Aliases & Classifications for Alexia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Alexia:

Name: Alexia 12 76 15 73
Dyslexia, Acquired 44 73
Dyslexia 44 73
Acquired Dyslexia 12
Aphemesthaesia 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13417
ICD9CM 35 315.01

Summaries for Alexia

Disease Ontology : 12 An agnosia that is a loss of the ability to recognize text.

MalaCards based summary : Alexia, also known as dyslexia, acquired, is related to agraphia and aphasia, and has symptoms including scanning speech and aprosodia. An important gene associated with Alexia is PSEN1 (Presenilin 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Neuroscience and A-beta Signaling Pathways. The drugs Rivastigmine and Cholinergic Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, bone and whole blood, and related phenotype is hematopoietic system.

Wikipedia : 76 Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal... more...

Related Diseases for Alexia

Diseases related to Alexia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 85)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 agraphia 30.6 KANTR MBP PPP3CA PSEN1 TARDBP
2 aphasia 30.5 APOE PSEN1
3 visual agnosia 30.4 KANTR PSEN1
4 associative agnosia 30.2 PSEN1 TARDBP
5 head injury 30.0 APOE LBR
6 semantic dementia 29.7 APOE PSEN1 TARDBP
7 dementia 29.7 APOE PSEN1 TARDBP
8 alzheimer disease 27.9 APOE PPP3CA PSEN1 TARDBP
9 agnosia 11.3
10 dyslexia 11.3
11 visual verbal agnosia 10.9
12 inclusion body myopathy with early-onset paget disease and frontotemporal dementia 10.9
13 progressive non-fluent aphasia 10.9
14 phonagnosia 10.5 PSEN1 TARDBP
15 writing disorder 10.5 PSEN1 TARDBP
16 expressive language disorder 10.5 PSEN1 TARDBP
17 alzheimer disease 4 10.4 APOE PSEN1
18 gait apraxia 10.4 APOE PSEN1
19 familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification 10.4 APOE PSEN1
20 lethal congenital contracture syndrome 1 10.3 MBP TARDBP
21 nominal aphasia 10.3 PSEN1 TARDBP
22 oculomotor nerve paralysis 10.3 KANTR MBP
23 third cranial nerve disease 10.3 KANTR MBP
24 transient global amnesia 10.2 KANTR PSEN1
25 alzheimer disease 2 10.2 APOE PSEN1
26 anterior spinal artery syndrome 10.2 KANTR MBP
27 basal ganglia disease 10.2 PSEN1 TARDBP
28 tabes dorsalis 10.2 KANTR MBP
29 intracranial vasospasm 10.2 APOE KANTR
30 traumatic brain injury 10.2 APOE MBP
31 postencephalitic parkinson disease 10.2 KANTR TARDBP
32 balo concentric sclerosis 10.2 MBP WDFY2
33 frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1 10.2 PSEN1 TARDBP
34 cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cst3-related 10.1 APOE PSEN1
35 prosopagnosia 10.1
36 brain injury 10.1 APOE MBP
37 multiple sclerosis 10.1
38 ideomotor apraxia 10.0 MBP PSEN1 TARDBP
39 accommodative esotropia 10.0 KANTR WDFY2
40 posterior cortical atrophy 10.0
41 cerebritis 10.0
42 internuclear ophthalmoplegia 10.0 KANTR MBP PSEN1
43 vascular dementia 9.9 APOE MBP PSEN1
44 simultanagnosia 9.9
45 pick disease of brain 9.9 APOE PSEN1 TARDBP
46 supranuclear palsy, progressive, 1 9.9 APOE PSEN1 TARDBP
47 dementia, lewy body 9.9 APOE PSEN1 TARDBP
48 anosognosia 9.8
49 thrombosis 9.8
50 status epilepticus 9.8

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Alexia:



Diseases related to Alexia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Alexia

UMLS symptoms related to Alexia:


scanning speech, aprosodia

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Alexia:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.1 APOE LBR MBP PPP3CA PSEN1 TARDBP

Drugs & Therapeutics for Alexia

Drugs for Alexia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 48)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Rivastigmine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 123441-03-2 77991
2 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
3 Cholinesterase Inhibitors Phase 4
4 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 4
5 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
6 Protective Agents Phase 4
7 Imatinib Mesylate Phase 4 220127-57-1 123596
8 Protein Kinase Inhibitors Phase 4
9
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 3 15687-27-1 3672
10
Dextromethorphan Approved Phase 3 125-71-3 5360696 5362449
11
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 93-14-1 3516
12
Quinidine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 56-54-2 441074
13
Insulin Detemir Approved Phase 3 169148-63-4 5311023
14
Pancrelipase Approved, Investigational Phase 3 53608-75-6
15
Zinc Approved, Investigational Phase 3 7440-66-6 23994
16 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 3
17 Cromolyn Sodium Phase 3
18 Antitussive Agents Phase 3
19 Chlorpheniramine, phenylpropanolamine drug combination Phase 3
20 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 3
21 Excitatory Amino Acids Phase 3
22 Quinidine gluconate Phase 3
23 Respiratory System Agents Phase 3
24 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 3
25 insulin Phase 3
26 Insulin, Globin Zinc Phase 3
27 Insulin, Long-Acting Phase 3
28 pancreatin Phase 3
29
Etoposide Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 33419-42-0 36462
30
Ifosfamide Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 3778-73-2 3690
31
Mechlorethamine Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 51-75-2 4033
32 Alkylating Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
33 Antibodies Phase 1, Phase 2
34 Antibodies, Monoclonal Phase 1, Phase 2
35 Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating Phase 1, Phase 2
36 Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic Phase 1, Phase 2
37 Etoposide phosphate Phase 1, Phase 2
38 Immunoglobulins Phase 1, Phase 2
39
Isophosphamide mustard Phase 1, Phase 2 0
40 Topoisomerase Inhibitors Phase 1, Phase 2
41 Bone Density Conservation Agents Phase 2
42 Calcium, Dietary Phase 2
43
Acetylcholine Approved 51-84-3 187
44
Menthol Approved Not Applicable 2216-51-5 16666
45 abobotulinumtoxinA
46 Botulinum Toxins
47 Botulinum Toxins, Type A
48 onabotulinumtoxinA

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 22)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Effects of Rivastigmine Patch on Activities of Daily Living and Cognition in Patients With Severe Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (ACTION) (Study Protocol CENA713DUS44, NCT00948766) and a 24 Week Open-label Extension to Study CENA713DUS44 Completed NCT00948766 Phase 4 Rivastigmine 4.6 mg/24 h (5 cm^2);Rivastigmine 9.5 mg/24 h (10 cm^2);Rivastigmine 13.3 mg/24 h (15 cm^2);Placebo
2 Effects of Dapagliflozin on Central Hemodynamics and Urine Albumin Excretion in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. Recruiting NCT02887677 Phase 4 Dapagliflozin;Placebo
3 Chemotherapy and Imatinib in Young Adults With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Ph (BCR-ABL) POSITIVE Recruiting NCT01491763 Phase 4 Imatinib
4 Safety and Efficacy Study of ALZT-OP1 in Subjects With Evidence of Early Alzheimer's Disease Recruiting NCT02547818 Phase 3 ALZT-OP1a;ALZT-OP1b
5 Long Term, Extension Study of the Safety and Efficacy of AVP-786 for the Treatment of Agitation in Patients With Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type Recruiting NCT02446132 Phase 3 AVP-786
6 Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of AVP-786 for the Treatment of Agitation in Patients With Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type Recruiting NCT02442778 Phase 3 AVP-786;Placebo
7 Cystic Fibrosis - Insulin Deficiency, Early Action Recruiting NCT01100892 Phase 3 Once-daily insulin detemir
8 Brentuximab Vedotin in Refractory/Relapsed Hodgkin Lymphoma Treated by ICE Recruiting NCT02686346 Phase 1, Phase 2 Brentuximab Vedotin;Etoposide;Carboplatine;Ifosfamide
9 Treatments of the Necrosed Immature Teeth (REV) Recruiting NCT02064517 Phase 2
10 Phase II Trial of Seizure Prophylaxis in Suspected Primary Glioma Patients Undergoing Craniotomy Not yet recruiting NCT03436433 Phase 2 Lacosamide;Levetiracetam
11 Brain Mechanisms Underlying Reading Improvement in Central Alexia Completed NCT02062619 Not Applicable
12 Multimodal Treatment of Phonological Alexia: Behavioral & fMRI Outcomes Completed NCT00827268 Not Applicable
13 Toxin Retrospective Study Completed NCT03042052 detrusor infection of Botulinum toxin
14 Therapy for Reading Problems in Adults After Brain Injury Completed NCT00064805 Not Applicable
15 On-Q Catheter Caregiver Education Recruiting NCT03372889 Not Applicable
16 Alcohol, Inflammation, and Mindfulness Study Recruiting NCT02994043 Not Applicable
17 Analysis of Natural Killer Cell Activity (NKA) in Whole Blood in High Risk Subjects Undergoing Colonoscopy Recruiting NCT03249727 Not Applicable
18 Preoperative Treatment With Noninvasive Intra-auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation Pending Bariatric Surgery Recruiting NCT02648191 Not Applicable
19 Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) for Lower Urinary Tract Disorders in Parkinson's Syndrome Recruiting NCT02190851 Not Applicable
20 AMPLATZER™ Amulet™ LAA Occluder Trial Recruiting NCT02879448 Not Applicable
21 Laser Ablation of Abnormal Neurological Tissue Using Robotic NeuroBlate System Recruiting NCT02392078
22 App-delivered Therapy for Arabic Readers With Hemianopic Alexia Active, not recruiting NCT02482350 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Alexia

Cochrane evidence based reviews: dyslexia

Genetic Tests for Alexia

Anatomical Context for Alexia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Alexia:

41
Brain, Bone, Whole Blood, Eye, Temporal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, Occipital Lobe

Publications for Alexia

Articles related to Alexia:

(show top 50) (show all 334)
# Title Authors Year
1
Randomized trial of iReadMore word reading training and brain stimulation in central alexia. ( 29912350 )
2018
2
Pure alexia: two cases and a new neuroanatomical classification. ( 29181626 )
2018
3
Visual crowding in pure alexia and acquired prosopagnosia. ( 29902952 )
2018
4
The neural substrates of improved phonological processing following successful treatment in a case of phonological alexia and agraphia. ( 29350575 )
2018
5
Do all visual deficits cause pure alexia? Dissociations between visual processing and reading suggest "no". ( 29902728 )
2018
6
Multi-step treatment for acquired alexia and agraphia (Part I): efficacy, generalisation, and identification of beneficial treatment steps. ( 28421858 )
2017
7
Face perception in pure alexia: Complementary contributions of the left fusiform gyrus to facial identity and facial speech processing. ( 28964939 )
2017
8
Prosopometamorphopsia and alexia following left splenial corpus callosum infarction: Case report and literature review. ( 29260005 )
2017
9
Alexia Without Agraphia: A Rare Entity. ( 28690938 )
2017
10
Reading on the right when there's nothing left? Probabilistic tractography reveals hemispheric asymmetry in pure alexia. ( 28789579 )
2017
11
Multi-step treatment for acquired alexia and agraphia (part II): a dual-route error scoring system. ( 28421910 )
2017
12
A formal analysis of alexia in persistent aura and a comparison to acquired pure alexia. ( 28376693 )
2017
13
Visual attention in posterior stroke and relations to alexia. ( 26970141 )
2016
14
Brain mechanisms of recovery from pure alexia: A single case study with multiple longitudinal scans. ( 27422538 )
2016
15
Pure alexia in a patient with multiple sclerosis. ( 27770273 )
2016
16
Acquired dyslexia in Serbian speakers with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia. ( 27135368 )
2016
17
Glioblastoma Presenting with Pure Alexia and Palinopsia Involving the Left Inferior Occipital Gyrus and Visual Word Form Area Evaluated with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography. ( 26748167 )
2016
18
Clinical Communication in Medicine Brown Jo Noble Lorraine M Papageorgiou Alexia Kidd Jane Clinical Communication in Medicine 280pp AL34.99 Wiley Blackwell 9781118728246 1118728246 [Formula: see text]. ( 27406511 )
2016
19
Brain pathology case of the month August 2016 - case 2 A 71 year old man presenting with headache, blurry vision and alexia without agraphia. ( 27647576 )
2016
20
Untangling letter confusability and word length effects in pure alexia. ( 26745321 )
2016
21
Behavioural and eye-movement outcomes in response to text-based reading treatment for acquired alexia. ( 25582781 )
2015
22
A case of pure alexia and foreign accent syndrome following acute encephalopathy in the presence of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies. ( 26289758 )
2015
23
Double Disassociation of Anosognosia for Alexia and Simultanagnosia but Quantitative Awareness of Optic Ataxia. ( 26368835 )
2015
24
The effects of homonymous hemianopia in experimental studies of alexia. ( 25708175 )
2015
25
Successful remote delivery of a treatment for phonological alexia via telerehab. ( 26018197 )
2015
26
Vanishing splenial lesion presenting as alexia with dysgraphia. ( 25683766 )
2015
27
Transcranial direct current stimulation for pure alexia: effects on brain and behavior. ( 25511797 )
2015
28
Treatment for Alexia With Agraphia Following Left Ventral Occipito-Temporal Damage: Strengthening Orthographic Representations Common to Reading and Spelling. ( 26110814 )
2015
29
Alexia Without Agraphia in a Right-Handed Individual Following Right Occipital Stroke. ( 26397830 )
2015
30
Alexia due to ischemic stroke of the visual word form area. ( 23528139 )
2014
31
From word superiority to word inferiority: visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia. ( 24801564 )
2014
32
Effects of intensive phonomotor treatment on reading in eight individuals with aphasia and phonological alexia. ( 24686537 )
2014
33
Connectionist neuropsychology: uncovering ultimate causes of acquired dyslexia. ( 24324241 )
2014
34
Pure alexia after damage to the right fusiform gyrus in a right-handed male. ( 25440018 )
2014
35
What's in a name? The characterization of pure alexia. ( 25051117 )
2014
36
Right Brain: A reading specialist with alexia without agraphia: Teacher interrupted. ( 24379102 )
2014
37
Is Radical-by-Radical Reading Strategy Effective for Chinese Pure Alexia? A Case Study. ( 25068672 )
2014
38
On compensatory strategies and computational models: the case of pure alexia. ( 24863010 )
2014
39
An eye movement study on the role of the visual field defect in pure alexia. ( 24999811 )
2014
40
What lies beneath: a comparison of reading aloud in pure alexia and semantic dementia. ( 24702272 )
2014
41
Progressive Wallerian Degeneration of the Corpus Callosal Splenium in a Patient with Alexia Without Agraphia: Advanced MR Findings. ( 25489886 )
2014
42
Posterior cerebral artery stroke presenting as alexia without agraphia. ( 24935413 )
2014
43
Reading faces: Investigating the use of a novel face-based orthography in acquired alexia. ( 24463310 )
2014
44
Fast word reading in pure alexia: "fast, yet serial" ( 24592898 )
2014
45
Reading therapy strengthens top-down connectivity in patients with pure alexia. ( 23884814 )
2013
46
Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 positron emission tomography in a case of slowly progressive pure alexia. ( 23998338 )
2013
47
Bilateral Hemispheric Processing of Words and Faces: Evidence from Word Impairments in Prosopagnosia and Face Impairments in Pure Alexia. ( 23250954 )
2013
48
Dysfunctional visual word form processing in progressive alexia. ( 23471694 )
2013
49
Temporal recruitment of cortical network involved in reading epilepsy with paroxysmal alexia: a combined EEG/MEG study. ( 23287492 )
2013
50
Rehabilitation of pure alexia: a review. ( 23808895 )
2013

Variations for Alexia

Expression for Alexia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Alexia.

Pathways for Alexia

Pathways related to Alexia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.46 APOE MBP PSEN1 TARDBP
2 10.9 PPP3CA PSEN1
3 10.61 APOE PSEN1

GO Terms for Alexia

Cellular components related to Alexia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neuronal cell body GO:0043025 8.8 APOE MBP PSEN1

Biological processes related to Alexia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 negative regulation of gene expression GO:0010629 9.5 APOE PPP3CA TARDBP
2 negative regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0001933 9.4 PSEN1 TARDBP
3 cholesterol biosynthetic process GO:0006695 9.37 APOE LBR
4 positive regulation of dendritic spine development GO:0060999 9.26 APOE PSEN1
5 positive regulation of endocytosis GO:0045807 9.16 APOE PPP3CA
6 amyloid precursor protein metabolic process GO:0042982 8.96 APOE PSEN1
7 positive regulation of amyloid fibril formation GO:1905908 8.62 APOE PSEN1

Sources for Alexia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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