Aliases & Classifications for Anus Disease

MalaCards integrated aliases for Anus Disease:

Name: Anus Disease 12 15 17
Anus Diseases 45 74
Anal Fissure 12 74
Nontraumatic Tear of Anus 12
Anal Fissure and Fistula 12
Abnormality of the Anus 6
Solitary Anal Ulcer 12
Fissure in Ano 12
Anal Disorders 44
Ulcer of Anus 12
Anal Disease 12
Anal Ulcer 12


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Disease Ontology 12 DOID:3128
MeSH 45 D001004
NCIt 51 C26695
SNOMED-CT 69 32110003
ICD10 34 K60.2

Summaries for Anus Disease

MedlinePlus : 44 The anus is the opening of the rectum through which stool passes out of your body. Problems with the anus are common. They include hemorrhoids, abscesses, fissures (cracks), and cancer. You may be embarrassed to talk about your anal troubles. But it is important to let your doctor know, especially if you have pain or bleeding. The more details you can give about your problem, the better your doctor will be able to help you. Treatments vary depending on the particular problem. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

MalaCards based summary : Anus Disease, also known as anus diseases, is related to anus cancer and anogenital venereal wart, and has symptoms including nausea and vomiting, constipation and abdominal pain. An important gene associated with Anus Disease is FREM2 (FRAS1 Related Extracellular Matrix 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Platelet Adhesion to exposed collagen. The drugs Diltiazem and Acetylcholine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include kidney, testes and bone.

Wikipedia : 77 The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal''s... more...

Related Diseases for Anus Disease

Diseases related to Anus Disease via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 62)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 anus cancer 30.3 CDKN2A DCXR SERPINB3
2 anogenital venereal wart 29.8 CDKN2A GP6 MID2 TLR7
3 rectal disease 26.7 CDKN2A DCXR EXTL3 GP5 KANTR KIDINS220
4 ulcer of anus and rectum 12.4
5 constipation 11.5
6 crohn's disease 11.4
7 anal fistula 10.9
8 hemorrhoid 10.6
9 vulva squamous cell carcinoma 10.3 CDKN2A SERPINB3
10 hypertonia 10.3
11 urethritis 10.2 EXTL3 MT-TG
12 fallopian tube disease 10.2 EXTL3 MT-TG MTRR
13 anal canal squamous cell carcinoma 10.2 CDKN2A SERPINB3
14 fecal incontinence 10.2
15 vulvar dystrophy 10.2 CDKN2A LINC01191
16 vulval paget's disease 10.2 CDKN2A LINC01191
17 vulva adenocarcinoma 10.1 CDKN2A LINC01191
18 diaphragmatic hernia, congenital 10.1 FREM2 GLI3 TEF
19 balanoposthitis 10.1 CDKN2A GP6
20 food allergy 10.1
21 genital herpes 10.1
22 internal hemorrhoid 10.1
23 neurogenic bowel 10.1 DCXR KIDINS220
24 vulva cancer 10.1 CDKN2A LINC01191 SERPINB3
25 tabes dorsalis 10.1 EXTL3 KANTR
26 esophageal disease 10.1 CDKN2A KANTR TEF
27 cervicitis 10.0 CDKN2A MT-TG
28 cervical adenosarcoma 10.0 GP5 GP6
29 anus, imperforate 10.0 GLI3 KIDINS220 SALL1 TEF
30 cervical carcinosarcoma 10.0 GP5 GP6
31 pemphigus vulgaris, familial 10.0
32 pelvic organ prolapse 10.0
33 enterocolitis 10.0
34 leptin deficiency or dysfunction 10.0
35 epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica 10.0
36 pemphigus vulgaris 10.0
37 inflammatory bowel disease 10.0
38 recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa 10.0
39 sarcoma 10.0
40 schistosomiasis 10.0
41 epidermolysis bullosa 10.0
42 proctitis 10.0
43 milk allergy 10.0
44 perinatal necrotizing enterocolitis 10.0
45 myeloid sarcoma 10.0
46 pemphigus 10.0
47 meningitis 10.0
48 levator syndrome 10.0
49 headache 10.0
50 solitary rectal ulcer syndrome 10.0

Comorbidity relations with Anus Disease via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Active Peptic Ulcer Disease

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Anus Disease:

Diseases related to Anus Disease

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Anus Disease

UMLS symptoms related to Anus Disease:

nausea and vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, diarrhea, icterus, rectal tenesmus, dyspepsia, heartburn, pruritus ani, gastrointestinal gas, anal discomfort

Drugs & Therapeutics for Anus Disease

Drugs for Anus Disease (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 217)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Diltiazem Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable 42399-41-7 39186
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable 51-84-3 187
Nitric Oxide Approved Phase 4,Phase 1 10102-43-9 145068
Diclofenac Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 15307-86-5 3033
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Not Applicable 137-58-6 3676
Nitroglycerin Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable 55-63-0 4510
Racepinephrine Approved Phase 4,Not Applicable 329-65-7 838
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Not Applicable 51-43-4 5816
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Not Applicable 38396-39-3, 2180-92-9 2474
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
Ropivacaine Approved Phase 4 84057-95-4 175805 71273
Lactulose Approved Phase 4 4618-18-2 11333
Calcium Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable 7440-70-2 271
14 Laxatives Phase 4
15 Cathartics Phase 4
16 Calcium, Dietary Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
17 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
18 Vasodilator Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
19 calcium channel blockers Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
20 Hormones Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
21 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
22 Botulinum Toxins Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
23 Neuromuscular Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
24 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
25 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
26 Acetylcholine Release Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
27 abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
28 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
29 Anesthetics Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
30 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4,Not Applicable
31 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4,Not Applicable
32 Nitric Oxide Donors Phase 4,Phase 1
33 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
34 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4,Not Applicable
35 Analgesics Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
36 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 4,Not Applicable
37 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 4
38 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4,Not Applicable
39 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
40 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 4,Not Applicable
41 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4
42 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
43 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
44 Epinephryl borate Phase 4,Not Applicable
45 Narcotics Phase 4,Not Applicable
46 incobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4
47 Hemostatics Phase 4
48 Plantain Phase 4
Fluorouracil Approved Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 51-21-8 3385
Cisplatin Approved Phase 3,Phase 2 15663-27-1 2767 441203 84093

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 195)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Pediatrics Anal Fissures Treatment With Polyethylene Glycol Unknown status NCT02419534 Phase 4 Polyethylene glycol;Polyethylene glycol with Diltiazem
2 Comparison of Treatment Success of Botox Injection in the Internal Sphincter Versus Isosorbidedinitrate Ointment in Patients With an Anal Fissure Completed NCT00827736 Phase 4 ISDN ointment;Placebo
3 Pain and Bleeding in Subjects With Acute Anal Fissure: Comparative Evaluation of Three Treatments Completed NCT03355846 Phase 4 Centella;Proctocella;Flavonil® cps;Flavonil® Cream;Rectalgan Mousse
4 Efficacy and Safety of CLIFE1 Gel in Benign Anorectal Surgery Completed NCT02961855 Phase 4 anesthesics plus antiinflammatory, CLIFE1;local anesthesics, CLIFE2
5 Complex Treatment of a Chronic Anal Fissure Recruiting NCT03855046 Phase 4 IncobotulinumtoxinA 50 U Intramuscular Powder for Solution
6 Perianal Nerval Block in Proctological Interventions Recruiting NCT03405922 Phase 4 Placebo 40 mL Saline 0.9%;40 mL Ropivacain 0.5%
7 Trial to Evaluate Effect of Lactulose on Hard Stools in Patients With Hemorrhoids or Anal Fissures Terminated NCT00160290 Phase 4 Lactulose;Plantago ovata
8 Pharmacokinetic,Safety and Exploratory Efficacy of RECTIV® in Adolescents With Chronic Anal Fissure Withdrawn NCT01920074 Phase 4 Nitroglycerin Ointment 0.4%
9 Multi-Drug Analgesia vs. Standard Solution for Anal Surgery Withdrawn NCT03105674 Phase 4 Multi-drug local anesthetics (Combination);Standard local anesthetics (Combination)
10 A Study of Valacyclovir as Treatment for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus in HIV-Infected Patients Unknown status NCT00005663 Phase 3 Valacyclovir hydrochloride
11 Treatment of Anal Fissure by Activated Human Macrophages Unknown status NCT00507364 Phase 3 Local injection of activated macrophages to anal fissure
12 Diet and Lifestyle Intervention Study in Postpartum Women in China Unknown status NCT01039051 Phase 2, Phase 3
13 Combination Chemotherapy Plus Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II or Stage III Anal Cancer Unknown status NCT00003652 Phase 3 cisplatin;fluorouracil
14 Glyceryl Trinitrate Ointment vs Posterior Tibial Nerve Stimulation in the Treatment of Anal Fissure Completed NCT02700438 Phase 3 Glyceryl trinitrate ointment
15 The Effect of Intra-anal Nifedipine, Used As Add-on to Conservative Therapy, on Pain in Patients With Anal Fissure Completed NCT02527109 Phase 2, Phase 3 Nifedipine
16 Efficacy and Safety Study With Diltiazem Hydrochloride Cream to Treat Anal Fissures Completed NCT01690221 Phase 3 VEN 307;Placebo
17 Diltiazem Hydrochloride Cream for Anal Fissure Completed NCT01217515 Phase 3 Diltiazem hydrochloride 4% cream;Diltiazem hydrochloride 2% cream
18 Perianal Versus Endoanal Application of Glyceryl Trinitrate 0.4% Ointment for Chronic Anal Fissure Completed NCT01132391 Phase 3 Rectogesic® (glyceryl trinitrate 0.4% ointment)
19 A Study to Determine the Effect of Nitroglycerin Ointment 0.4% (Cellegesic) on the Pain Associated With Chronic Anal Fissures Completed NCT00522041 Phase 3 Cellegesic;Placebo
20 Multivalent HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine Study in 16- to 26-Year Old Men and Women (V503-003) Completed NCT01651949 Phase 3
21 Infrared Coagulator Ablation or Observation in Preventing Anal Cancer in HIV-Positive Patients With Anal Neoplasia Completed NCT01164722 Phase 3
22 Octreotide in Preventing or Reducing Diarrhea in Patients Receiving Chemoradiotherapy for Anal or Rectal Cancer Completed NCT00075868 Phase 3 octreotide acetate
23 Radiation Therapy Plus Fluorouracil With or Without Additional Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Primary Anal Cancer Completed NCT00025090 Phase 3 cisplatin;fluorouracil;mitomycin C
24 Chemotherapy Plus Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II or Stage III Anal Cancer Completed NCT00003596 Phase 3 cisplatin;fluorouracil;mitomycin C
25 Effects of Deep Regional Hyperthermia in Patients With Anal Carcinoma Treated by Standard Radiochemotherapy Recruiting NCT02369939 Phase 3 Mitomycin C;5-Fluorouracil
26 Topical or Ablative Treatment in Preventing Anal Cancer in Patients With HIV and Anal High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Recruiting NCT02135419 Phase 3 imiquimod;fluorouracil
27 Efficacy Study of Chemoradiotherapy With or Without Paclitaxel in Squamous-cell Anal Carcinoma Patients Enrolling by invitation NCT02526953 Phase 3 Paclitaxel;Capecitabine;Capecitabine;Mitomycins;Mitomycins
28 Application of Vitamin E on Anal Fissure Not yet recruiting NCT03787030 Phase 3 Vitamin E Acetate ointment;Glyceryl trinitrate ointment
29 Radiation Therapy, Mitomycin, and Either Fluorouracil or Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Anal Cancer Terminated NCT00068744 Phase 2, Phase 3 cisplatin;fluorouracil;mitomycin C
30 International Multicentre Study in Advanced Anal Cancer Comparing Cisplatin Plus 5 FU vs Carboplatin Plus Weekly Paclitaxel Unknown status NCT02051868 Phase 2 Cisplatin;5-Fluorouracil (5-FU);Carboplatin;Paclitaxel
31 Radiation Therapy, Cisplatin, Fluorouracil, and Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Anal Cancer Unknown status NCT00955240 Phase 2 cisplatin;fluorouracil
32 An Open Label Study to Examine the Effect of Coated Nifedipine Suppository on Anal Fissure Pain and Healing in Human Subjects Completed NCT00972907 Phase 1, Phase 2 Nifedipine coated suppositories
33 Efficacy Study of Dysport® in the Treatment of Anal Fissure. Completed NCT00210444 Phase 2 Botulinum toxin type A (Dysport)
34 T Cell Receptor Immunotherapy Targeting HPV-16 E6 for HPV-Associated Cancers Completed NCT02280811 Phase 1, Phase 2 Fludarabine;Cyclophosphamide;Aldesleukin
35 A Study of Substitution of 5-FU (Fluorouracil) by Capecitabine in Scheme of Chemo-radiotherapy in Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal. Completed NCT01941966 Phase 2 Capecitabine;Mitomycins
36 Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma Completed NCT01807546 Phase 2 rigosertib
37 [F-18] Fluorothymidine PET/CT Imaging for Pelvic Cancers Completed NCT01717391 Phase 2 fluorothymidine F 18
38 Immunotherapy Using Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes for Patients With Metastatic Human Papillomavirus-Associated Cancers Completed NCT01585428 Phase 2 Fludarabine;Cyclophosphamide;Aldesleukin
39 Vectibix for the Treatment of Anal Cancer Completed NCT01285778 Phase 2 panitumumab, mytomicin C, 5-FU, radiation
40 Vaccine Therapy in Preventing Human Papillomavirus Infection in Young HIV-Positive Male Patients Who Have Sex With Males Completed NCT01209325 Phase 2
41 Treatment of Anal High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL) Through Use of a Chinese Herbal Topical Cream Completed NCT00622440 Phase 2 AIJP (Arnebia Indigo Jade Pearl);Placebo
42 Cidofovir in Treating HIV-Infected Patients With High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Skin Near the Anus Completed NCT00550589 Phase 2 cidofovir
43 Tolerability, Safety, & Efficacy of Argon Plasma Coagulation to Treat Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia in HIV-Positive Men Completed NCT00428285 Phase 2
44 Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy, Fluorouracil, and Mitomycin C in Treating Patients With Invasive Anal Cancer Completed NCT00423293 Phase 2 fluorouracil;mitomycin C
45 Combined Modality Therapy for Patients With With HIV and Stage I, Stage II, or Stage III Anal Cancer Completed NCT00324415 Phase 2 cisplatin;fluorouracil
46 Capecitabine, Oxaliplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II or Stage III Anal Cancer Completed NCT00093379 Phase 2 Capecitabine;Oxaliplatin
47 SGN-00101 in Preventing Anal Cancer in Patients With HIV Who Have Anal Neoplasia Completed NCT00052897 Phase 1, Phase 2
48 Cetuximab + Avelumab or Avelumab Alone for Unresectable, Locally Advanced or Metastatic Squamous Cell Anal Carcinoma (SCCAC) Progressed After at Least One Line of Systemic Treatment (CARACAS) Recruiting NCT03944252 Phase 2 Avelumab;Cetuximab
49 Prebiotics and Probiotics During Definitive Treatment With Chemotherapy-radiotherapy SCC of the Anal Canal (BISQUIT) Recruiting NCT03870607 Phase 2
50 LET-IMPT and Standard Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage I-III Anal Canal Squamous Cell Cancer Recruiting NCT03690921 Phase 2 Cisplatin;Fluorouracil

Search NIH Clinical Center for Anus Disease

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 74 / NDF-RT 52 :

Cochrane evidence based reviews: anus diseases

Genetic Tests for Anus Disease

Anatomical Context for Anus Disease

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Anus Disease:

Kidney, Testes, Bone, Lung, Liver, Breast, Lymph Node

Publications for Anus Disease

Articles related to Anus Disease:

(show all 34)
# Title Authors Year
ELITE: a diode laser minimal invasive technique for hemorrhoids during the surgical treatment for anal fissure. ( 30697411 )
Should Hemorrhoids and Chronic Anal Fissure Be Treated as Medical Disorders? A Rational Way to Move Forward. ( 30640839 )
Fecal evacuation disorders in anal fissure, hemorrhoids, and solitary rectal ulcer syndrome. ( 30707420 )
The Effect of Nonoperative Management of Chronic Anal Fissure and Hemorrhoid Disease on Bowel Function Patient-Reported Outcomes. ( 30192331 )
Combined treatment approach to chronic anal fissure with associated anal fistula. ( 29205737 )
Local and Oral Antibiotics with Avoidance of Constipation (LOABAC) Treatment for Anal Fissure: a New Concept in Conservative Management. ( 27186052 )
Comparison of Fissure Healing and The Incidence of Headache Among the Patients Treated with Endo- and Perianal Application of 0.2% Glyceryl Trinitrate for Chronic Anal Fissure. ( 28029666 )
A rare case of myeloid sarcoma presenting as anal fissure. ( 26712260 )
Quality of patient information on the internet for the treatment of anal fistula and anal fissure. ( 25294731 )
Anorectal conditions: anal fissure and anorectal fistula. ( 24742084 )
Botulinum toxin for chronic anal fissure after biliopancreatic diversion for morbid obesity. ( 22416176 )
Delayed fecal incontinence following surgery for anal fissure. ( 21805112 )
Early results of fissurectomy and advancement flap for resistant chronic anal fissure without hypertonia of the internal anal sphincter. ( 20336902 )
Fissurectomy combined with anoplasty and injection of botulinum toxin in treatment of anterior chronic anal fissure with hypertonia of internal anal sphincter: a pilot study. ( 20127381 )
Fissurectomy and anal advancement flap for anterior chronic anal fissure without hypertonia of the internal anal sphincter in females. ( 19843117 )
Transcutaneous needle-free injection of botulinum toxin: a novel treatment of childhood constipation and anal fissure. ( 19735827 )
Haemorrhoids, rectal prolapse, anal fissure, peri-anal fistulae and sexually transmitted diseases. ( 19647691 )
Current guidelines for anal fissure treatment and evidence-based approach towards hemorrhoids. ( 20109372 )
Schistosomiasis in an HIV-positive patient presenting as an anal fissure and giant anal polyp. ( 18645157 )
A study of fecal incontinence in patients with chronic anal fissure: prospective, randomized, controlled trial of the extent of internal anal sphincter division during lateral sphincterotomy. ( 17665247 )
Case report: herpes meningitis complicating genital herpes presenting as anal fissure. ( 17939904 )
Anal fissure, rectal bleeding and proctitis as complications of systemic isotretinoin therapy: report of two cases. ( 17062102 )
The safety and efficacy of a mixture of honey, olive oil, and beeswax for the management of hemorrhoids and anal fissure: a pilot study. ( 17369999 )
Nitric oxide deficiency in the internal anal sphincter of patients with chronic anal fissure. ( 16052310 )
By the way, doctor. I had pain some bleeding with bowel movements. I thought it was a hemorrhoid, but my doctor says it's an anal fissure. How did I get this, and what's the best way to treat it? ( 15381475 )
Anal fissure and thrombosed external hemorrhoids before and after delivery. ( 12004215 )
Anorectal pain and irritation: anal fissure, levator syndrome, proctalgia fugax, and pruritus ani. ( 9922294 )
Long-term results of lateral internal sphincterotomy for chronic anal fissure with particular reference to incidence of fecal incontinence. ( 10528769 )
Internal hemorrhoids coexisting with chronic anal fissure: new nonsurgical modalities. ( 9865581 )
Hemorrhoids, anal fissure, and carcinoma of the colon, rectum, and anus during pregnancy. ( 7855720 )
Sustained internal sphincter hypertonia in patients with chronic anal fissure. ( 8181401 )
Anal cancer incidence: genital warts, anal fissure or fistula, hemorrhoids, and smoking. ( 2810388 )
Anal pressures in hemorrhoids and anal fissure. ( 920890 )
Irritable colon syndrome in Egyptians with description of cases conditioned by anal fissure. ( 5927112 )

Variations for Anus Disease

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Anus Disease:

# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 FREM2 NM_207361.5(FREM2): c.6727C> T (p.Arg2243Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs767978562 GRCh37 Chromosome 13, 39425230: 39425230
2 FREM2 NM_207361.5(FREM2): c.6727C> T (p.Arg2243Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs767978562 GRCh38 Chromosome 13, 38851093: 38851093

Expression for Anus Disease

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Anus Disease.

Pathways for Anus Disease

Pathways related to Anus Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 9.74 GP5 GP6

GO Terms for Anus Disease

Biological processes related to Anus Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 embryonic digestive tract development GO:0048566 8.96 GLI3 SALL1
2 embryonic digit morphogenesis GO:0042733 8.8 FREM2 GLI3 SALL1

Sources for Anus Disease

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
20 FMA
29 GO
30 GTR
33 HPO
34 ICD10
35 ICD10 via Orphanet
39 LifeMap
43 MedGen
45 MeSH
46 MESH via Orphanet
47 MGI
50 NCI
51 NCIt
56 Novoseek
59 OMIM via Orphanet
63 PubMed
71 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
73 Tocris
75 UMLS via Orphanet
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