Aliases & Classifications for Alexia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Alexia:

Name: Alexia 12 76 15 73
Dyslexia, Acquired 44 73
Dyslexia 44 73
Acquired Dyslexia 12
Aphemesthaesia 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13417
ICD9CM 35 315.01
SNOMED-CT 68 9236007

Summaries for Alexia

Disease Ontology : 12 An agnosia that is a loss of the ability to recognize text.

MalaCards based summary : Alexia, also known as dyslexia, acquired, is related to agraphia and aphasia, and has symptoms including scanning speech and aprosodia. An important gene associated with Alexia is PSEN1 (Presenilin 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Neuroscience and Spinal Cord Injury. The drugs Rivastigmine and Cholinesterase Inhibitors have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, eye and temporal lobe, and related phenotypes are growth/size/body region and hematopoietic system

Wikipedia : 76 Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal... more...

Related Diseases for Alexia

Diseases related to Alexia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 155)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 agraphia 31.9 KANTR MBP PPP3CA PSEN1 TARDBP
2 aphasia 31.0 APOE PSEN1
3 visual agnosia 30.4 KANTR PSEN1
4 dementia 30.4 APOE PSEN1 TARDBP
5 semantic dementia 30.1 APOE PSEN1 TARDBP
6 acute disseminated encephalomyelitis 30.1 AQP4 MBP
7 associative agnosia 30.0 PSEN1 TARDBP
8 head injury 30.0 APOE LBR
9 frontotemporal dementia 30.0 APOE PSEN1 TARDBP
10 multiple sclerosis 29.9 APOE AQP4 MBP
11 disease of mental health 29.8 APOE PSEN1 TARDBP
12 dyslexia 1 12.5
13 dyslexia 2 12.4
14 dyslexia 9 12.1
15 dyslexia 3 12.1
16 dyslexia 6 12.1
17 dyslexia 5 12.1
18 dyslexia 8 12.1
19 agnosia 11.5
20 learning disability 11.4
21 dyscalculia 11.4
22 dyslexia 11.4
23 reading disorder 11.4
24 stormorken syndrome 11.2
25 visual verbal agnosia 11.1
26 inclusion body myopathy with early-onset paget disease and frontotemporal dementia 11.1
27 progressive non-fluent aphasia 11.1
28 apraxia 10.6
29 dysphasia, familial developmental 10.5
30 specific language impairment 10.5
31 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 10.4
32 autism 10.3
33 prosopagnosia 10.3
34 dysgraphia 10.2
35 alzheimer disease 4 10.2 APOE PSEN1
36 gait apraxia 10.2 APOE PSEN1
37 phonagnosia 10.2 PSEN1 TARDBP
38 posterior cortical atrophy 10.2
39 familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification 10.2 APOE PSEN1
40 anxiety 10.2
41 developmental coordination disorder 10.2
42 developmental dyspraxia 10.2
43 brain injury 10.2 APOE MBP
44 nominal aphasia 10.2 PSEN1 TARDBP
45 kohlschutter-tonz syndrome 10.2 APOE PSEN1
46 writing disorder 10.2 PSEN1 TARDBP
47 expressive language disorder 10.2 PSEN1 TARDBP
48 arteriolosclerosis 10.1 APOE TARDBP
49 lethal congenital contracture syndrome 1 10.1 MBP TARDBP
50 alzheimer disease 2 10.1 APOE PSEN1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Alexia:



Diseases related to Alexia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Alexia

UMLS symptoms related to Alexia:


scanning speech, aprosodia

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Alexia:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 9.91 APOE AQP4 LBR MBP PPP3CA PSEN1
2 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.87 APOE AQP4 LBR MBP PPP3CA PSEN1
3 immune system MP:0005387 9.8 APOE AQP4 LBR MBP PPP3CA PSEN1
4 nervous system MP:0003631 9.7 APOE AQP4 LBR MBP PPP3CA PSEN1
5 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.35 APOE AQP4 LBR PPP3CA PSEN1
6 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.02 APOE AQP4 LBR MBP PSEN1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Alexia

Drugs for Alexia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 42)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Rivastigmine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 123441-03-2 77991
2 Cholinesterase Inhibitors Phase 4
3 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
4 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
5 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
6 Protective Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
7 Imatinib Mesylate Phase 4 220127-57-1 123596
8 Protein Kinase Inhibitors Phase 4
9
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 3 15687-27-1 3672
10
Quinidine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 56-54-2 441074
11
Dextromethorphan Approved Phase 3 125-71-3 5360696 5362449
12
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 93-14-1 3516
13
Pancrelipase Approved, Investigational Phase 3 53608-75-6
14
Insulin Detemir Approved Phase 3 169148-63-4 5311023
15
Zinc Approved, Investigational Phase 3 7440-66-6
16 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 3
17 Cromolyn Sodium Phase 3
18 Quinidine gluconate Phase 3
19 Antitussive Agents Phase 3
20 Chlorpheniramine, phenylpropanolamine drug combination Phase 3
21 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 3
22 Respiratory System Agents Phase 3
23 Excitatory Amino Acids Phase 3
24 insulin Phase 3
25 Insulin, Long-Acting Phase 3
26 Insulin, Globin Zinc Phase 3
27 pancreatin Phase 3
28 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 3
29
Lacosamide Approved Phase 2 175481-36-4, 860352-01-8 219078
30 Piracetam Approved, Investigational Phase 2 7491-74-9
31 Etiracetam Investigational Phase 2 33996-58-6
32 Calcium, Dietary Phase 2
33 Bone Density Conservation Agents Phase 2
34 Nootropic Agents Phase 2
35 Anticonvulsants Phase 2
36
Acetylcholine Approved 51-84-3 187
37
Ethanol Approved Not Applicable 64-17-5 702
38 Acetylcholine Release Inhibitors
39 Botulinum Toxins, Type A
40 Botulinum Toxins
41 onabotulinumtoxinA
42 abobotulinumtoxinA

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 26)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Effects of Rivastigmine Patch on Activities of Daily Living and Cognition in Patients With Severe Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (ACTION) (Study Protocol CENA713DUS44, NCT00948766) and a 24 Week Open-label Extension to Study CENA713DUS44 Completed NCT00948766 Phase 4 Rivastigmine 4.6 mg/24 h (5 cm^2);Rivastigmine 9.5 mg/24 h (10 cm^2);Rivastigmine 13.3 mg/24 h (15 cm^2);Placebo
2 Effects of Dapagliflozin on Central Hemodynamics and Urine Albumin Excretion in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. Recruiting NCT02887677 Phase 4 Dapagliflozin;Placebo
3 Chemotherapy and Imatinib in Young Adults With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Ph (BCR-ABL) POSITIVE Recruiting NCT01491763 Phase 4 Imatinib
4 Veinplicity for Improved Venous Access: The VIVA Trial Recruiting NCT03752632 Phase 3
5 Safety and Efficacy Study of ALZT-OP1 in Subjects With Evidence of Early Alzheimer's Disease Recruiting NCT02547818 Phase 3 ALZT-OP1a;ALZT-OP1b
6 Long Term, Extension Study of the Safety and Efficacy of AVP-786 for the Treatment of Agitation in Patients With Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type Recruiting NCT02446132 Phase 3 AVP-786
7 Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of AVP-786 for the Treatment of Agitation in Patients With Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type Recruiting NCT02442778 Phase 3 AVP-786;Placebo
8 Cystic Fibrosis - Insulin Deficiency, Early Action Recruiting NCT01100892 Phase 3 Once-daily insulin detemir
9 Treatment for Elderly Fit Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma Patients Aged Between 65 and 80 Years Recruiting NCT03742297 Phase 3 Lenalidomide.;Carfilzomib;Bortezomib;Daratumumab;Dexamethasone;Prednisone;Melphalan
10 Study on Leiomyosarcoma, Liposarcomas and Synovial Sarcoma With Trabectedin Not yet recruiting NCT03773510 Phase 3 Trabectedin discontinuation;Trabectedin continuation
11 CM4620 Injectable Emulsion Versus Supportive Care in Patients With Acute Pancreatitis and SIRS Recruiting NCT03401190 Phase 2 CM4620 Injectable Emulsion (Low Dose);CM4620 Injectable Emulsion (High Dose)
12 Treatments of the Necrosed Immature Teeth (REV) Recruiting NCT02064517 Phase 2
13 Phase II Trial of Seizure Prophylaxis in Suspected Primary Glioma Patients Undergoing Craniotomy Not yet recruiting NCT03436433 Phase 2 Lacosamide;Levetiracetam
14 Brain Mechanisms Underlying Reading Improvement in Central Alexia Completed NCT02062619 Not Applicable
15 Multimodal Treatment of Phonological Alexia: Behavioral & fMRI Outcomes Completed NCT00827268 Not Applicable
16 Toxin Retrospective Study Completed NCT03042052 detrusor infection of Botulinum toxin
17 Therapy for Reading Problems in Adults After Brain Injury Completed NCT00064805 Not Applicable
18 Chaplain Family Project Trial Recruiting NCT03702634 Not Applicable
19 On-Q Catheter Caregiver Education Recruiting NCT03372889 Not Applicable
20 Alcohol, Inflammation, and Mindfulness Study Recruiting NCT02994043 Not Applicable
21 Analysis of Natural Killer Cell Activity (NKA) in Whole Blood in High Risk Subjects Undergoing Colonoscopy Recruiting NCT03249727 Not Applicable
22 Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) for Lower Urinary Tract Disorders in Parkinson's Syndrome Recruiting NCT02190851 Not Applicable
23 AMPLATZER™ Amulet™ LAA Occluder Trial Recruiting NCT02879448 Not Applicable
24 Laser Ablation of Abnormal Neurological Tissue Using Robotic NeuroBlate System Recruiting NCT02392078
25 App-delivered Therapy for Arabic Readers With Hemianopic Alexia Active, not recruiting NCT02482350 Not Applicable
26 Treatment for Reading and Writing Deficits Following Acquired Brain Injury Enrolling by invitation NCT03662243

Search NIH Clinical Center for Alexia

Cochrane evidence based reviews: dyslexia

Genetic Tests for Alexia

Anatomical Context for Alexia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Alexia:

41
Brain, Eye, Temporal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, B Cells, Breast, Spinal Cord

Publications for Alexia

Articles related to Alexia:

(show top 50) (show all 357)
# Title Authors Year
1
Randomized trial of iReadMore word reading training and brain stimulation in central alexia. ( 29912350 )
2018
2
Pure alexia: two cases and a new neuroanatomical classification. ( 29181626 )
2018
3
Visual crowding in pure alexia and acquired prosopagnosia. ( 29902952 )
2018
4
The neural substrates of improved phonological processing following successful treatment in a case of phonological alexia and agraphia. ( 29350575 )
2018
5
Do all visual deficits cause pure alexia? Dissociations between visual processing and reading suggest "no". ( 29902728 )
2018
6
Hypothalamic relapse of a cardiac large B-cell lymphoma presenting with memory loss, confabulation, alexia-agraphia, apathy, hypersomnia, appetite disturbances and diabetes insipidus. ( 30150329 )
2018
7
Dorsal and ventral visual stream contributions to preserved reading ability in patients with central alexia. ( 30005371 )
2018
8
When mild pure alexia may not be reducible to hemianopic alexia. ( 30033810 )
2018
9
Multi-step treatment for acquired alexia and agraphia (Part I): efficacy, generalisation, and identification of beneficial treatment steps. ( 28421858 )
2017
10
Face perception in pure alexia: Complementary contributions of the left fusiform gyrus to facial identity and facial speech processing. ( 28964939 )
2017
11
Prosopometamorphopsia and alexia following left splenial corpus callosum infarction: Case report and literature review. ( 29260005 )
2017
12
Alexia Without Agraphia: A Rare Entity. ( 28690938 )
2017
13
Reading on the right when there's nothing left? Probabilistic tractography reveals hemispheric asymmetry in pure alexia. ( 28789579 )
2017
14
Multi-step treatment for acquired alexia and agraphia (part II): a dual-route error scoring system. ( 28421910 )
2017
15
A formal analysis of alexia in persistent aura and a comparison to acquired pure alexia. ( 28376693 )
2017
16
Visual attention in posterior stroke and relations to alexia. ( 26970141 )
2016
17
Brain mechanisms of recovery from pure alexia: A single case study with multiple longitudinal scans. ( 27422538 )
2016
18
Pure alexia in a patient with multiple sclerosis. ( 27770273 )
2016
19
Acquired dyslexia in Serbian speakers with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia. ( 27135368 )
2016
20
Glioblastoma Presenting with Pure Alexia and Palinopsia Involving the Left Inferior Occipital Gyrus and Visual Word Form Area Evaluated with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography. ( 26748167 )
2016
21
Clinical Communication in Medicine Brown Jo Noble Lorraine M Papageorgiou Alexia Kidd Jane Clinical Communication in Medicine 280pp AL34.99 Wiley Blackwell 9781118728246 1118728246 [Formula: see text]. ( 27406511 )
2016
22
Brain pathology case of the month August 2016 - case 2 A 71 year old man presenting with headache, blurry vision and alexia without agraphia. ( 27647576 )
2016
23
Untangling letter confusability and word length effects in pure alexia. ( 26745321 )
2016
24
Surface errors without semantic impairment in acquired dyslexia: a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping study. ( 26966139 )
2016
25
Behavioural and eye-movement outcomes in response to text-based reading treatment for acquired alexia. ( 25582781 )
2015
26
A case of pure alexia and foreign accent syndrome following acute encephalopathy in the presence of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies. ( 26289758 )
2015
27
Double Disassociation of Anosognosia for Alexia and Simultanagnosia but Quantitative Awareness of Optic Ataxia. ( 26368835 )
2015
28
The effects of homonymous hemianopia in experimental studies of alexia. ( 25708175 )
2015
29
Successful remote delivery of a treatment for phonological alexia via telerehab. ( 26018197 )
2015
30
Vanishing splenial lesion presenting as alexia with dysgraphia. ( 25683766 )
2015
31
Transcranial direct current stimulation for pure alexia: effects on brain and behavior. ( 25511797 )
2015
32
Treatment for Alexia With Agraphia Following Left Ventral Occipito-Temporal Damage: Strengthening Orthographic Representations Common to Reading and Spelling. ( 26110814 )
2015
33
Alexia Without Agraphia in a Right-Handed Individual Following Right Occipital Stroke. ( 26397830 )
2015
34
Training Pseudoword Reading in Acquired Dyslexia: A Phonological Complexity Approach. ( 26085708 )
2015
35
Alexia due to ischemic stroke of the visual word form area. ( 23528139 )
2014
36
From word superiority to word inferiority: visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia. ( 24801564 )
2014
37
Effects of intensive phonomotor treatment on reading in eight individuals with aphasia and phonological alexia. ( 24686537 )
2014
38
Connectionist neuropsychology: uncovering ultimate causes of acquired dyslexia. ( 24324241 )
2014
39
Pure alexia after damage to the right fusiform gyrus in a right-handed male. ( 25440018 )
2014
40
What's in a name? The characterization of pure alexia. ( 25051117 )
2014
41
Right Brain: A reading specialist with alexia without agraphia: Teacher interrupted. ( 24379102 )
2014
42
Is Radical-by-Radical Reading Strategy Effective for Chinese Pure Alexia? A Case Study. ( 25068672 )
2014
43
On compensatory strategies and computational models: the case of pure alexia. ( 24863010 )
2014
44
An eye movement study on the role of the visual field defect in pure alexia. ( 24999811 )
2014
45
What lies beneath: a comparison of reading aloud in pure alexia and semantic dementia. ( 24702272 )
2014
46
Progressive Wallerian Degeneration of the Corpus Callosal Splenium in a Patient with Alexia Without Agraphia: Advanced MR Findings. ( 25489886 )
2014
47
Posterior cerebral artery stroke presenting as alexia without agraphia. ( 24935413 )
2014
48
Reading faces: Investigating the use of a novel face-based orthography in acquired alexia. ( 24463310 )
2014
49
Fast word reading in pure alexia: "fast, yet serial" ( 24592898 )
2014
50
An eye movement based reading intervention in lexical and segmental readers with acquired dyslexia. ( 24813563 )
2014

Variations for Alexia

Expression for Alexia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Alexia.

Pathways for Alexia

Pathways related to Alexia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.46 APOE MBP PSEN1 TARDBP
2 11.21 AQP4 MBP PPP3CA
3 11 PPP3CA PSEN1
4 10.81 APOE PSEN1

GO Terms for Alexia

Biological processes related to Alexia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 negative regulation of gene expression GO:0010629 9.5 APOE PPP3CA TARDBP
2 cholesterol biosynthetic process GO:0006695 9.37 APOE LBR
3 positive regulation of endocytosis GO:0045807 9.26 APOE PPP3CA
4 positive regulation of dendritic spine development GO:0060999 9.16 APOE PSEN1
5 amyloid precursor protein metabolic process GO:0042982 8.96 APOE PSEN1
6 positive regulation of amyloid fibril formation GO:1905908 8.62 APOE PSEN1

Sources for Alexia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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