Aliases & Classifications for Alexia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Alexia:

Name: Alexia 12 73 15 70
Dyslexia, Acquired 44 70
Dyslexia 44 70
Acquired Dyslexia 12
Aphemesthaesia 12


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13417
ICD9CM 34 315.01
SNOMED-CT 67 9236007
UMLS 70 C0002018 C0013388 C0476254

Summaries for Alexia

Disease Ontology : 12 An agnosia that is a loss of the ability to recognize text.

MalaCards based summary : Alexia, also known as dyslexia, acquired, is related to progressive non-fluent aphasia and dysgraphia, and has symptoms including scanning speech and aprosodia. An important gene associated with Alexia is MAPT (Microtubule Associated Protein Tau), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Pathways of neurodegeneration - multiple diseases and Alzheimers Disease. The drugs Levodopa and Dopamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, cortex and temporal lobe, and related phenotypes are cellular and hematopoietic system

Wikipedia : 73 Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal... more...

Related Diseases for Alexia

Diseases related to Alexia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 318)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 progressive non-fluent aphasia 31.3 VCP MAPT GRN
2 dysgraphia 31.3 TARDBP MAPT GRN
3 posterior cortical atrophy 30.8 MAPT APOE
4 apraxia 30.6 MAPT GRN APOE
6 amnestic disorder 30.4 MAPT BCHE APOE
7 frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tdp43 inclusions, grn-related 30.2 PRNP MAPT GRN
8 finger agnosia 30.0 PCAT2 MAPT
9 brain injury 30.0 MAPT APOE
10 semantic dementia 29.8 TARDBP MAPT GRN APOE
11 visual agnosia 29.8 PSEN2 PCAT2 MAPT GRN APOE
12 prosopagnosia 29.8 TARDBP PSEN2 MAPT GRN
13 sleep disorder 29.7 MAPT BCHE APOE
14 nominal aphasia 29.7 VCP TARDBP PCAT2 MAPT GRN APOE
15 mutism 29.5 TARDBP MAPT GRN
16 creutzfeldt-jakob disease 29.5 PRNP MAPT APOE
17 associative agnosia 29.5 VCP TARDBP MAPT GRN
19 dyscalculia 29.1 VCP TARDBP MAPT GRN APOE
20 simultanagnosia 29.0 TARDBP PSEN2 PCAT2 MAPT APOE ABCA7
21 motor neuron disease 28.9 VCP TARDBP MAPT GRN APOE
22 gerstmann syndrome 28.7 PSEN2 PRNP PCAT2 MAPT GRN APOE
23 writing disorder 28.7 VCP TARDBP PRNP MAPT GRN
24 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1 28.0 VCP TARDBP PSEN2 PRNP MAPT GRN
25 speech and communication disorders 27.8 VCP TARDBP PSEN2 PRNP MAPT GRN
27 frontotemporal dementia 27.4 VCP TARDBP PSEN2 PRNP MAPT GRN
28 alzheimer disease 27.2 VCP TARDBP PSEN2 PRNP MAPT GRN
29 dyslexia 1 11.6
30 dyslexia 2 11.5
31 dyslexia 8 11.2
32 dyslexia 3 11.2
33 dyslexia 5 11.2
34 dyslexia 9 11.2
35 dyslexia 6 11.2
36 learning disability 11.1
37 agnosia 11.1
38 stormorken syndrome 11.0
39 dyslexia 11.0
40 reading disorder 11.0
41 visual verbal agnosia 11.0
42 periventricular nodular heterotopia 10.9
43 inclusion body myopathy with paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia 10.9
44 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 10.7
45 agenesis of corpus callosum, cardiac, ocular, and genital syndrome 10.5
46 specific language impairment 10.5
47 dysphasia, familial developmental 10.5
48 autism 10.4
49 specific learning disability 10.4
50 articulation disorder 10.3

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Alexia:

Diseases related to Alexia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Alexia

UMLS symptoms related to Alexia:

scanning speech; aprosodia

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Alexia:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular MP:0005384 10.01 APOE GRN KITLG MAPT PRNP PSEN2
2 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.97 APOE GRN KITLG MAPT PRNP PSEN2
3 immune system MP:0005387 9.92 APOE GRN KITLG MAPT PRNP PSEN2
4 integument MP:0010771 9.8 APOE GRN KITLG MAPT PRNP PSEN2
5 nervous system MP:0003631 9.65 AANAT ABCA7 APOE GRN KITLG MAPT
6 limbs/digits/tail MP:0005371 9.55 APOE KITLG PRNP PSEN2 VCP
7 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.02 APOE GRN MAPT PRNP TARDBP

Drugs & Therapeutics for Alexia

Drugs for Alexia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 34)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Levodopa Approved Phase 4 59-92-7 6047
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 113-45-1 4158
Amphetamine Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 300-62-9 5826 3007
Guanfacine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29110-47-2 3519
6 Dopamine agonists Phase 4
7 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 4
8 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
9 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
10 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride Phase 4
11 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4
12 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
13 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
14 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
15 adderall Phase 4
16 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
17 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4
18 Sympathomimetics Phase 4
Lovastatin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 75330-75-5 53232
20 Anticholesteremic Agents Phase 2
21 Antimetabolites Phase 2
22 Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Phase 2
23 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 2
24 Dihydromevinolin Phase 2
25 L 647318 Phase 2
26 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 2
Triamcinolone Approved, Vet_approved 124-94-7 31307
tannic acid Approved 1401-55-4
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
30 Triamcinolone diacetate
31 Triamcinolone hexacetonide
32 triamcinolone acetonide
33 Tin Fluorides
34 Omega 3 Fatty Acid

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 71)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Dopaminergic Enhancement of Learning and Memory (LL_001, Project on Dyslexia) Unknown status NCT00111371 Phase 4 Levodopa
2 Neurophysiology of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Comorbid Dyslexia: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Measures of Brain Activation During Attention and Reading Tasks Pre- and Post-Atomoxetine Treatment Completed NCT00716274 Phase 4 Atomoxetine;Placebo
3 A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study of Atomoxetine Hydrochloride for the Treatment of ADHD in Children and Adolescents With ADHD and Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00607919 Phase 4 Atomoxetine;Placebo
4 Open-Label Treatment With Atomoxetine Hydrochloride in Child and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00191048 Phase 4 Atomoxetine
5 Reading ICARD: Interventions for Children With Attention and Reading Disorders Completed NCT01133847 Phase 4 Methylphenidate;Mixed Salt Amphetamine;Atomoxetine;Guanfacine
6 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Comparison of Atomoxetine and Placebo in Child Outpatients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Reading Disorder, or Comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Reading Disorder. Completed NCT00191906 Phase 4 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride;placebo
7 The Contribution of a Speech Perception Intervention to the Prevention of Phonological Awareness Deficits in Children With Speech Sound Disorders Unknown status NCT00818428 Phase 2, Phase 3
8 Early Interventions for Children With Reading Problems Completed NCT00065832 Phase 3
9 Computerized Working Memory Training in Adults With Substance Abuse and Executive Function Deficits: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Unknown status NCT02068261 Phase 2
10 Implementation of a Multimodal Program Including Yoga and Meditation as Well as Play Therapy for ADHD and Dyslexia in a Public School in Najibabad, India Completed NCT01012778 Phase 1, Phase 2
11 My Scrivener® - Measuring Effectiveness and Dose Response in Children Completed NCT00919906 Phase 1, Phase 2
12 Neurobiology and Treatment of Reading Disability in NF1 Recruiting NCT02964884 Phase 2 Lovastatin;Placebo Oral Tablet
13 Combining A Rhythmic Intervention With tDCS to Improve Reading Skills in Dyslexic Adults Unknown status NCT03119402
14 The Effectiveness of Intervention for Developmental Dyslexia: The Rhythmic Reading Training Compared With Hemisphere-Specific Stimulation and Action Video Games Unknown status NCT02791841
15 Neuronal Markers of Grapheme-phoneme Training Response for Prediction of Successful Reading Acquisition in Children at Familial Risk for Developmental Dyslexia Unknown status NCT02217696
16 Evaluation of a Group-based Training for Parents of Children With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT02107534
17 Relationships Between Proprioception, Motor Control and Reading in Children With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT03364010
18 Remediation in Developmental Dyslexia Unknown status NCT00068835
19 Effectiveness of Intervention for Developmental Dyslexia: Rhythmic Reading Training Compared to 'Abilmente' Method Unknown status NCT03199092
20 Effects of Music Education on Domain of Reading and Cognitive Abilities in Children With Reading Difficulties: a Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT01388881
21 Characterization of Ascending and Descending Auditory Processing Involved in the Encoding of Speech Sounds in Adult and Children: Variability Related to Changes in Sensory Input or a Neurodevelopmental Disorder or Targeted Remediation Completed NCT02574299
22 Cognitively-based Treatments of Acquired Dyslexias Completed NCT00064805
23 Multimodal Treatment of Phonological Alexia: Behavioral & fMRI Outcomes Completed NCT00827268
24 The Effectiveness of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation in Young Dyslexic Adults - a Single Blind, Randomized, Controlled Study Completed NCT01930500
25 Brain Mechanisms Underlying Reading Improvement in Central Alexia Completed NCT02062619
26 Role of Auditory Cortical Oscillations in Speech Processing and Its Dysfunction in Dyslexia Through Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation Completed NCT04277351
27 Computerized Working Memory Training for Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT02429739
28 Study of Hierarchy of Afferents in Postural Control of Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT02879786
29 Investigation of Turkish Validity and Reliability of the Dynamic Gait Index in Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT04235465
30 Investigation of Postural Control, Grip Strength and Body Posture in Children With Intellectual Disability and Dyslexia Completed NCT04250701
31 Developmental Dyslexia and Functional Maturation of Auditory Cortex Completed NCT00245804
32 Functional MRI Study of the Involvement of Cortico-cerebellar and Cortico-striatal Networks in Children With a Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and/or Developmental Dyslexia (DD) Completed NCT02393729
33 Investigation of the Effectiveness of Sensory Integration Therapy in Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT04740853
34 Morphofunctional Imaging and Developmental Dyslexia Completed NCT00254644
35 Static and Dynamic Balance Changes After a Scheduled Exercise Program in Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT04386161
36 The Effects of Play and Competition-Based Cognitive Therapy on Executive Functions and Occupational Routines in Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT03906097
37 Developmental Language Difficulties: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Studies of the Connections Between Spoken and Written Language and Specificity of These Disorders Completed NCT02872870
38 Asymmetry, Auditory Processing and Reading Skills in Phonological Dyslexic Children Compared to Average-reading Children Completed NCT02345876
39 Learning Disabilities: Links to Schools and Biology Completed NCT00061412
40 Efficacy of Coloured Overlays and Lenses for Adults With Reading Difficulty Completed NCT02680223
41 A School-based Intervention to Diagnose and Treat Vision Problems in Elementary School Children With Reading Difficulty Completed NCT02607384
42 Neurobiology and Treatment of Reading Disability in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1) Completed NCT00624234
43 Rhythm and Music to Rehabilitate Reading Disorders Completed NCT02316873
44 Neuropsychological Characterisation of Cognitive Deficits Involved in Reading Disability in Children With NF1 Completed NCT02397967
45 Training Second-grade Dyslexic Students Using a Computerized Program in Assiut, Egypt Recruiting NCT04642859
46 Neural Mechanisms of Successful Intervention in Children With Dyslexia Recruiting NCT04323488
47 Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in the Treatment of Dyslexia: a Randomized Double-blind Study. Recruiting NCT04244578
48 Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing the Effect of a Parent-guided Speech and Language Therapy Program During the Summer Holidays With an Adapted Holiday Book on the Reading Level of Children With Visual-attentional Dyslexia Recruiting NCT04384952
49 Developmental Dyslexia and Remediation Methods. Phonological, Visual-attentional and Cross-modal Approaches, a Multicentric Study. Recruiting NCT04028310
50 University of Washington Reading & Dyslexia Research Program Recruiting NCT03945097

Search NIH Clinical Center for Alexia

Cochrane evidence based reviews: dyslexia

Genetic Tests for Alexia

Anatomical Context for Alexia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Alexia:

Eye, Cortex, Temporal Lobe, Brain, Occipital Lobe, Parietal Lobe, Bone

Publications for Alexia

Articles related to Alexia:

(show top 50) (show all 814)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Alexia without agraphia in a post COVID-19 patient with left-hemisphere ischemic stroke. 61
33768435 2021
Complementary deficits in perceptual classification in pure alexia and acquired prosopagnosia - New insights from two classic cases. 61
33676958 2021
Asymmetric Bálint's syndrome with multimodal agnosia, bilateral agraphesthesia, and ineffective kinesthetic reading due to subcortical hemorrhage in the left parieto-occipito-temporal area. 61
33103577 2020
Can the right hemisphere read? A behavioral and disconnectome study on implicit reading in a patient with pure alexia. 61
33026948 2020
Alexia without Agraphia as a Manifestation of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome. 61
33183369 2020
Alexia and agraphia in Spanish. 61
32735061 2020
A Rare Clinical Antity; Pure Gerstmann Syndrome. 61
32912538 2020
Dorsal type letter-by-letter reading accompanying alexia with agraphia due to a lesion of the lateral occipital gyri. 61
32804589 2020
[Technical "Tips" for Epidural Tenting Using DuraGen<sup>®</sup> for Surgical Management of Large Dural Defects:A Technical Note]. 61
33071225 2020
Alpha-Fetoprotein-Producing Lung Hepatoid Adenocarcinoma with Brain Metastasis Treated with S-1. 61
33564297 2020
A case of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-antibody-associated disease presenting with tumefactive demyelinating lesion. 61
32474283 2020
Examining the function of the visual word form area with stereo EEG electrical stimulation: A case report of pure alexia. 61
32442776 2020
Selective impairment of On-reading (Chinese-style pronunciation) in alexia with agraphia for kanji due to subcortical hemorrhage in the left posterior middle temporal gyrus. 61
32672088 2020
How is the lockdown affecting vet students? 61
32366496 2020
Seeing is not believing. 61
30953621 2020
Alexia Without Agraphia as the Initial Manifestation of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. 61
31839871 2020
Pure Alexia: A Combined First-Person Account and Neuropsychological Investigation. 61
31800487 2019
A case of aneurysmal subarchnoid haemorrhage and superficial siderosis complicated by prospagnosia, simultagnosia and alexia without agraphia. 61
31790281 2019
Pure alexia with intact perception of complex visual stimuli: a case study. 61
31282280 2019
The medial temporal written word processing system. 61
31174078 2019
Alexia and Agraphia Intervention Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Single Case Study. 61
31194917 2019
The point of a bullet journal. 61
31395729 2019
Should Europe take action to control exotic pet ownership? 61
31273135 2019
Localization of Phonological and Semantic Contributions to Reading. 61
31061085 2019
How Does iReadMore Therapy Change the Reading Network of Patients with Central Alexia? 61
31085605 2019
Alexia without Agraphia-report of Five Cases and Review of Literature. 61
31559778 2019
Raising eyebrows over the evolution of puppy dog eyes. 61
31249116 2019
Multi-step treatment for acquired alexia and agraphia (part II): a dual-route error scoring system. 61
28421910 2019
Multi-step treatment for acquired alexia and agraphia (Part I): efficacy, generalisation, and identification of beneficial treatment steps. 61
28421858 2019
Shape-similar errors in Chinese pure alexia. 61
30777910 2019
Reader's Block: Alexia, Neurological Reading Disorders, and the Postliterate Condition. 61
31885024 2019
Alexia and Agraphia from 1861 to 1965. 61
31220840 2019
Cognitive Rehabilitation of Acquired Calculation Disturbances. 61
31093301 2019
Kanji (Morphogram) and Kana (Phonogram) Problem in Japanese Alexia and Agraphia. 61
31220841 2019
The Relationship Between Non-Orthographic Language Abilities and Reading Performance in Chronic Aphasia: An Exploration of the Primary Systems Hypothesis. 61
30515520 2018
When mild pure alexia may not be reducible to hemianopic alexia. 61
30033810 2018
Visual crowding in pure alexia and acquired prosopagnosia. 61
29902952 2018
Two year outcomes of poststroke writing and reading disorders. 61
28489413 2018
The Visual Agnosias and Related Disorders. 61
28945627 2018
Dorsal and ventral visual stream contributions to preserved reading ability in patients with central alexia. 61
30005371 2018
Do all visual deficits cause pure alexia? Dissociations between visual processing and reading suggest "no". 61
29902728 2018
Hypothalamic relapse of a cardiac large B-cell lymphoma presenting with memory loss, confabulation, alexia-agraphia, apathy, hypersomnia, appetite disturbances and diabetes insipidus. 61
30150329 2018
Randomized trial of iReadMore word reading training and brain stimulation in central alexia. 61
29912350 2018
The nature and treatment of phonological text agraphia. 61
27392251 2018
Neuroradiologic correlation with aphasias. Cortico-subcortical map of language. 61
29439808 2018
The neural substrates of improved phonological processing following successful treatment in a case of phonological alexia and agraphia. 61
29350575 2018
Pure alexia: two cases and a new neuroanatomical classification. 61
29181626 2018
Functional Anatomy of the Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus: From Historical Reports to Current Hypotheses. 61
30283306 2018
The history of the neurophysiology and neurology of the parietal lobe. 61
29519464 2018
Diagonistic Apraxia: A Unique Case of Corpus Callosal Disconnection Syndrome and Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder. 61
30147671 2018

Variations for Alexia

Expression for Alexia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Alexia.

Pathways for Alexia

Pathways related to Alexia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways

GO Terms for Alexia

Cellular components related to Alexia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endoplasmic reticulum GO:0005783 9.17 VCP PSEN2 PRNP GRN BCHE APOE
2 glial cell projection GO:0097386 8.96 MAPT ABCA7

Biological processes related to Alexia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 15)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of neuron death GO:1901216 9.55 PRNP MAPT
2 gene expression GO:0010467 9.54 TARDBP APOE
3 long-term memory GO:0007616 9.52 PRNP APOE
4 regulation of synapse organization GO:0050807 9.51 VCP APOE
5 cholesterol efflux GO:0033344 9.49 APOE ABCA7
6 positive regulation of cholesterol efflux GO:0010875 9.48 APOE ABCA7
7 response to copper ion GO:0046688 9.46 PRNP AANAT
8 negative regulation of long-term synaptic potentiation GO:1900272 9.43 PRNP APOE
9 high-density lipoprotein particle assembly GO:0034380 9.4 APOE ABCA7
10 phospholipid efflux GO:0033700 9.37 APOE ABCA7
11 amyloid-beta formation GO:0034205 9.32 PSEN2 ABCA7
12 positive regulation of amyloid-beta clearance GO:1900223 9.26 APOE ABCA7
13 positive regulation of phospholipid efflux GO:1902995 9.16 APOE ABCA7
14 regulation of amyloid precursor protein catabolic process GO:1902991 8.96 APOE ABCA7
15 negative regulation of amyloid-beta formation GO:1902430 8.8 PRNP APOE ABCA7

Molecular functions related to Alexia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 identical protein binding GO:0042802 9.73 VCP TARDBP PRNP MAPT BCHE APOE
2 chaperone binding GO:0051087 9.33 PRNP MAPT GRN
3 lipid transporter activity GO:0005319 9.32 APOE ABCA7
4 amyloid-beta binding GO:0001540 9.13 PRNP BCHE APOE
5 lipoprotein particle binding GO:0071813 8.62 MAPT APOE

Sources for Alexia

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
69 Tocris
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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