Alzheimer Disease (AD)

Categories: Cardiovascular diseases, Genetic diseases, Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Alzheimer Disease

MalaCards integrated aliases for Alzheimer Disease:

Name: Alzheimer Disease 57 12 25 20 43 72 36 29 6 44 37 39 32
Alzheimer's Disease 12 73 43 53 42 3 15 62 17 70
Presenile and Senile Dementia 57 43 72
Ad 57 43 72
Alzheimer Disease, Late-Onset, Susceptibility to 57 6
Alzheimer Disease, Susceptibility to 57 6
Alzheimer Disease 1, Familial 57 13
Familial Alzheimer Disease 43 70
Alzheimer Disease, Early-Onset, with Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy 6
Early-Onset Alzheimer Disease with Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy 72
Primary Senile Degenerative Dementia 43
Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer Disease 72
Dementia Due to Alzheimer's Disease 70
Alzheimer's Disease Pathway Kegg 70
Alzheimer Disease, Familial, 1 6
Alzheimer Disease, Late-Onset 57
Late-Onset Alzheimers Disease 17
Alzheimer Disease Type 1 70
Alzheimer-Type Dementia 43
Alzheimers Dementia 12
Alzheimer Disease 1 72
Alzheimer Sclerosis 43
Alzheimer Dementia 43
Alzheimer Syndrome 43
Alzheimers Disease 54
Sdat 43
Ad1 72
Dat 43



57 (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
autosomal dominant

genetic heterogeneity


alzheimer disease:
Inheritance autosomal dominant inheritance heterogeneous


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:10652
OMIM® 57 104300
KEGG 36 H00056
ICD9CM 34 331.0
MeSH 44 D000544
NCIt 50 C2866
SNOMED-CT 67 73768007
UMLS 70 C0002395 C0276496 C1521724 more

Summaries for Alzheimer Disease

MedlinePlus Genetics : 43 Alzheimer disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood.Memory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care.As the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with this disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease.Affected individuals usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. Death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition).Alzheimer disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear between a person's thirties and mid-sixties, while the late-onset form appears during or after a person's mid-sixties. The early-onset form is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer disease.

MalaCards based summary : Alzheimer Disease, also known as alzheimer's disease, is related to early-onset, autosomal dominant alzheimer disease and alzheimer disease 3, and has symptoms including seizures, tremor and myoclonus. An important gene associated with Alzheimer Disease is APP (Amyloid Beta Precursor Protein), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Alzheimer disease and Alzheimers Disease. The drugs Sodium citrate and Levodopa have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include Brain, and related phenotypes are dementia and parkinsonism

Disease Ontology : 12 A tauopathy that is characterized by memory lapses, confusion, emotional instability and progressive loss of mental ability and results in progressive memory loss, impaired thinking, disorientation, and changes in personality and mood starting and leads in advanced cases to a profound decline in cognitive and physical functioning and is marked histologically by the degeneration of brain neurons especially in the cerebral cortex and by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and plaques containing beta-amyloid.

GARD : 20 Alzheimer disease (AD) is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes gradual loss of memory, judgment, and the ability to function socially. Alzheimer disease currently affects about 5 million people. About 75 percent of Alzheimer disease cases are classified as sporadic, which means they occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family. Although the cause of these cases is unknown, genetic changes are likely to play a role. Virtually all sporadic cases of Alzheimer disease begin after age 65, and the risk of developing this condition increases as a person gets older. AD can be subdivided into two groups based on the age of onset: (1) Early-onset (1%-6% of the cases) which start in people younger than 60- 65 years of age (2) Late-onset, which starts in people older than 65 years old. In about 25% of cases, AD is familial (2 or more people in a family have AD). For more information, please visit GARD's familial Alzheimer disease Web page.

OMIM® : 57 Alzheimer disease is the most common form of progressive dementia in the elderly. It is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the neuropathologic findings of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and extracellular amyloid plaques that accumulate in vulnerable brain regions (Sennvik et al., 2000). Terry and Davies (1980) pointed out that the 'presenile' form, with onset before age 65, is identical to the most common form of late-onset or 'senile' dementia, and suggested the term 'senile dementia of the Alzheimer type' (SDAT). Haines (1991) reviewed the genetics of AD. Selkoe (1996) reviewed the pathophysiology, chromosomal loci, and pathogenetic mechanisms of Alzheimer disease. Theuns and Van Broeckhoven (2000) reviewed the transcriptional regulation of the genes involved in Alzheimer disease. (104300) (Updated 05-Apr-2021)

MedlinePlus : 42 Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people. Dementia is a brain disorder that seriously affects a person's ability to carry out daily activities. AD begins slowly. It first involves the parts of the brain that control thought, memory and language. People with AD may have trouble remembering things that happened recently or names of people they know. A related problem, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), causes more memory problems than normal for people of the same age. Many, but not all, people with MCI will develop AD. In AD, over time, symptoms get worse. People may not recognize family members. They may have trouble speaking, reading or writing. They may forget how to brush their teeth or comb their hair. Later on, they may become anxious or aggressive, or wander away from home. Eventually, they need total care. This can cause great stress for family members who must care for them. AD usually begins after age 60. The risk goes up as you get older. Your risk is also higher if a family member has had the disease. No treatment can stop the disease. However, some drugs may help keep symptoms from getting worse for a limited time. NIH: National Institute on Aging

CDC : 3 The most common type of dementia. A progressive disease beginning with mild memory loss possibly leading to loss of the ability to carry on a conversation and respond to the environment. Involves parts of the brain that control thought, memory, and language. Can seriously affect a person's ability to carry out daily activities. Although scientists are learning more every day, right now, they still do not know what causes Alzheimer's disease.

NINDS : 53 Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related, non-reversible brain disorder that develops over a period of years. Initially, people experience memory loss and confusion, which may be mistaken for the kinds of memory changes that are sometimes associated with normal aging. However, the symptoms of AD gradually lead to behavior and personality changes, a decline in cognitive abilities such as decision-making and language skills, and problems recognizing family and friends. AD ultimately leads to a severe loss of mental function. These losses are related to the worsening breakdown of the connections between certain neurons in the brain and their eventual death. AD is one of a group of disorders called dementias that are characterized by cognitive and behavioral problems. It is the most common cause of dementia among people age 65 and older. There are three major hallmarks in the brain that are associated with the disease processes of AD. Amyloid plaques, which are made up of fragments of a protein called beta-amyloid peptide mixed with a collection of additional proteins, remnants of neurons, and bits and pieces of other nerve cells. Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), found inside neurons, are abnormal collections of a protein called tau. Normal tau is required for healthy neurons. However, in AD, tau clumps together. As a result, neurons fail to function normally and eventually die. Loss of connections between neurons responsible for memory and learning. Neurons can't survive when they lose their connections to other neurons. As neurons die throughout the brain, the affected regions begin to atrophy, or shrink. By the final stage of AD, damage is widespread and brain tissue has shrunk significantly.

KEGG : 36 Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic disorder that slowly destroys neurons and causes serious cognitive disability. AD is associated with senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Amyloid-beta (Abeta), a major component of senile plaques, has various pathological effects on cell and organelle function. To date genetic studies have revealed four genes that may be linked to autosomal dominant or familial early onset AD (FAD). These four genes include: amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PS1), presenilin 2 (PS2) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE). All mutations associated with APP and PS proteins can lead to an increase in the production of Abeta peptides, specfically the more amyloidogenic form, Abeta42. It was proposed that Abeta form Ca2+ permeable pores and bind to and modulate multiple synaptic proteins, including NMDAR, mGluR5 and VGCC, leading to the overfilling of neurons with calcium ions. Consequently, cellular Ca2+ disruptions will lead to neuronal apoptosis, autophagy deficits, mitochondrial abnormality, defective neurotransmission, impaired synaptic plasticity and neurodegeneration in AD. FAD-linked PS1 mutation downregulates the unfolded protein response and leads to vulnerability to ER stress.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 72 Alzheimer disease: Alzheimer disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia, loss of cognitive abilities, and deposition of fibrillar amyloid proteins as intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, extracellular amyloid plaques and vascular amyloid deposits. The major constituents of these plaques are neurotoxic amyloid-beta protein 40 and amyloid-beta protein 42, that are produced by the proteolysis of the transmembrane APP protein. The cytotoxic C-terminal fragments (CTFs) and the caspase-cleaved products, such as C31, are also implicated in neuronal death.
Alzheimer disease 1: A familial early-onset form of Alzheimer disease. It can be associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Alzheimer disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia, loss of cognitive abilities, and deposition of fibrillar amyloid proteins as intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, extracellular amyloid plaques and vascular amyloid deposits. The major constituents of these plaques are neurotoxic amyloid-beta protein 40 and amyloid-beta protein 42, that are produced by the proteolysis of the transmembrane APP protein. The cytotoxic C-terminal fragments (CTFs) and the caspase-cleaved products, such as C31, are also implicated in neuronal death.

PubMed Health : 62 About alzheimer's disease: Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. It takes its name from the psychiatrist Alois Alzheimer, who in the early twentieth century was the first person to describe the disease. Over time, people who have Alzheimer’s lose their memory and ability to concentrate. Orientation in space and time become increasingly difficult, and it is also harder for them to manage on their own in everyday life. Those affected need more support as the disease progresses. The course of Alzheimer’s can be positively influenced by a number of different medications and non-drug treatments – but it is not possible to cure the disease or to keep it from progressing. This makes it even more critical for people with Alzheimer’s to receive good care and support: They need loving and stable relationships and a tolerant environment. Many family members need help and assistance too. There are other possible causes of dementia besides Alzheimer’s disease. These include problems with the flow of blood in the brain (vascular dementia). Some people – particularly older people – have both Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia. Medical conditions such as Parkinson’s disease, brain injuries or tumors can also cause dementia. Long-term heavy alcohol consumption may lead to dementia too. There are similarities, but also differences, between the different forms of dementia: The symptoms, the course the disease takes, and the treatment options can all vary. This overview is only about Alzheimer’s.

Wikipedia : 73 Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a neurodegenerative disease that... more...

GeneReviews: NBK1161

Related Diseases for Alzheimer Disease

Diseases in the Alzheimer Disease family:

Alzheimer Disease 2 Alzheimer Disease 16
Alzheimer Disease 5 Alzheimer Disease 15
Alzheimer Disease 6 Alzheimer Disease 7
Alzheimer Disease 4 Alzheimer Disease 8
Alzheimer Disease 3 Alzheimer Disease 9
Alzheimer Disease 10 Alzheimer Disease 11
Alzheimer Disease 12 Alzheimer Disease 13
Alzheimer Disease 14 Alzheimer Disease 17
Alzheimer Disease 18 Alzheimer Disease 19
Alzheimer's Disease 1 Early-Onset, Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer Disease

Diseases related to Alzheimer Disease via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1127)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 early-onset, autosomal dominant alzheimer disease 34.2 PSEN1 MT-ND1 HFE-AS1 HFE APP
2 alzheimer disease 3 34.0 PSEN1 BACE1 APP
3 alzheimer disease 2 33.5 PSEN1 APP
4 dementia, lewy body 33.1 PSEN1 BACE1 APP
5 supranuclear palsy, progressive, 1 32.9 PSEN1 BACE1 APP
6 mild cognitive impairment 32.7 BACE1 APP
7 vascular dementia 32.4 PSEN1 BACE1 APP
8 cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cst3-related 32.2 PSEN1 BACE1 APP
9 nervous system disease 31.8 PSEN1 MIR34A MIR29B1 MIR29A MIR146A MIR106B
10 peripheral nervous system disease 31.7 PSEN1 MT-ND1 MIR34A MIR146A HFE BACE1
11 pick disease of brain 31.7 PSEN1 BACE1 APP
12 central nervous system disease 31.6 PSEN1 MIR34A MIR29B1 MIR29A MIR146A MIR106B
13 disease of mental health 31.5 PSEN1 NOS3 MPO MIR34A MIR29A MIR146A
14 myocardial infarction 31.2 NOS3 MPO MIR34A MIR29B1 MIR146A HFE
15 lipoprotein quantitative trait locus 31.1 NOS3 MPO MIR34A MIR29B1 MIR146A
16 arteries, anomalies of 31.1 NOS3 MIR34A MIR29B1 MIR146A MIR106B
17 microvascular complications of diabetes 7 30.9 HFE-AS1 HFE
18 leukemia, acute myeloid 30.9 MPO MIR34A MIR328 MIR29B1 MIR29A MIR146A
19 inclusion body myositis 30.9 MIR34A BACE1-AS APP
20 cardiovascular system disease 30.7 NOS3 MPO MIR34A MIR29B1 MIR146A
21 hereditary angioedema 30.7 NOS3 MPO APP
22 transferrin serum level quantitative trait locus 2 30.6 HFE-AS1 HFE
23 leukemia, chronic lymphocytic 30.5 MIR34A MIR29B1 MIR29A MIR146A MIR107 MIR106B
24 glucose metabolism disease 30.5 NOS3 MIR29A MIR146A MIR106B
25 acute myocardial infarction 30.5 MIR34A MIR29A MIR146A HFE
26 gastrointestinal system disease 30.4 MIR34A MIR29B1 MIR29A MIR146A MIR106B
27 intestinal disease 30.4 MIR34A MIR29B1 MIR29A MIR146A MIR106B
28 hematologic cancer 30.2 MIR34A MIR29B1 MIR29A MIR146A
29 alzheimer disease 4 11.7
30 alzheimer disease 18 11.7
31 alzheimer disease 19 11.7
32 alzheimer disease 9 11.7
33 alzheimer disease 6 11.7
34 alzheimer disease mitochondrial 11.5
35 alzheimer disease 5 11.5
36 alzheimer disease 10 11.5
37 alzheimer disease 7 11.5
38 alzheimer disease 8 11.4
39 alzheimer disease 11 11.4
40 alzheimer's disease 1 11.4
41 alzheimer disease 12 11.4
42 alzheimer disease 14 11.4
43 alzheimer disease 17 11.4
44 alzheimer disease 13 11.4
45 down syndrome 11.4
46 alzheimer disease 15 11.3
47 alzheimer disease 16 11.2
48 parkinson disease, late-onset 11.2
49 posterior cortical atrophy 11.1
50 frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tdp43 inclusions, grn-related 11.1

Comorbidity relations with Alzheimer Disease via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show top 50) (show all 54)

Active Peptic Ulcer Disease Acute Conjunctivitis
Acute Cystitis Acute Kidney Failure
Amnestic Disorder Bronchitis
Bronchopneumonia Cerebral Atherosclerosis
Cerebral Degeneration Cerebrovascular Disease
Communicating Hydrocephalus Conduct Disorder
Conjunctivitis Cystitis
Decubitus Ulcer Deficiency Anemia
Delusional Disorder Dental Caries
Dermatomycosis Encephalopathy
Folic Acid Deficiency Anemia Generalized Atherosclerosis
Grn-Related Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Heart Disease
Hypoglycemia Hypothyroidism
Intermittent Explosive Disorder Iron Deficiency Anemia
Kidney Disease Kohlschutter-Tonz Syndrome
Latent Syphilis Major Depressive Disorder
Marasmus Neurogenic Bladder
Nutritional Deficiency Disease Obstructive Hydrocephalus
Ocular Motor Apraxia Oral Candidiasis
Osteoporosis Paralytic Ileus
Paranoid Schizophrenia Parkinson Disease, Late-Onset
Pernicious Anemia Personality Disorder
Protein-Energy Malnutrition Pyelonephritis
Scabies Schizophrenia
Schizophreniform Disorder Status Epilepticus

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Alzheimer Disease:

Diseases related to Alzheimer Disease

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Alzheimer Disease

Human phenotypes related to Alzheimer Disease:

31 (show all 7)
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 dementia 31 HP:0000726
2 parkinsonism 31 HP:0001300
3 neurofibrillary tangles 31 HP:0002185
4 senile plaques 31 HP:0100256
5 alzheimer disease 31 HP:0002511
6 long-tract signs 31 HP:0002423
7 decreased level of gaba in serum 31 HP:0410054

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
Neurologic Central Nervous System:
presenile and senile dementia
long tract signs
neurofibrillary tangles composed of disordered microtubules

Clinical features from OMIM®:

104300 (Updated 05-Apr-2021)

UMLS symptoms related to Alzheimer Disease:

seizures; tremor; myoclonus; back pain; angina pectoris; headache; syncope; pain; chronic pain; sciatica; vertigo/dizziness; equilibration disorder; sleeplessness

Drugs & Therapeutics for Alzheimer Disease

PubMed Health treatment related to Alzheimer Disease: 62

People who have Alzheimer’s need long-term help and treatment . Depending on their needs, their life situation and the stage of disease, a whole team of people may be involved in providing care. These could include trained doctors, psychologists, nurses and social workers, as well as volunteers. Both treatment with medications and non-drug interventions aim to increase quality of life, keep the ability to do everyday tasks and stay independent for as long as possible, reduce mental health problems, and help family members to cope better. The most common medications used to treat Alzheimer’s disease include cholinesterase inhibitors , memantine and extracts from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree. Examples of non-drug treatments include memory and orientation training, doing everyday activities as a group, or art therapy , aromatherapy , and animal-assisted or music therapy. Physical activities and massages can help too. Caregiver training for family members is important too.

Drugs for Alzheimer Disease (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 541)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68-04-2
Levodopa Approved Phase 4 59-92-7 6047
Formaldehyde Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-00-0 712
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 51-43-4 5816
Racepinephrine Approved Phase 4 329-65-7 838
Cilostazol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 73963-72-1 2754
Citalopram Approved Phase 4 59729-33-8 2771
Nicotine Approved Phase 4 54-11-5 942 89594
Risperidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 106266-06-2 5073
Atropine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 5908-99-6, 51-55-8 174174
Haloperidol Approved Phase 4 52-86-8 3559
Sertraline Approved Phase 4 79617-96-2 68617
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 4 15687-27-1 3672
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
Carvedilol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 72956-09-3 2585
Dextroamphetamine Approved, Illicit Phase 4 51-64-9 5826
Hydrocodone Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 125-29-1 5284569
Ramipril Approved Phase 4 87333-19-5 5362129
Pravastatin Approved Phase 4 81093-37-0 54687
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 19982-08-2 4054
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
Lithium carbonate Approved Phase 4 554-13-2
Rivastigmine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 123441-03-2 77991
Huperzine A Approved, Experimental Phase 4 102518-79-6
Spironolactone Approved Phase 4 1952-01-7, 52-01-7 5833
Galantamine Approved Phase 4 357-70-0 9651
tannic acid Approved Phase 4 1401-55-4
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 93-14-1 3516
Phenylpropanolamine Approved, Vet_approved, Withdrawn Phase 4 14838-15-4 26934
Dextromethorphan Approved Phase 4 125-71-3 5360696 5362449
Quinidine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56-54-2 441074
Sodium oxybate Approved Phase 4 502-85-2 5360545
Modafinil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68693-11-8 4236
Amisulpride Approved, Investigational Phase 4 71675-85-9, 53583-79-2 2159
Citric acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 77-92-9 311
Choline Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 62-49-7 305
Tryptophan Approved, Nutraceutical, Withdrawn Phase 4 73-22-3 6305
Vitamin A Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 68-26-8, 11103-57-4 445354
Tandospirone Investigational Phase 4 87760-53-0
Dexetimide Withdrawn Phase 4 21888-98-2
Corticosterone Experimental Phase 4 50-22-6 5753
43 Fallypride Investigational Phase 4 166173-78-0
44 Citrate Phase 4
45 Epinephryl borate Phase 4
46 Fibrinolytic Agents Phase 4
47 Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitors Phase 4
48 Anticholesteremic Agents Phase 4
49 Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Phase 4
50 Antimetabolites Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 2385)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Exploratory Study to Assess the Efficacy of Escitalopram Versus Placebo in the Treatment of Depressive Syndrome in Alzheimer's Disease, Vascular Dementia and Mixed Vascular and Alzheimer's Dementia Unknown status NCT00229333 Phase 4 Escitalopram
2 A Based on PEEG and PET Study of Anxiolytic Treatment to Improve Cognitive Function in Patients With Alzheimer Disease Unknown status NCT03151382 Phase 4 Tandospirone Citrate;Donepezil Hydrochloride
3 A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Acetyl-L-carnitine in Patient With Alzheimer's Disease Unknown status NCT02955706 Phase 4 Acetyl-L-Carnitine;Placebo of Acetyl-L-Carnitine
4 Memantine Treatment in Alzheimer's Disease Patients Stratified With Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) Symptoms and Cognitive Severity: A Multi-center, Open-label, Parallel-group and Prospective Clinical Study Unknown status NCT03168997 Phase 4 Memantine Hydrochloride
5 A Multicenter, Randomized, Open-label, Prospective Study to Estimate the add-on Effects of Memantine as Ebixa Oral Pump on Language in Moderate to Severe Alzheimer's Disease Patients Already Receiving Donepezil. Unknown status NCT01849042 Phase 4 Ebixa;donepezil
6 Donepezil and Memantine in Moderate to Severe Alzheimer's Disease Unknown status NCT00866060 Phase 4 Memantine;Donepezil;Placebo donepezil;Placebo memantine
7 Diffusion Tensor Weighted MRI in Alzheimer's Disease: Prediction and Mapping of Symptomatic and Disease Modifying Treatment Effects of Galantamine (Reminyl®) Unknown status NCT00523666 Phase 4 Galantamine (Reminyl®);Placebo/Galantamine (Reminyl®)
8 Effect of the Stage Specific Cognitive Intervention Program on Functional Cortical Activation in Alzheimer's Disease Unknown status NCT01329601 Phase 4
9 A Clinical Trial for an Evaluation of Choline Alfoscerate and Donepezil for Cognitive Improvements of Patients With Cerebrovascular Injury in Alzheimer Patients Unknown status NCT02648906 Phase 4 Choline alfoscerate;Placebo
10 A Randomised Placebo Controlled Trial of a Cholinesterase Inhibitor in the Management of Agitation in Dementia That is Unresponsive to a Psychological Intervention Unknown status NCT00142324 Phase 4 Donepezil
11 Dopaminergic Enhancement of Learning and Memory (LL_001, Project on Dementia/MCI) Unknown status NCT00306124 Phase 4 Levodopa
12 Study of Nasal Brushing Collected OLFActory MUcosa Samples in the Diagnosis of Human Encephalopathies Unknown status NCT02951559 Phase 4
13 Phase IV Study of General Clinical Research Center Of the Jinan Mental Hospital(TAIWAN) Unknown status NCT00626613 Phase 4 Risperdal,reminyl
14 Cilostazol Augmentation Study In Dementia (CASID): A Randomized, Placebo-controlled Pilot Study to Compare the Efficacy Between Donepezil Monotherapy and Cilostazol Augmentation Therapy in Alzheimer's Disease Patients With Subcortical White Matter Hyperintensities Completed NCT01409564 Phase 4 Cilostazol;Placebo
15 Methylphenidate for Apathy in Alzheimer's Dementia: A Controlled Study Completed NCT00495820 Phase 4 Methylphenidate
16 Olfactory Deficits in Mild Cognitive Impairment as a Predictor of Improved Cognition on Donepezil Completed NCT01845636 Phase 4 Donepezil;Atropine
17 A Study of Memantine Hydrochloride (Namenda®) for Cognitive and Behavioral Impairment in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders Completed NCT01333865 Phase 4 Memantine
18 A 24-week, Open-label, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Rivastigmine Patch With 1-step Titration in Patients With Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease (MMSE 10 - 23) Switched Directly From Holinesterase Inhibitors (Donepezil, Galantamine) Completed NCT02703636 Phase 4 Rivastigmine Patch
19 Pilot Combination Treatment Trial of Mild Cognitive Impairment With Depression Completed NCT01658228 Phase 4 Donepezil;Placebo;Citalopram;Venlafaxine
20 Olfactory Deficits and Donepezil Treatment in Cognitively Impaired Elderly Completed NCT01951118 Phase 4 Donepezil
21 A Pilot, Multiple Crossover, Randomized Block Sequence, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial for Use of Methylphenidate for Cognitive and Behavioral Symptoms in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Completed NCT03811847 Phase 4 Methylphenidate Extended Release Oral Capsule
22 Interventional, Randomised, Double-blind, Study to Evaluate the Safety and Tolerability of Once Daily Versus Twice Daily Memantine Treatment in Patients With Dementia of Alzheimer's Type and MMSE Range 5 - 18 Completed NCT02553928 Phase 4 Memantine (once daily);Memantine (twice daily)
23 A 52-week, Prospective, Multi-center, Open-label Study to Assess the Tolerability of Rivastigmine Before and After Switching From Oral Formulation to Transdermal Patch in Patients With Alzheimer's Dementia in a Controlled Titration Schedule Completed NCT01585272 Phase 4 ENA713
24 Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Apathy in Alzheimer's Dementia Completed NCT02190084 Phase 4
25 Phase 4 Study of Cognitive Therapy and Donepezil in Alzheimers Disease. Completed NCT00443014 Phase 4
26 Markers of Alzheimers Disease and Cognitive Outcomes After Perioperative Care Completed NCT01993836 Phase 4 Total intravenous anesthesia with propofol;General anesthesia with isoflurane
27 The Feasibility and Reliability of Utilizing Commercially Available Quantitative Analysis Software as an Adjunct to the Clinical Qualitative Interpretation of Amyvid Brain Scans Completed NCT01946243 Phase 4 Florbetapir F18
28 Verbal Memory ERPs as Indices of Treatment Response in Alzheimer Disease Completed NCT00018278 Phase 4 Aricept;Exelon;Nicoderm Patch
29 The Effect of Anticholinesterase Drugs on Sleep in Alzheimer's Disease Patients Completed NCT00480870 Phase 4 donepezil;Placebo
30 A Single-site Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Study of the Cerebral Metabolic Effects of AC-1202 (Axona®) Treatment in Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer's Disease (AD) Completed NCT01122329 Phase 4
31 Antipsychotic Discontinuation in Alzheimer's Disease Completed NCT00417482 Phase 4 risperidone
32 A Double-blind, Randomized Pilot Study to Evaluate the Effects of Galantamine and Donepezil on Sleep and Attention and Gastrointestinal (GI) Tolerance in Patients With Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease (AD) Completed NCT00035204 Phase 4 galantamine
33 The Depression in Alzheimer's Disease Study (DIADS) Completed NCT00009191 Phase 4 Sertraline [Zoloft]
34 An Open-label Exploratory Study With Memantine: Correlation Between Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers, and Cognition in Patients With Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Completed NCT00551161 Phase 4 memantine
35 Multi-Center, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Monotherapy Study of Neptune Krill Oil (NKO™) in Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease Completed NCT00867828 Phase 4
36 Open Label Trial of Rivastigmine Patch in Subjects With Mild to Moderate Stage Alzheimer's Disease Having Coexisting Small Vessel Cerebrovascular Disease Completed NCT02444637 Phase 4 Rivastigmine
37 A Prospective, 26-Week, Open-Label, Multi-Center, Single-Arm Pilot Study to Evaluate the Safety and Tolerability of Rivastigmine Capsule With Add on Memantine HCl in Patients With Probable Alzheimer's Disease (MMSE 10-20) Completed NCT00305903 Phase 4 Rivastigmine, memantine
38 Memantine and Comprehensive, Individualized, Patient Centered Management of Alzheimer's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT00120874 Phase 4 Memantine
39 A 12-Week Randomized, Double-blind, Parallel-group, Placebo-controlled Trial With and Open-label, 12-week Extension, Multicenter to Evaluation of the Efficacy of Escitalopram for the Treatment of Depression in Alzheimer's Disease Completed NCT01841125 Phase 4 escitalopram;Placebo
40 The Efficacy of Galantamine Treatment on Attention in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease Completed NCT01054976 Phase 4 Galantamine
41 A 12-Week, Multicenter, Open-Label Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness and Safety of Donepezil Hydrochloride (Aricept) in Hispanic Patients With Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Completed NCT00230568 Phase 4 Aricept
42 Study of the Effects of Current Drug Treatments on Levels of Certain Brain Chemicals in Alzheimer's Disease Completed NCT00104442 Phase 4 Rivastigmine
43 Delaying the Progression of Driving Impairment in Individuals With Mild Alzheimer's Disease Completed NCT00476008 Phase 4 Memantine;Placebo
44 A Single Center Study To Examine Neural Correlates Of Cognition In Subjects With Mild Alzheimer's Disease After Three Months Of Open Label Donepezil HCl (Aricept® ) Treatment Completed NCT00477659 Phase 4 donepezil HCl (Aricept)
45 Safety and Efficacy of Donepezil in Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease: A Multi-center Single-arm Study in China Completed NCT02787746 Phase 4 Donepezil
46 A Multi-center Study for the Clinical Response of Choline Acetyltransferase and Apolipoprotein Epsilon Gene Polymorphisms to Donepezil in Alzheimer's Disease Completed NCT00381381 Phase 4 Donepezil
47 Alzheimer's Disease Long-term Follow-up Study (ALF Study) Completed NCT00165724 Phase 4 Donepezil Hydrochloride
48 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Evaluation of the Efficacy of Memantine on Functional Communication in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease (AD) Completed NCT00469456 Phase 4 Memantine;placebo
49 Phase IV-An Open-Label Prospective Study of Memantine in Institutionalized Patients With Severe Alzheimer's Disease and Significant Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia Completed NCT00401167 Phase 4 memantine
50 An Open-label Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of add-on Memantine [5-10 mg b.i.d (10-20 mg/Day)] to Rivastigmine [1.5-6 mg b.i.d. (3-12 mg/Day)] Treatment in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease Who Continued With Rivastigmine Treatment After a Previous Decline While on Donepezil or Galantamine Treatment Completed NCT00234637 Phase 4 Rivastigmine, memantine

Search NIH Clinical Center for Alzheimer Disease

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 70 / NDF-RT 51 :

alpha-Tocopherol Acetate
d-alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate
Divalproex Sodium
dl-alpha tocopheryl acetate
Donepezil hydrochloride
galantamine hydrobromide
Rivastigmine tartrate
selegiline hydrochloride
Sodium Valproate
Tacrine Hydrochloride
Tocopherol Acetate
Valproic Acid
Vitamin E

Cell-based therapeutics:

LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Alzheimer Disease cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.
Stem-cell-based therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer Disease:
NEUROSTEM-AD, human mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
Embryonic/Adult Cultured Cells Related to Alzheimer Disease:
Umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells PMIDs: 23293711 22015609

Cochrane evidence based reviews: alzheimer disease

Genetic Tests for Alzheimer Disease

Genetic tests related to Alzheimer Disease:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Alzheimer Disease 29 A2M APP HFE MPO NOS3 PLAU

Anatomical Context for Alzheimer Disease

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Alzheimer Disease:

Brain, Cortex, Endothelial, Eye, Temporal Lobe, Bone, Heart
LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Alzheimer Disease:
# Tissue Anatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 Brain Hippocampus Affected by disease
2 Brain Forebrain White Matter Fibrous Astrocyte Cells Affected by disease, potential therapeutic candidate
3 Blood Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
4 Brain Forebrain White Matter Myelinating Oligodendrocyte Cells Affected by disease
5 Brain Neocortex Protoplasmic Astrocyte Cells Affected by disease, potential therapeutic candidate

Publications for Alzheimer Disease

Articles related to Alzheimer Disease:

(show top 50) (show all 49593)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease: prevalence, genetic heterogeneity, and mutation spectrum. 54 61 6 57
10441572 1999
A mutation in APP protects against Alzheimer's disease and age-related cognitive decline. 61 57 6
22801501 2012
Tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 10 promoter region polymorphisms and risk of late-onset Alzheimer disease. 61 6 57
16908746 2006
Towards compendia of negative genetic association studies: an example for Alzheimer disease. 61 6 57
16341549 2006
APP locus duplication causes autosomal dominant early-onset Alzheimer disease with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. 6 57 61
16369530 2006
An African American family with early-onset Alzheimer disease and an APP (T714I) mutation. 61 57 6
15668448 2005
A family with Alzheimer disease and strokes associated with A713T mutation of the APP gene. 57 6 61
15365148 2004
Increased risk for Alzheimer disease with the interaction of MPO and A2M polymorphisms. 57 6 61
15023809 2004
A recessive mutation in the APP gene with dominant-negative effect on amyloidogenesis. 6 57
19286555 2009
Synergy between the C2 allele of transferrin and the C282Y allele of the haemochromatosis gene (HFE) as risk factors for developing Alzheimer's disease. 6 57
15060098 2004
Current concepts in mild cognitive impairment. 57 6
11735772 2001
Molecular and prospective phenotypic characterization of a pedigree with familial Alzheimer's disease and a missense mutation in codon 717 of the beta-amyloid precursor protein gene. 6 57
1520398 1992
A pathogenic mutation for probable Alzheimer's disease in the APP gene at the N-terminus of beta-amyloid. 57 6
1302033 1992
A mutation in the amyloid precursor protein associated with hereditary Alzheimer's disease. 6 57
1925564 1991
The 717Val----Ile substitution in amyloid precursor protein is associated with familial Alzheimer's disease regardless of ethnic groups. 57 6
1908231 1991
Mis-sense mutation Val----Ile in exon 17 of amyloid precursor protein gene in Japanese familial Alzheimer's disease. 57 6
1678058 1991
Segregation of a missense mutation in the amyloid precursor protein gene with familial Alzheimer's disease. 6 57
1671712 1991
The N141I mutation in PSEN2: implications for the quintessential case of Alzheimer disease. 57 54 61
20457965 2010
Implication of sex and SORL1 variants in italian patients with Alzheimer disease. 54 57 61
19822782 2009
A survey of ABCA1 sequence variation confirms association with dementia. 57 61 54
19606474 2009
Effect of a CYP2D6 polymorphism on the efficacy of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer disease. 61 54 57
19738170 2009
Clinical and neuropathological features of the arctic APP gene mutation causing early-onset Alzheimer disease. 61 54 6
18413473 2008
Alpha7 nicotinic receptor up-regulation in cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in Alzheimer disease. 61 57 54
18071042 2007
The neuronal sortilin-related receptor SORL1 is genetically associated with Alzheimer disease. 57 54 61
17220890 2007
Genetic association between endothelial nitric oxide synthase and Alzheimer disease. 61 54 6
16813604 2006
Association study of the A2M and LRP1 Genes with Alzheimer disease in the Han Chinese. 57 61 54
16040006 2005
Correlation of cerebrospinal fluid levels of tau protein phosphorylated at threonine 231 with rates of hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer disease. 61 57 54
15883264 2005
Genetic variants of ABCA1 modify Alzheimer disease risk and quantitative traits related to beta-amyloid metabolism. 61 54 57
15024730 2004
Glutathione S-transferase omega-1 modifies age-at-onset of Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. 61 57 54
14570706 2003
Increased brain beta-amyloid load, phosphorylated tau, and risk of Alzheimer disease associated with an intronic CYP46 polymorphism. 54 61 57
12533085 2003
The presenilin 2 mutation (N141I) linked to familial Alzheimer disease (Volga German families) increases the secretion of amyloid beta protein ending at the 42nd (or 43rd) residue. 57 61 54
9050898 1997
APP717, APP693, and PRIP gene mutations are rare in Alzheimer disease. 54 61 6
1679288 1991
Functional aspects of meningeal lymphatics in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. 57 61
30046111 2018
Microglia-derived ASC specks cross-seed amyloid-β in Alzheimer's disease. 61 57
29293211 2017
A Becn1 mutation mediates hyperactive autophagic sequestration of amyloid oligomers and improved cognition in Alzheimer's disease. 57 61
28806762 2017
APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 mutations in early-onset Alzheimer disease: A genetic screening study of familial and sporadic cases. 6 61
28350801 2017
Clinical characterization of an APP mutation (V717I) in five Han Chinese families with early-onset Alzheimer's disease. 6 61
27838006 2017
Structural variation in amyloid-β fibrils from Alzheimer's disease clinical subtypes. 61 57
28052060 2017
Mutational analysis in early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease in Mainland China. 6 61
24650794 2014
The familial Alzheimer's disease APPV717I mutation alters APP processing and Tau expression in iPSC-derived neurons. 61 6
24524897 2014
A novel Aβ-fibrinogen interaction inhibitor rescues altered thrombosis and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease mice. 61 57
24821909 2014
Early-onset Alzheimer's disease in two Iranian families: a genetic study. 6 61
25138979 2014
Meta-analysis of 74,046 individuals identifies 11 new susceptibility loci for Alzheimer's disease. 57 61
24162737 2013
Clinical and biomarker changes in dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease. 57 61
22784036 2012
Probing sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease using induced pluripotent stem cells. 57 61
22278060 2012
Visinin-like protein-1: diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in Alzheimer disease. 57 61
21823155 2011
Common variants at ABCA7, MS4A6A/MS4A4E, EPHA1, CD33 and CD2AP are associated with Alzheimer's disease. 57 61
21460840 2011
Identification of novel loci for Alzheimer disease and replication of CLU, PICALM, and BIN1 in Caribbean Hispanic individuals. 61 57
21059989 2011
Meta-analysis of the association between variants in SORL1 and Alzheimer disease. 61 57
21220680 2011
Meta-analysis confirms CR1, CLU, and PICALM as alzheimer disease risk loci and reveals interactions with APOE genotypes. 57 61
20697030 2010

Variations for Alzheimer Disease

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Alzheimer Disease:

6 (show top 50) (show all 161)
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 APP NM_000484.4(APP):c.2017G>A (p.Ala673Thr) SNV protective 37145 rs63750847 GRCh37: 21:27269932-27269932
GRCh38: 21:25897620-25897620
2 TNF TNF, -863C-A SNV protective 12390 GRCh37:
3 APP APP, DUP Duplication Pathogenic 18104 GRCh37:
4 overlap with 25 genes NC_000021.7:g.13636378_28138533dup Duplication Pathogenic 127268 GRCh37: 21:14714507-29216662
5 APP NM_000484.4(APP):c.2018C>T (p.Ala673Val) SNV Pathogenic 18106 rs193922916 GRCh37: 21:27269931-27269931
GRCh38: 21:25897619-25897619
6 APP NM_000484.4(APP):c.2149G>T (p.Val717Phe) SNV Pathogenic 18089 rs63750264 GRCh37: 21:27264096-27264096
GRCh38: 21:25891784-25891784
7 APP NM_000484.4(APP):c.2080G>A (p.Asp694Asn) SNV Pathogenic 18101 rs63749810 GRCh37: 21:27264165-27264165
GRCh38: 21:25891853-25891853
8 MT-ND1 m.3397A>G SNV Pathogenic 9726 rs199476120 GRCh37: MT:3397-3397
GRCh38: MT:3397-3397
9 APP NM_000484.4(APP):c.2010_2011inv (p.Lys670_Met671delinsAsnLeu) Inversion Pathogenic 18093 rs281865161 GRCh37: 21:27269938-27269939
GRCh38: 21:25897626-25897627
10 HFE-AS1 , HFE NM_139011.3(HFE):c.77-2168C>G SNV Pathogenic 10 rs1799945 GRCh37: 6:26091179-26091179
GRCh38: 6:26090951-26090951
11 HFE NM_000410.3(HFE):c.845G>A (p.Cys282Tyr) SNV Pathogenic 9 rs1800562 GRCh37: 6:26093141-26093141
GRCh38: 6:26092913-26092913
12 APP NM_000484.4(APP):c.2149G>A (p.Val717Ile) SNV Pathogenic 18088 rs63750264 GRCh37: 21:27264096-27264096
GRCh38: 21:25891784-25891784
13 APP NM_000484.4(APP):c.2146A>G (p.Ile716Val) SNV Pathogenic 18096 rs63750399 GRCh37: 21:27264099-27264099
GRCh38: 21:25891787-25891787