class I), Beta Polypeptide), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Alcoholism and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. The drugs tannic acid and Benzocaine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include liver, brain and testes, and related phenotypes are abnormality of the nervous system and alcoholism

Disease Ontology : 12 A substance dependence that is characterized by tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, increasing use, persistent desire to decrease consumption, time spent obtaining or recovering from alcohol caused by a physical and psychological dependence on alcohol.

Wikipedia : 75 Alcohol dependence is a previous (DSM-IV and ICD-10) psychiatric diagnosis in which an individual is... more...

More information from OMIM: 103780

Related Diseases for Alcohol Dependence

Diseases related to Alcohol Dependence via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 2188)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 psychotic disorder 32.5 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
2 methanol poisoning 32.5 CYP2E1 ADH1C ADH1B
3 anxiety 32.2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A
4 depression 32.1 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A
5 drug dependence 32.1 SLC6A4 OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD2 CHRNA6
6 mental depression 32.0 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A
7 opiate dependence 31.9 SLC6A4 OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD2
8 bipolar disorder 31.8 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 HTR2A DRD2
9 social phobia 31.8 SLC6A4 MAOA DRD2
10 avoidant personality disorder 31.8 SLC6A4 MAOA
11 substance abuse 31.8 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR1B GABRA2 DRD4
12 antisocial personality disorder 31.8 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR1B DRD2 ALDH2
13 cocaine dependence 31.8 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD2
14 personality disorder 31.8 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A HTR1B DRD4
15 liver cirrhosis 31.8 CYP2E1 ALDH2 ADH1C ADH1B
16 conduct disorder 31.7 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD4 DRD2 ALDH2
17 agoraphobia 31.6 SLC6A4 OPRK1 MAOA
18 mood disorder 31.6 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1B DRD4 DRD2
19 major depressive disorder 31.6 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A HTR1B DRD4
20 post-traumatic stress disorder 31.6 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A DRD2
21 panic disorder 31.5 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A
22 tobacco addiction 31.5 TAS2R16 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA HTR2A
23 borderline personality disorder 31.5 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1B
24 dysthymic disorder 31.5 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A
25 generalized anxiety disorder 31.5 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A DRD2
26 cocaine abuse 31.5 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 DRD2
27 eating disorder 31.5 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 DRD2
28 substance dependence 31.4 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 MAOA HTR1B
29 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 31.3 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OPRM1 MAOA HTR2A HTR1B
30 pathological gambling 31.3 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
31 phobic disorder 31.3 SLC6A4 OPRK1 MAOA
32 opioid addiction 31.3 OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD2
33 tic disorder 31.2 SLC6A3 HTR2A DRD4 DRD2
34 schizoaffective disorder 31.1 SLC6A4 HTR2A DRD2
35 fetal alcohol syndrome 31.1 ALDH2 ADH7 ADH1B
36 bulimia nervosa 31.0 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1B
37 schizophrenia 31.0 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A HTR1B DRD4
38 paranoid schizophrenia 31.0 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A
39 oppositional defiant disorder 31.0 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD4 DRD2
40 heroin dependence 31.0 OPRM1 DRD4 DRD2
41 premature ejaculation 31.0 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 HTR1B
42 alcoholic psychosis 31.0 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 HTR2A DRD2
43 endogenous depression 31.0 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A
44 obsessive-compulsive disorder 30.9 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A HTR1B DRD4
45 gilles de la tourette syndrome 30.9 SLC6A3 DRD4 DRD2
46 alcoholic pancreatitis 30.9 CYP2E1 ALDH2 ADH1B
47 alcoholic liver cirrhosis 30.9 CYP2E1 ALDH2 ADH4 ADH1C ADH1B
48 atypical depressive disorder 30.9 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A
49 alcohol-induced mental disorder 30.8 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 DRD2
50 parkinson disease, late-onset 30.8 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A DRD2 ADH1C

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Alcohol Dependence:



Diseases related to Alcohol Dependence

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Alcohol Dependence

Human phenotypes related to Alcohol Dependence:

32
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 abnormality of the nervous system 32 HP:0000707
2 alcoholism 32 HP:0030955

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

57
Neuro:
alcoholism

Misc:
25 to 50% lifetime risk for sons and brothers of severely alcoholic men

Clinical features from OMIM:

103780

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Alcohol Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 no effect GR00402-S-1 9.92 ADH1B ADH1C ADH4 ADH7 ALDH2 ALDH9A1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Alcohol Dependence:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.18 ADH7 ALDH2 CYP2E1 DRD2 DRD4 GABRA2
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.07 ADH1C ADH7 ALDH2 CYP2E1 DRD2 DRD4
3 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.97 ALDH2 DRD2 GATA4 HTR1B HTR2A OPRK1
4 integument MP:0010771 9.81 ALDH2 ALDH9A1 DRD2 GABRA2 GATA4 OPRK1
5 muscle MP:0005369 9.5 ALDH2 DRD2 GATA4 HTR1B HTR2A SLC6A3
6 nervous system MP:0003631 9.4 ADH7 ALDH2 CHRNA6 DRD2 DRD4 GABRA2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Alcohol Dependence

Drugs for Alcohol Dependence (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 548)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
tannic acid Approved Phase 4 1401-55-4
2
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
3
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 437-38-7 3345
4
Amisulpride Approved, Investigational Phase 4 53583-79-2, 71675-85-9 2159
5
Pravastatin Approved Phase 4 81093-37-0 54687
6
Amlodipine Approved Phase 4 88150-42-9 2162
7
Losartan Approved Phase 4 114798-26-4 3961
8
Angiotensin II Approved, Investigational Phase 4 11128-99-7, 68521-88-0, 4474-91-3 172198
9
Atenolol Approved Phase 4 29122-68-7 2249
10
Hydrochlorothiazide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 58-93-5 3639
11
Neostigmine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-99-4 4456
12
Rocuronium Approved Phase 4 119302-91-9, 143558-00-3 441290
13
Atropine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 5908-99-6, 51-55-8 174174
14
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 19982-08-2 4054
15
Citalopram Approved Phase 4 59729-33-8 2771
16
Fluoxetine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 54910-89-3 3386
17
Dutasteride Approved, Investigational Phase 4 164656-23-9 152945 6918296
18
Oxazepam Approved Phase 4 604-75-1 4616
19
Sodium oxybate Approved Phase 4 502-85-2 5360545
20
Paroxetine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 61869-08-7 43815
21
Carbamazepine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 298-46-4 2554
22
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 113775-47-6 68602 5311068
23
Bromocriptine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 25614-03-3 31101
24
Risperidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 106266-06-2 5073
25
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 93-14-1 3516
26
Methadone Approved, Illicit Phase 4 76-99-3 4095
27
Icodextrin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 337376-15-5
28
Simvastatin Approved Phase 4 79902-63-9 54454
29
Chlorzoxazone Approved Phase 4 95-25-0 2733
30
Ribavirin Approved Phase 4 36791-04-5 37542
31
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676
32
Remifentanil Approved Phase 4 132875-61-7 60815
33
Magnesium Sulfate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 7487-88-9 24083
34
Loperamide Approved Phase 4 53179-11-6 3955
35
Opium Approved, Illicit Phase 4 8008-60-4
36
Glycerol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56-81-5 753
37
Belladonna Approved, Experimental Phase 4
38
Baclofen Approved Phase 4 1134-47-0 2284
39
Lorazepam Approved Phase 4 846-49-1 3958
40
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
41
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-84-3 187
42
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 616-91-1 12035
43
Diazepam Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 439-14-5 3016
44
Racepinephrine Approved Phase 4 329-65-7 838
45
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 51-43-4 5816
46
Isoniazid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 54-85-3 3767
47
Pentoxifylline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 6493-05-6 4740
48
Sargramostim Approved, Investigational Phase 4 83869-56-1, 123774-72-1
49
Lenograstim Approved, Investigational Phase 4 135968-09-1
50
Warfarin Approved Phase 4 81-81-2 6691 54678486

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 1260)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Topiramate for Hospitalized Patients With Alcoholism: a 12-Week Open-Label Study Unknown status NCT01135602 Phase 4 Topiramate
2 Double Blind Placebo Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial of Pregabalin for Alcohol Dependence Unknown status NCT02205879 Phase 4 Pregabalin;Placebo
3 The Role of Pharmacotherapy in Prevention of Relapse in Alcohol Dependence Unknown status NCT00120601 Phase 4 Naltrexone;Acamprosate
4 Treatment for Alcohol Dependence With Gabapentin: A Double Blind Placebo Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT02771925 Phase 4 Gabapentin 2g/day divided in two doses for 24 weeks;Placebo 2g/day divided in two doses for 24 weeks
5 A Randomized Controlled Study Comparing Fluoxetine With Bupropion for Impulsivity and Suicidality in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder and Comorbid Alcoholism (Abuse or Dependence) Unknown status NCT00449007 Phase 4 fluoxetine;bupropion
6 Safety of Acamprosate for Alcohol Dependence in the Elderly: An Open-Label Study Unknown status NCT00655967 Phase 4 Acamprosate (Campral);Acamprosate
7 Antabuse in Severe Alcoholism: an Open Controlled Study Unknown status NCT00431262 Phase 4 antabuse (disulfiram)
8 Association of the Amisulpride Treatment Response in Patients With Schizophrenia With the Findings of Brain Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Unknown status NCT02095938 Phase 4 amisulpride
9 the Safety and Effect in TB Patients With NAC Unknown status NCT02889757 Phase 4 Acteylcysteine
10 The Effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on Treatment of Alcohol and Cocaine Use Disorders: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Unknown status NCT03018236 Phase 4 Alcohol N-acetylcysteine;Alcohol Placebo;Cocaine N-acetylcysteine;Cocaine Placebo
11 Randomized Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Pravastatin on Survival and Recurrence of Advanced Gastroesophageal Cancer Unknown status NCT01038154 Phase 4 Pravastatin
12 Open-label Clinical Pharmacokinetic Study of Cardionat®, Capsules 250 mg (JSC Nizhpharm, Russia) Using in Health Athlete Volunteers Unknown status NCT02758912 Phase 4 оral intake of study drug capsules; study drug - Cardionat ® (trimethylhydrazinium propionate dihydrate), oral capsules 250 mg
13 Effect of Active Telephone Calls in the Compliance of Hypertensive Patients With Treatment: An Open and Randomized Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT00813722 Phase 4 amlodipine (calcium chanel blocker) and losartan (at1 antagonist);atenolol (beta blocker) and hydrochlorothiazide (diuretic)
14 Recovery of Muscle Function After Deep Neuromuscular Block by Means of Dia-phragm Ultrasonography and Adductor Pollicis Acceleromyography: Comparison of Neostigmine vs. Sugammadex as Reversal Drugs. Unknown status NCT02698969 Phase 4 Sugammadex;Neostigmine;Atropine;Rocuronium;Fentanyl;Propofol;Sevoflurane
15 A Controlled Trial of Topiramate Treatment for Alcohol Dependence in Veterans With PTSD Completed NCT01749215 Phase 4 Topiramate;placebo
16 Timing of Smoking Intervention in Alcohol Treatment Completed NCT00000444 Phase 4 nicotine replacement patch
17 Extended-release Naltrexone (Vivitrol) for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence in Urban Primary Care: a Feasibility Study Completed NCT00620750 Phase 4 Extended release injectable naltrexone (Vivitrol)
18 The Treatment of Late Life Major Depression Complication by Alcohol Completed NCT00018824 Phase 4 NALTREXONE;Placebo
19 Naltrexone Treatment of Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT00000452 Phase 4 naltrexone (Revia)
20 A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Lamotrigine In Individuals With Bipolar Disorder and Comorbid Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT01015586 Phase 4 Lamotrigine;Placebo
21 Exploratory, Interventional, Open-label, Fixed-dose Study With Selincro® As-needed Use, in Alcohol Dependent Patients With Liver Impairment Completed NCT02197598 Phase 4 nalmefene
22 Zonisamide vs. Placebo in the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT00595556 Phase 4 zonisamide;Placebo
23 Naltrexone and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Patients With Alcoholism and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Completed NCT00006489 Phase 4 Naltrexone;Placebo
24 Etiology and Treatment of Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT00000442 Phase 4 naltrexone (Revia)
25 Quetiapine for Bipolar Disorder and Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT00457197 Phase 4 Placebo;Quetiapine
26 Citicoline for Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT02074735 Phase 4 Placebo;Citicoline
27 Disulfiram Combined With Lorazepam for Treatment of Patients With Alcohol Dependence and Primary or Secondary Anxiety Disorder Completed NCT00721526 Phase 4 disulfiram plus lorazepam
28 Adjunctive Topiramate for Treatment of Alcohol Dependence in Patients With Bipolar Disorder Completed NCT00572117 Phase 4 Topiramate
29 Targeted Naltrexone for Early Problem Drinkers Completed NCT00000455 Phase 4 naltrexone
30 Nalmefene in Nicotine and Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT00000437 Phase 4 Naltrexone Tablet and Nicotine Patch;Naltrexone Tablet and Placebo Patch;Placebo Tablet and Nicotine Patch;Placebo Tablet and Placebo Patch
31 Naltrexone: Consummatory Behaviors in Alcoholic Women Completed NCT00000448 Phase 4 naltrexone;Placebo
32 Primary Care Based Disease Management for Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT00419315 Phase 4
33 Effectiveness of Naltrexone in a Community Setting Completed NCT00000445 Phase 4 naltrexone (Revia)
34 Campral (Acamprosate) Treatment of Alcohol Dependence in a Family Medicine Setting: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study Completed NCT00381043 Phase 4 Acamprosate (Campral)
35 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Acamprosate in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals With Comorbid Bipolar Disorder Completed NCT00466661 Phase 4 Acamprosate;Placebo
36 Injectable Naltrexone Treatment of Alcohol Dependence in Serious Mental Illness (SMI): An Open Prospective Pilot Trial Completed NCT00453609 Phase 4 long-lasting injectable naltrexone
37 Comparison of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Enhancement Therapy Plus Naltrexone for Alcoholism Completed NCT00000456 Phase 4 naltrexone (Revia)
38 Sertraline Pharmacotherapy for Alcoholism Subtypes Completed NCT00368550 Phase 4 Sertraline;Placebo
39 Injectable Versus Oral Naltrexone Treatment of Alcohol Dependence In Serious Mental Illness (SMI): A Pilot Study Completed NCT00453804 Phase 4 injectable naltrexone;oral naltrexone
40 The Use of Acamprosate in Individuals With Alcohol Dependence and Comorbid Anxiety or Depression Completed NCT00330174 Phase 4 Acamprosate
41 Genetic and Brain Mechanisms of Naltrexone?s Treatment Efficacy for Alcoholism Completed NCT00920829 Phase 4 Naltrexone 50 Mg;Placebo
42 Phase Four Randomized, Multicentre, Open-Label, Comparative Trial Of Disulfiram, Nalterexone And Acamprosate In The Treatment Of Alcohol Dependence Completed NCT00435435 Phase 4 Disulfiram;Acamprosate;Naltexone
43 Alcohol Research Center Grant. Component #1: Naltrexone Effects on Alcohol Reactivity and Consumption, Evaluating the Genetic Variability of Naltrexone Response Completed NCT00366626 Phase 4 Naltrexone;Placebo
44 Sertraline for Alcohol Dependence and Depression Completed NCT00004554 Phase 4 naltrexone (Revia);sertraline (Zoloft);Placebo
45 12 Week Prospective Double Blind Placebo Controlled Randomized Trial of Seroquel SR for Alcohol Dependence and Comorbid Anxiety Completed NCT00352469 Phase 4 Seroquel XR
46 Defining an Endopheneotype for Alcohol Treatment With Naltrexone Completed NCT00817089 Phase 4 naltrexone;placebo
47 Identifying Multiple Mechanisms of Change in Alcoholism Treatment Completed NCT01168960 Phase 4
48 Non-Response to Naltrexone (NTX): Next Steps in Managing Alcoholism Completed NCT00115037 Phase 4 Naltrexone;placebo
49 Dutasteride Treatment for the Reduction of Heavy Drinking Completed NCT01758523 Phase 4 Dutasteride;sugar pill
50 Treatment of Patients With Alcoholism and Attention Deficit Disorder Completed NCT00261872 Phase 4 Methylphenidate

Search NIH Clinical Center for Alcohol Dependence

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 72 / NDF-RT 51 :


Acamprosate
Citalopram
Citalopram hydrobromide
Disulfiram
Fluoxetine
Nalmefene
Naltrexone
Naltrexone
Naltrexone hydrochloride
Ondansetron
Ondansetron Hydrochloride
Topiramate
Trazodone

Genetic Tests for Alcohol Dependence

Genetic tests related to Alcohol Dependence:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Alcohol Dependence 29 ADH1B ADH1C GABRA2 HTR2A

Anatomical Context for Alcohol Dependence

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Alcohol Dependence:

41
Liver, Brain, Testes, Heart, Cortex, Bone, Amygdala

Publications for Alcohol Dependence

Articles related to Alcohol Dependence:

(show top 50) (show all 33661)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms in men with type I and Type II alcoholism. 9 38 8 71
15863807 2005
2
Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes. 38 8 71
17923853 2008
3
Major genetic components underlying alcoholism in Korean population. 38 8 71
18056758 2008
4
Functional variants in TAS2R38 and TAS2R16 influence alcohol consumption in high-risk families of African-American origin. 38 8 71
17250611 2007
5
Functional variant in a bitter-taste receptor (hTAS2R16) influences risk of alcohol dependence. 38 8 71
16385453 2006
6
Alcoholism susceptibility loci: confirmation studies in a replicate sample and further mapping. 38 8 71
10923994 2000
7
Genome-wide search for genes affecting the risk for alcohol dependence. 38 8 71
9603606 1998
8
A regulatory variation in OPRK1, the gene encoding the kappa-opioid receptor, is associated with alcohol dependence. 9 38 8
18319328 2008
9
Association of alcohol dehydrogenase genes with alcohol dependence: a comprehensive analysis. 9 38 8
16571603 2006
10
CHRM2 gene predisposes to alcohol dependence, drug dependence and affective disorders: results from an extended case-control structured association study. 9 38 8
16000316 2005
11
Meta-analysis of the association of a functional serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism with alcohol dependence. 9 38 8
15635638 2005
12
Evidence of common and specific genetic effects: association of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene with alcohol dependence and major depressive syndrome. 9 38 8
15229186 2004
13
A functional neuropeptide Y Leu7Pro polymorphism associated with alcohol dependence in a large population sample from the United States. 9 38 8
12215082 2002
14
Hangover symptoms in Asian Americans with variations in the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) gene. 9 38 71
10627091 2000
15
Association between the functional variant of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene and type 1 alcoholism. 9 38 8
10395222 1999
16
Linkage disequilibrium at the ADH2 and ADH3 loci and risk of alcoholism. 9 38 71
10090900 1999
17
Integrating GWASs and human protein interaction networks identifies a gene subnetwork underlying alcohol dependence. 38 8
24268660 2013
18
Ordered subset linkage analysis based on admixture proportion identifies new linkage evidence for alcohol dependence in African-Americans. 38 8
23239122 2013
19
A systematic gene-based screen of chr4q22-q32 identifies association of a novel susceptibility gene, DKK2, with the quantitative trait of alcohol dependence symptom counts. 38 8
20332099 2010
20
ADH single nucleotide polymorphism associations with alcohol metabolism in vivo. 38 8
19193628 2009
21
Associations of ADH and ALDH2 gene variation with self report alcohol reactions, consumption and dependence: an integrated analysis. 38 8
18996923 2009
22
The OPRD1 and OPRK1 loci in alcohol or drug dependence: OPRD1 variation modulates substance dependence risk. 38 8
17622222 2008
23
Neurokinin 1 receptor antagonism as a possible therapy for alcoholism. 38 8
18276852 2008
24
Smoking and alcoholism target genes associated with plasticity and glutamate transmission in the human ventral tegmental area. 38 8
17928304 2008
25
Neurexin 3 polymorphisms are associated with alcohol dependence and altered expression of specific isoforms. 38 8
17804423 2007
26
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic basis for partial protection against alcoholism in Asians, heterozygous for the variant ALDH2*2 gene allele. 38 71
17885622 2007
27
The genetics of alcohol metabolism: role of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase variants. 38 71
17718394 2007
28
Genomewide linkage study in the Irish affected sib pair study of alcohol dependence: evidence for a susceptibility region for symptoms of alcohol dependence on chromosome 4. 38 8
16534506 2006
29
Joint analysis of the NACP-REP1 marker within the alpha synuclein gene concludes association with alcohol dependence. 38 8
15731118 2005
30
Haplotype-based localization of an alcohol dependence gene to the 5q34 {gamma}-aminobutyric acid type A gene cluster. 38 8
15630072 2005
31
Association of the -141C Del variant of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) with positive family history and suicidality in German alcoholics. 38 8
15389757 2005
32
Genomic screen for loci associated with alcohol dependence in Mission Indians. 38 8
15274051 2004
33
A genome wide search for alcoholism susceptibility genes. 38 8
15211641 2004
34
Variations in GABRA2, encoding the alpha 2 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor, are associated with alcohol dependence and with brain oscillations. 38 71
15024690 2004
35
Confirmation and fine mapping of the chromosome 1 alcohol dependence risk locus. 38 8
15094791 2004
36
Ethanol consumption and DRD2 gene TaqI a polymorphism among socially drinking males. 38 8
12749054 2003
37
A global perspective on genetic variation at the ADH genes reveals unusual patterns of linkage disequilibrium and diversity. 38 71
12050823 2002
38
Evidence for a locus on chromosome 1 that influences vulnerability to alcoholism and affective disorder. 38 8
11329392 2001
39
Genetics of event-related brain potentials in response to a semantic priming paradigm in families with a history of alcoholism. 38 8
11102287 2001
40
Regulation of the mammalian alcohol dehydrogenase genes. 38 71
10697413 2000
41
Involvement of acetaldehyde for full protection against alcoholism by homozygosity of the variant allele of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase gene in Asians. 38 71
10780266 1999
42
Association of a polymorphism of the 5HT2A receptor gene promoter region with alcohol dependence. 38 8
10089015 1999
43
Recent progress toward the identification of genes related to risk for alcoholism. 38 8
9880654 1998
44
Evidence for genetic linkage to alcohol dependence on chromosomes 4 and 11 from an autosome-wide scan in an American Indian population. 38 8
9603607 1998
45
Population and pedigree studies reveal a lack of association between the dopamine D2 receptor gene and alcoholism. 38 8
1979357 1990
46
Segregation analysis of alcoholism in families ascertained through a pair of male alcoholics. 38 8
2339688 1990
47
Allelic association of human dopamine D2 receptor gene in alcoholism. 38 8
1969501 1990
48
Biological markers for increased risk of alcoholism and for quantitation of alcohol consumption. 38 8
2298906 1990
49
Genetic investigations of alcohol metabolism and of alcoholism. 38 8
3189329 1988
50
Neurogenetic adaptive mechanisms in alcoholism. 38 8
2882604 1987