Anthrax Disease

Categories: Rare diseases, Infectious diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Anthrax Disease

MalaCards integrated aliases for Anthrax Disease:

Name: Anthrax Disease 12 15 73
Anthrax 76 53 55 43 3 44
Ragpicker's Disease 53 73
Wool Sorter's Disease 53
Cutaneous Anthrax 73
Malignant Pustule 53
Malignant Edema 53
Siberian Plague 53
Gas Gangrene 73
Black Baine 53


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Disease Ontology 12 DOID:7427
ICD10 33 A22 A22.9
ICD9CM 35 022 022.9
MeSH 44 D000881
NCIt 50 C84565

Summaries for Anthrax Disease

NIH Rare Diseases : 53 Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The severity of the condition, the associated signs and symptoms and the prognosis vary depending on which part of the body is involved (see below). Antibiotics can be used to treat all forms of anthrax. Antitoxin medications may also be used to treat some forms of the condition. Cutaneous (skin) anthrax occurs when the infection enters the body through a cut or sore on the skin. It is the most common type of anthrax and generally the least serious. Affected people may experience a group of small, itchy bumps; swelling around a sore; and/or a painless ulcer with a black center. These skin abnormalities are generally found on the face, neck, arms, or hands. With appropriate treatment, cutaneous anthrax is seldom fatal. Gastrointestinal anthrax is caused by eating undercooked meat from an infected animal. Signs and symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, loss of appetite, fever, and a sore throat. Pulmonary (lung) anthrax occurs when anthrax spores are inhaled. It is the most deadly form of the condition. Early signs include flu-like symptoms, shortness of breath, nausea, and coughing up blood. As the condition advances, affected people may develop high fever, difficulty breathing, shock, and meningitis. Even with treatment, pulmonary anthrax may be fatal.Injection anthrax is spread by injecting illegal drugs. Signs and symptoms of this form of anthrax include redness and swelling at the sight of the infection. The condition may progress to shock, multiple organ failure and meningitis.

MalaCards based summary : Anthrax Disease, also known as anthrax, is related to inhalation anthrax and cutaneous anthrax, and has symptoms including skin ulcer, nausea and poor appetite. An important gene associated with Anthrax Disease is ANTXR1 (ANTXR Cell Adhesion Molecule 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway and Influenza A. The drugs Diphenhydramine and Histamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, lung lymph nodes or and skin, and related phenotypes are Increased transferrin (TF) endocytosis and cardiovascular system

Disease Ontology : 12 A primary bacterial infectious disease that results in infection located in skin, located in lung lymph nodes or located in gastrointestinal tract, has material basis in Bacillus anthracis, transmitted by contact with infected animals or animal products, transmitted by airborne spores or transmitted by ingestion of undercooked meat from infected animals and has symptom skin ulcer, has symptom nausea, has symptom poor appetite, has symptom bloody diarrhea, has symptom fever or has symptom shortness of breath.

MedlinePlus : 43 Anthrax is a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a germ that lives in soil. Many people know about it from the 2001 bioterror attacks. In the attacks, someone purposely spread anthrax through the U.S. mail. This killed five people and made 22 sick. Anthrax is rare. It affects animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats more often than people. People can get anthrax from contact with infected animals, wool, meat, or hides. It can cause three forms of disease in people. They are Cutaneous, which affects the skin. People with cuts or open sores can get it if they touch the bacteria. Inhalation, which affects the lungs. You can get this if you breathe in spores of the bacteria. Gastrointestinal, which affects the digestive system. You can get it by eating infected meat. Antibiotics often cure anthrax if it is diagnosed early. But many people don't know they have anthrax until it is too late to treat. A vaccine to prevent anthrax is available for people in the military and others at high risk. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

CDC : 3 Anthrax could be used as a weapon of bioterrorism. Even though an anthrax attack is unlikely, you should know what to do just in case.

Wikipedia : 76 Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It can occur in four forms: skin,... more...

Related Diseases for Anthrax Disease

Diseases related to Anthrax Disease via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 inhalation anthrax 31.5 ANTXR1 ANTXR2 TLR9
2 cutaneous anthrax 30.9 CASP1 PRDX1
3 gastrointestinal anthrax 10.9
4 spinal cord injury 9.5
5 avian influenza 9.2 FURIN PCSK6

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Anthrax Disease:

Diseases related to Anthrax Disease

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Anthrax Disease


  • skin ulcer
  • nausea
  • poor appetite
  • bloody diarrhea
  • fever or has_symptom shortness of breath

UMLS symptoms related to Anthrax Disease:

fever, pruritus

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Anthrax Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased transferrin (TF) endocytosis GR00363-A 9.17 ANTXR1 ANTXR2 CASP1 FURIN MAP2K2 PCSK6

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Anthrax Disease:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 9.91 FURIN MAP2K2 MKKS PCSK6 ANTXR1 ANTXR2
2 cellular MP:0005384 9.87 CASP1 MAP2K2 MKKS ANTXR1 PRDX1 ANTXR2
3 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.65 CASP1 FURIN MAP2K2 PCSK6 TLR9
4 immune system MP:0005387 9.63 CASP1 FURIN ANTXR1 PRDX1 ANTXR2 TLR9
5 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.61 FURIN MAP2K2 MKKS PCSK6 ANTXR1 PRDX1
6 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.02 CASP1 MAP2K2 PCSK6 ANTXR1 PRDX1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Anthrax Disease

Drugs for Anthrax Disease (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 52)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Diphenhydramine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 147-24-0, 58-73-1 3100
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 1 75614-87-8, 51-45-6 774
Promethazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60-87-7 4927
Histamine Phosphate Phase 4,Phase 1 51-74-1 65513
5 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4
6 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1
7 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
8 Histamine Antagonists Phase 4
9 Histamine H1 Antagonists Phase 4
10 Anesthetics Phase 4
11 Dermatologic Agents Phase 4
12 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4
13 Vaccines Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
14 Anti-Allergic Agents Phase 4
15 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4
16 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 4
17 Antibodies Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
18 Immunoglobulins Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
19 Antibodies, Monoclonal Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
20 Antiemetics Phase 4
21 Antipruritics Phase 4
22 Antitoxins Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
23 Autonomic Agents Phase 4
Citric Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1 77-92-9 311
Glycine Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 56-40-6 750
26 Citrate Nutraceutical Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
Glyburide Approved Phase 2 10238-21-8 3488
Ciprofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 2,Phase 1 85721-33-1 2764
Aluminum hydroxide Approved, Investigational Phase 2,Phase 1 21645-51-2
Imidacloprid Vet_approved Phase 2 105827-78-9 86418
31 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 2
32 Adjuvants, Immunologic Phase 2,Phase 1
33 Rho(D) Immune Globulin Phase 1, Phase 2
34 gamma-Globulins Phase 1, Phase 2
35 Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 Inhibitors Phase 2,Phase 1
36 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 2,Phase 1
37 Topoisomerase Inhibitors Phase 2,Phase 1
38 Antacids Phase 2,Phase 1
39 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 2,Phase 1
40 Immunoglobulin G Phase 1, Phase 2
41 Immunoglobulins, Intravenous Phase 1, Phase 2
42 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 2,Phase 1
43 Anti-Ulcer Agents Phase 2,Phase 1
Mannitol Approved, Investigational Phase 1 69-65-8 453 6251
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 1 564-25-0 54671203
Diethylenetriamine Phase 1 111-40-0 8111
47 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 1
48 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 1
49 Antitubercular Agents Phase 1
50 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 1

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 51)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 CDC Anthrax Vaccine Clinical Trial Completed NCT00119067 Phase 4
2 Effect of Raxibacumab on Immunogenicity of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Completed NCT02339155 Phase 4 Diphenhydramine
3 Assessment of the Immunogenicity and Safety of a Dose-Sparing BioThrax® AVA Schedule Completed NCT01641991 Phase 4
4 An Open Label Field Study of Anthim (Obiltoxaximab) in Subjects Exposed to B. Anthracis Not yet recruiting NCT03088111 Phase 4
5 An Open Label, Phase IV Study Evaluating the Clinical Benefit, Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Raxibacumab in Subjects Exposed to Bacillus Anthracis Not yet recruiting NCT02177721 Phase 4
6 Immunogenicity and Safety Study of a Three-Dose BioThrax® Regimen for Post-Exposure Prophylaxis in Healthy Adults Completed NCT01491607 Phase 3
7 An Open-label, Nonrandomized Study to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of Raxibacumab With Reinjection Completed NCT02016963 Phase 2, Phase 3
8 Glyburide Advantage in Malignant Edema and Stroke - Remedy Pharmaceuticals Unknown status NCT01794182 Phase 2 RP-1127 (Glyburide for Injection)
9 A Phase 2 Safety and Immunogenicity Study for an Anthrax Vaccine Using 3 Schedules and Two Dose Levels Completed NCT01770743 Phase 2
10 Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of Recombinant Anthrax Vaccine Compared With Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Completed NCT00170469 Phase 2
11 Safety and Pharmacokinetics Study of Anthrax Immune Globulin Intravenous (AIGIV) Completed NCT00845650 Phase 1, Phase 2
12 Phase II Study of Range and Schedule of rPA Doses Completed NCT00170456 Phase 2
13 Ciprofloxacin BioThrax Co-Administration Study Completed NCT01753115 Phase 2 Ciprofloxacin
14 Trial of rPA-102 Vaccine in Healthy Adult Volunteers Completed NCT00100724 Phase 2
15 BARDA Securing Anthrax Immunity For the Elderly Recruiting NCT03518125 Phase 2 Sodium chloride injection USP, 0.9% (placebo)
16 A Study to Assess Dose-Response, Efficacy (Immunogenicity) and the Safety of GC1109 Suspended NCT01624532 Phase 2 Normal Saline
17 UMD rPA Regimen Trial in Adults Terminated NCT00133484 Phase 2
18 A Phase 1 Ascending Dose Study to Assess the Safety and Immunogenicity of Adenovirus Anthrax Vector Candidate Vaccines Completed NCT01979406 Phase 1
19 A New Anthrax Vaccine Administered by the Intramuscular (IM) Route in Healthy Adults Completed NCT00057525 Phase 1
20 Anthrax-rPA: Safety, Tolerability, Immunogenicity Completed NCT00063843 Phase 1
21 Anthrax Vaccine Clinical Trials Completed NCT00114621 Phase 1 Anthrax Vaccine
22 Safety and Pharmacokinetic Study of Anthrax Immune Globulin Derived From Human Serum Completed NCT00448253 Phase 1
23 Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity Study of AV7909 Anthrax Vaccine in Healthy Adults Completed NCT01263691 Phase 1 Control
24 A Study of Anthrax Vaccines Px563L and RPA563 in Healthy Adult Subjects Completed NCT02655549 Phase 1
25 Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of an Anthrax Recombinant Protective Antigen Vaccine Completed NCT00103467 Phase 1
26 PA83-FhCMB Plant-Derived Recombinant Protective Antigen (rPA) Anthrax Vaccine Completed NCT02239172 Phase 1
27 Efficacy and Safety of Anthrax Vaccine, GC1109 Completed NCT01867957 Phase 1
28 Monoclonal Antibody for Treatment of Inhalation Anthrax Completed NCT00138411 Phase 1 Ciprofloxacin 500 mg;ETI-204 (Anthim)
29 Dose Escalation Study of Valortim® (MDX-1303) Administered Intravenously (IV) in Healthy, Normal Subjects Completed NCT01265745 Phase 1 Normal Saline for Injection
30 Single Dose, Weight-Based, Dose-Escalation Study With Intravenous ETI-204 in Adult Volunteers Completed NCT01453907 Phase 1 ETI-204, "Anthim";placebo
31 Safety and Pharmacokinetics Study of Human Monoclonal Antibody (AVP-21D9) Completed NCT01202695 Phase 1 AVP-21D9;Placebo
32 Open-Label, Randomized, Parallel Group Study to Assess the Safety, Tolerability and PK of ETI-204 Alone and in Presence of Ciprofloxacin in Adult Volunteers Completed NCT01952444 Phase 1
33 Safety, Tolerability, and PK of Single IM Doses of ETI-204 in Adult Volunteers Completed NCT01932437 Phase 1
34 Safety, Tolerability and PK of Repeat Administration of IV ETI-204 Completed NCT01932242 Phase 1
35 A Study to Assess the Safety, Tolerability and PK of a Single IV Dose of ETI-204 in Adult Volunteers Completed NCT01929226 Phase 1
36 Study of Valortim® (MDX-1303) and Its Selected Formulation Components Percutaneous Use Completed NCT01204866 Phase 1 Valortim and Selected Components
37 A Phase I Study of Safety and Immunogenicity of the WRAIR HIV-1 Vaccine Completed NCT00412477 Phase 1
38 NasoShield Study of Safety and Immunogenicity Recruiting NCT03352466 Phase 1
39 Ph1 Study of Valortim and Ciprofloxacin in Humans Suspended NCT00964561 Phase 1 Ciprofloxacin and Valortim;Placebo Antibiotic and Valortim
40 Ph1 Study of Valortim and Doxycycline in Humans Terminated NCT00964834 Phase 1 Doxycycline and Valortim;Placebo Antibiotic and Valortim;Placebo Antibiotic and Placebo Valortim
41 Plasmapheresis of Anthrax-Vaccinated Subjects for Production of Anthrax Immune Globulin Completed NCT00031291 Anthrax Immune Globulin
42 VHA Clinicians and Bioterror Events: Interactive Web-based Learning Completed NCT00123396 Not Applicable
43 Ciprofloxacin Special Drug Use Investigation - To Investigate the Safety and Efficacy in Patients With Ciprofloxacin iv Administration Without Dilution Completed NCT01690559 Cipro (Ciprofloxacin, BAYQ3939)
44 Assessment of the Safety and Efficacy of Ciproxan-I.V. in Daily Clinical Practice - Analysis Results From a Post-marketing Surveillance Completed NCT01670435 Ciprofloxacin (BAYQ3939)
45 Natural History of Anthrax: a Study of Primary Infected, Recovered, and Exposed Individuals (SPoRE); and Evaluation of AVA-Vaccinated Recipients Recruiting NCT00050310
46 BioThrax® (Anthrax) Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry Recruiting NCT01653392
47 Special Drug Use Investigation of Ciproxan Injection in Pediatrics Recruiting NCT02555059 Cipro (Ciprofloxacin, BAYQ3939)
48 Admission and Management of Occupational or Other Exposures to Biodefense/Bioterrorism Agents or to Epidemic/Emerging Infectious Diseases Recruiting NCT01200953
49 A Phase 4 Field Study Evaluating Clinical Benefit and Safety of AIGIV (ANTHRASIL®) in Inhalational Anthrax Patients Not yet recruiting NCT03569553 AIGIV
50 A Phase 4 Study Evaluating Clinical Benefit and Safety of AIGIV (ANTHRASIL®) in Patients With Systemic Anthrax Not yet recruiting NCT03569514 AIGIV

Search NIH Clinical Center for Anthrax Disease

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 73 / NDF-RT 51 :

Cochrane evidence based reviews: anthrax

Genetic Tests for Anthrax Disease

Anatomical Context for Anthrax Disease

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology organs/tissues related to Anthrax Disease:

Skin, Lung Lymph Nodes Or

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Anthrax Disease:

Skin, Lung, Lymph Node, Testes, Whole Blood

Publications for Anthrax Disease

Articles related to Anthrax Disease:

# Title Authors Year
Progress Towards the Development of a NEAT Protein Vaccine for Anthrax Disease. ( 27647868 )
Bacillus cereus Sensu Lato Genomes: Basis for Identifying Anthrax Disease Strain Sources. ( 24092785 )
Design of new chemotherapeutics against the deadly anthrax disease. Docking and molecular dynamics studies of inhibitors containing pyrrolidine and riboamidrazone rings on nucleoside hydrolase from Bacillus anthracis. ( 21142217 )
Modeling the geographic distribution of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, for the contiguous United States using predictive ecological [corrected] niche modeling. ( 18165531 )

Variations for Anthrax Disease

Expression for Anthrax Disease

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Anthrax Disease.

Pathways for Anthrax Disease

Pathways related to Anthrax Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
11.78 CASP1 MAP2K2 TLR9
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways

GO Terms for Anthrax Disease

Cellular components related to Anthrax Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endoplasmic reticulum GO:0005783 9.65 ANTXR2 FURIN MAP2K2 PCSK6 TLR9
2 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.63 ANTXR2 CASP1 FURIN MAP2K2 PCSK6 TLR9
3 cell surface GO:0009986 9.26 ANTXR1 ANTXR2 FURIN PCSK6
4 endosome membrane GO:0010008 8.92 ANTXR1 ANTXR2 FURIN TLR9

Biological processes related to Anthrax Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 determination of left/right symmetry GO:0007368 9.48 MKKS PCSK6
2 peptide hormone processing GO:0016486 9.46 FURIN PCSK6
3 reproductive process GO:0022414 9.43 ANTXR1 ANTXR2
4 protein processing GO:0016485 9.43 CASP1 FURIN PCSK6
5 secretion by cell GO:0032940 9.4 FURIN PCSK6
6 regulation of stress-activated MAPK cascade GO:0032872 9.37 MAP2K2 PRDX1
7 regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity GO:0051004 9.32 FURIN PCSK6
8 nerve growth factor processing GO:0032455 9.16 FURIN PCSK6
9 toxin transport GO:1901998 9.13 ANTXR1 ANTXR2 CASP1
10 nerve growth factor production GO:0032902 8.62 FURIN PCSK6

Molecular functions related to Anthrax Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 transmembrane signaling receptor activity GO:0004888 9.33 ANTXR1 ANTXR2 TLR9
2 endopeptidase activity GO:0004175 9.13 CASP1 FURIN PCSK6
3 nerve growth factor binding GO:0048406 8.62 FURIN PCSK6

Sources for Anthrax Disease

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
38 LifeMap
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
55 Novoseek
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
72 Tocris
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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