MCID: ARC002
MIFTS: 51

Arachnoiditis

Categories: Genetic diseases, Nephrological diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Arachnoiditis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Arachnoiditis:

Name: Arachnoiditis 11 19 52 58 75 43 14 71 33
Familial Spinal Arachnoiditis 71
Adhesive Arachnoiditis 58
Arachnoid Inflammation 33
Chronic Arachnoiditis 58
Spinal Arachnoiditis 19
Arachnitis 33

Characteristics:


Age Of Onset:

All ages 58

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare neurological diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 11 DOID:12156
MeSH 43 D001100
NCIt 49 C37913
SNOMED-CT 68 154986008
ICD10 31 G03
MESH via Orphanet 44 D001100
ICD10 via Orphanet 32 G03.9
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0003708 C0270617
Orphanet 58 ORPHA137817
ICD11 33 414817254
UMLS 71 C0003708 C1710146

Summaries for Arachnoiditis

NINDS: 52 Arachnoiditis is caused by the inflammation of the arachnoid, one of the membranes that surround and protect the nerves of the spinal cord.  The arachnoid can become inflamed because of an irritation from chemicals, infection from bacteria or viruses, as the result of direct injury to the spine, chronic compression of spinal nerves, or complications from spinal surgery or other invasive spinal procedures.  Inflammation can sometimes lead to the formation of scar tissue and adhesions, which cause the spinal nerves to “stick” together. If arachnoiditis begins to interfere with the function of one or more of these nerves, it can cause a number of symptoms, including chronic and persistent pain,  numbness, tingling, and a characteristic stinging and burning pain in the lower back or legs.  Some people with arachnoiditis will have debilitating muscle cramps, twitches, or spasms.  It may also affect bladder, bowel, and sexual function.  In severe cases, arachnoiditis may cause paralysis of the lower limbs.

MalaCards based summary: Arachnoiditis, also known as familial spinal arachnoiditis, is related to bacterial meningitis and cauda equina syndrome. An important gene associated with Arachnoiditis is AQP4 (Aquaporin 4), and among its related pathways/superpathways are 4-1BB Pathway and Neuroscience. The drugs Cyclophosphamide and Coenzyme M have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include spinal cord, bone and brain, and related phenotypes are muscle weakness and hearing impairment

GARD: 19 Arachnoiditis is a pain disorder caused by inflammation of the arachnoid, one of the membranes that surrounds and protects the nerves of the spinal cord. The inflammation may occur due to irritation from chemicals; infection; direct injury to the spine; chronic compression of spinal nerves; or complications from spinal surgery or other spinal procedures. It may result in scar tissue and adhesions, which cause the spinal nerves to 'stick' together. If Arachnoiditis affects the function of nerves, it can cause symptoms such as numbness, tingling, and a characteristic stinging and burning pain in the lower back or legs. In some people, it may affect the bladder, bowel, and sexual function. Very severe Arachnoiditis can result in paralysis of the legs.

Orphanet: 58 A chronic inflammation of the arachnoid layer of the meninges, of which adhesive arachnoiditis is the most severe form, characterized by debilitating, intractable neurogenic back and limb pain and a range of other neurological problems.

Wikipedia: 75 Arachnoiditis is an inflammatory condition of the arachnoid mater or 'arachnoid', one of the membranes... more...

Related Diseases for Arachnoiditis

Diseases related to Arachnoiditis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 790)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 bacterial meningitis 31.5 TNF IL1B CRP
2 cauda equina syndrome 31.1 TNF GFAP CRP
3 myelitis 30.4 TNF MBP AQP4
4 chiari malformation 30.3 MBP GFAP
5 spinal cord disease 30.3 TNF MBP GFAP CD4 AQP4
6 acute retrobulbar neuritis 30.1 MBP AQP4
7 vasculitis 30.1 TNF IL1B CRP
8 papilledema 30.1 CRP CD4 AQP4
9 encephalitis 30.1 TNF IL1B GFAP AQP4
10 arthropathy 30.0 TNF IL1B CRP
11 spondyloarthropathy 1 30.0 TNF IL1B CRP CD4
12 meningitis 30.0 TNF IL1B IFNG CRP AQP4
13 mastoiditis 30.0 CRP CD4
14 epidural abscess 29.9 IFNG CRP CD4
15 hydrocephalus 29.9 TNF MBP IFNG GFAP AQP4
16 neurosarcoidosis 29.8 TNF CRP CD4 AQP4
17 spinal cord injury 29.8 TNF GFAP AQP4
18 chiasmal syndrome 29.8 POMC NEFL
19 toxic encephalopathy 29.8 TNF IL1B GFAP
20 syphilis 29.8 TNF CRP CD4
21 brucellosis 29.7 TNF IFNG CRP
22 hyperthyroidism 29.7 TNF POMC CRP
23 pfeiffer syndrome 29.7 TNF CRP CD4
24 spondylitis 29.7 TNF IL1B IFNG CRP
25 cryptococcosis 29.7 TNF IFNG CD4
26 intracranial berry aneurysm 29.7 TNF NEFL IL1B CRP
27 chronic meningitis 29.7 IL1B CRP CD4
28 taeniasis 29.7 TNF TAC1 CD4
29 central nervous system tuberculosis 29.6 TNF IFNG CRP CD4
30 aseptic meningitis 29.6 TNF IL1B CRP CD4
31 common cold 29.6 TNF IL1B CRP CD4
32 toxoplasmosis 29.6 TNF IL1B IFNG
33 aspergillosis 29.6 TNF IL1B IFNG
34 mononeuropathy 29.5 TNF TAC1 CRP CD4
35 pain agnosia 29.5 TNF TAC1 POMC IL1B CRP
36 osteomyelitis 29.5 TNF IL1B IFNG CRP
37 neurotic disorder 29.4 TNF POMC IL1B CRP
38 fibromyalgia 29.4 TNF POMC IL1B CRP
39 urinary tract infection 29.4 TNF IL1B CRP CD4
40 cranial nerve palsy 29.4 TNF POMC CRP CD4 AQP4
41 intracranial hypertension 29.4 TNF POMC IL1B GFAP CRP AQP4
42 cryptococcal meningitis 29.4 TNF IFNG CD4
43 histoplasmosis 29.3 TNF IFNG CD4
44 paine syndrome 29.3 TNF TAC1 POMC IL1B
45 optic neuritis 29.3 TNF MBP IL1B GFAP AQP4
46 uveitis 29.3 TNF IL1B IFNG
47 secondary progressive multiple sclerosis 29.2 NEFL MBP CD4 AQP4
48 transverse myelitis 29.2 TNF MBP CRP CD4 AQP4
49 miliary tuberculosis 29.2 TNF IFNG CRP CD4
50 fungal meningitis 29.2 TNF IFNG CRP CD4

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Arachnoiditis:



Diseases related to Arachnoiditis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Arachnoiditis

Human phenotypes related to Arachnoiditis:

58 30 (show all 15)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 muscle weakness 58 30 Hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%)
HP:0001324
2 hearing impairment 58 30 Hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%)
HP:0000365
3 arthralgia 58 30 Hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%)
HP:0002829
4 abnormality of vision 58 30 Hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%)
HP:0000504
5 paresthesia 58 30 Hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%)
HP:0003401
6 sensory neuropathy 58 30 Hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%)
HP:0000763
7 meningitis 58 30 Hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%)
HP:0001287
8 hyporeflexia 58 30 Hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%)
HP:0001265
9 tinnitus 58 30 Hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%)
HP:0000360
10 anhidrosis 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0000970
11 hydrocephalus 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0000238
12 fatigue 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0012378
13 migraine 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0002076
14 urinary bladder sphincter dysfunction 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0002839
15 abnormality of the eye 58 Very frequent (99-80%)

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Arachnoiditis:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system MP:0003631 9.32 AQP4 CD4 GFAP IFNG IL1B MBP

Drugs & Therapeutics for Arachnoiditis

Drugs for Arachnoiditis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 13)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Cyclophosphamide Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 50-18-0, 6055-19-2 2907
2
Coenzyme M Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 3375-50-6 598 23662354
3 Alkylating Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
4 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
5 Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating Phase 2, Phase 3
6 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
7 Immunologic Factors Phase 2, Phase 3
8
Thalidomide Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Phase 2 50-35-1 5426
9 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 2
10 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 2
11 Angiogenesis Inhibitors Phase 2
12 Immunoglobulins
13 Antibodies

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Efficacy and Safety of Cyclophosphamide in the Treatment of Refractory Proliferative Arachnoiditis in Central Nervous System Tuberculosis- A Randomized Double Blinded Placebo Controlled Trial Not yet recruiting NCT04620772 Phase 2, Phase 3 Cyclophosphamide injection
2 Prospective Study of the Use of Thalidomide in Patients With Arachnoiditis Completed NCT00284505 Phase 2 thalidomide
3 Diagnostic Accuracy of Imaging Findings in Tubercular Meningitis/Spinal Tubercular Arachnoiditis and Correlation With Outcomes in Patients With Tubercular Meningitis, Spinal Tubercular Arachnoiditis Recruiting NCT05636254
4 Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) Therapy Study Withdrawn NCT02371122

Search NIH Clinical Center for Arachnoiditis

Cochrane evidence based reviews: arachnoiditis

Genetic Tests for Arachnoiditis

Anatomical Context for Arachnoiditis

Organs/tissues related to Arachnoiditis:

MalaCards : Spinal Cord, Bone, Brain, Eye, Occipital Lobe, Cortex, Cerebellum

Publications for Arachnoiditis

Articles related to Arachnoiditis:

(show top 50) (show all 1769)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Spinal Infections. 62
36404042 2023
2
Magendie's foramen debridement and catheterisation for the treatment of syringomyelia due to diffuse craniocervical junction arachnoiditis. A case report and technical note. 62
35697525 2022
3
Methotrexate-Mediated Arachnoiditis in a Child with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 62
36172826 2022
4
Spinal Arachnoiditis in Patients with Coccidioidomycosis Meningitis-Analysis of Clinical and Imaging Features. 62
36354947 2022
5
Incidental finding of arachnoiditis ossificans in the lumbar spine. 62
35112783 2022
6
Modified Unilateral Biportal Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy Results in Improved Clinical Outcomes. 62
36334710 2022
7
Severe Paradoxical Manifestations in an Immunocompetent Young Female With Tuberculous Meningitis. 62
36348841 2022
8
Reasons for re-hospitalization in patients with tuberculous meningitis, and its impact on outcome: a prospective observational study. 62
36306031 2022
9
Posterior Cranial Fossa Meningioma Causing Tonsillar Herniation and Giant Cervicothoracic Syringomyelia: Case Report and Review of Literature. 62
36398186 2022
10
Novelty in Impact of Neurorehabilitation in a Classic Case of Syringomyelia. 62
36258946 2022
11
Evaluation of neurotrophic factor secreting mesenchymal stem cells in progressive multiple sclerosis. 62
36113170 2022
12
Tuberculous myelitis: a prospective follow-up study. 62
35739331 2022
13
Assessment of main complications of regional anesthesia recorded in an acute pain unit in a tertiary care university hospital: a retrospective cohort. 62
33887339 2022
14
Pantopaque: Does It Still Migrate With Gravity After 30 Years? 62
35935113 2022
15
A Phase I/II Study of Intrathecal Trastuzumab in HER-2 Positive Cancer with Leptomeningeal Metastases: Safety, Efficacy, and Cerebrospinal Fluid Pharmacokinetics. 62
35948282 2022
16
Delayed Symptomatic Entrapment and Herniation of Lumbar Nerve Root Due to a Prior Durotomy Defect Initially Misdiagnosed As Arachnoiditis: A Case Report. 62
36185852 2022
17
Cyclophosphamide therapy as an adjunct in refractory post-tubercular arachnoiditis. 62
35760482 2022
18
"PTFE Sleeve Graft" Technique to Remove Neurovascular Conflict in Micro Vascular Decompression for Trigeminal Neuralgia. 62
36076637 2022
19
Surgical Management after Chiari Decompression Failure: Craniovertebral Junction Revision versus Shunting Strategies. 62
35743405 2022
20
Pulse corticosteroids for the management of extensive CNS tuberculosis presenting with acute-onset quadriparesis. 62
35321986 2022
21
Isolated CNS relapse of medullary aggressive high-grade B-cell lymphoma on 18F-FDG-PET/CT. 62
35501493 2022
22
Spinal arachnoiditis leading to recurrent reversible myelopathy: A case report. 62
33166210 2022
23
Spinal Arachnoiditis Ossificans: A Chronic Sequela of Tuberculosis. 62
35864710 2022
24
Endoscopic endonasal approach for isolated subarachnoid neurocysticercosis in basal cisterns and its complications: illustrative case. 62
36303499 2022
25
Unilateral radiculopathy away from the puncture site due to adhesive arachnoiditis after spinal anesthesia for an emergent cesarean delivery: a case report. 62
35412174 2022
26
A Case Series on Neuropathogenic Nature of an Ancient Disease ----Tuberculosis. 62
35443412 2022
27
Candida Shunt Infection Causing Arachnoiditis and Hydrocephalus: A Case Report. 62
35510023 2022
28
Ketamine as an Adjunct for Treatment of Methotrexate-induced Neurotoxicity. 62
35200225 2022
29
Venous congestion as a central mechanism of radiculopathies. 62
34653602 2022
30
Clinical Reasoning: A 64-Year-Old Man With History of Meningitis Presenting With Proximal Weakness of the Arms. 62
34799459 2022
31
CNS cryptococcosis presenting with cerebellar stroke and spinal arachnoiditis. 62
35131790 2022
32
A new surgical method for treating syringomyelia secondary to arachnoiditis following cervical spine surgery: the syringo-cisterna magna shunt. 62
35107619 2022
33
Myelitis: A Common Complication of Tuberculous Meningitis Predicting Poor Outcome. 62
35370906 2022
34
Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of tuberculosis. 62
34127839 2022
35
Two Cases of Miliary and Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis Following Glucocorticoid Therapy and Literature Review. 62
35225034 2022
36
Spinal arachnoiditis and syringomyelia: Review of literature with emphasis on postinfectious inflammation and treatment. 62
35928312 2022
37
Perspective: Lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis (AA)/ Chronic AA (CAA) are clinical diagnoses that do not require radiographic confirmation. 62
36447842 2022
38
The leptomeninges as a critical organ for normal CNS development and function: First patient and public involved systematic review of arachnoiditis (chronic meningitis). 62
36178925 2022
39
Diagnosis and Treatment Strategies for Arachnoiditis Ossificans Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report. 62
36263188 2022
40
Review/Perspective On the Diagnosis and Surgical Management of Spinal Arachnoid Cysts. 62
35399888 2022
41
Novel Transdural Epiarachnoid Approach for Large Central Disk Herniation in Upper Lumbar Spine. 62
34982924 2022
42
Flexible thecoscopy for extensive spinal arachnoiditis. 62
34598155 2021
43
Cladophialophora bantiana brain abscess with lymphadenitis. 62
34706919 2021
44
MRI Findings of Arachnoiditis, Revisited. Is Classification Possible? 62
33644967 2021
45
Immunotherapies in chronic adhesive arachnoiditis - A case series and literature review. 62
34195394 2021
46
Editorial for "MRI Findings of Arachnoiditis, Revisited. Is Classification Needed?" 62
33713514 2021
47
The use of thalidomide to treat children with tuberculosis meningitis: A review. 62
34500217 2021
48
Subdural fluid collection rather than meningitis contributes to hydrocephalus after cervical laminoplasty: A case report. 62
34435016 2021
49
Arachnoiditis Ossificans in the Thoracic Spine With Associated Cyst and Syringomyelia: A Rare, Intraoperative Finding Complicating Dural Opening. 62
34513483 2021
50
Spinal Arachnoiditis Ossificans: A Case-Based Update. 62
34307874 2021

Variations for Arachnoiditis

Expression for Arachnoiditis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Arachnoiditis.

Pathways for Arachnoiditis

Pathways related to Arachnoiditis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 28)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
12.5 CD4 IFNG IL1B TNF
2 12.41 POMC NEFL MBP GFAP
3
Show member pathways
12.4 TNF IL1B IFNG CD4
4
Show member pathways
12 TNF IFNG CD4
5 11.94 TNF TAC1 IL1B AQP4
6 11.85 TNF IFNG CD4
7 11.82 GFAP IFNG IL1B TNF
8
Show member pathways
11.81 CD4 IFNG IL1B
9 11.79 TNF POMC IL1B
10 11.7 TNF IL1B IFNG
11
Show member pathways
11.68 IL1B IFNG CD4
12
Show member pathways
11.62 TNF IL1B IFNG
13
Show member pathways
11.62 TNF IL1B IFNG CD4
14 11.55 CRP IFNG TNF
15 11.53 IL1B IFNG CD4
16
Show member pathways
11.47 TNF IL1B IFNG
17 11.46 TNF IL1B IFNG CD4
18 11.4 TNF IFNG CD4
19 11.33 TNF IL1B IFNG
20 11.33 TNF IL1B IFNG CD4
21 11.29 TNF IL1B IFNG
22 11.16 TNF MBP IL1B IFNG GFAP AQP4
23 11.09 TNF IL1B IFNG
24 10.91 TNF CRP
25 10.91 TNF IL1B
26 10.83 TNF IL1B
27 10.79 IFNG CD4
28 10.72 TNF IL1B IFNG CD4

GO Terms for Arachnoiditis

Cellular components related to Arachnoiditis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 astrocyte end-foot GO:0097450 8.92 GFAP AQP4

Biological processes related to Arachnoiditis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 21)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 immune response GO:0006955 10.17 TNF MBP IL1B IFNG CD4
2 positive regulation of phagocytosis GO:0050766 10 TNF IL1B IFNG
3 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 9.97 TNF IL1B IFNG
4 positive regulation of cytokine production GO:0001819 9.96 IFNG IL1B TNF
5 positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0045429 9.93 TNF IL1B IFNG
6 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 9.92 IFNG IL1B MBP TNF
7 negative regulation of amyloid-beta clearance GO:1900222 9.9 TNF IFNG
8 positive regulation of neuroinflammatory response GO:0150078 9.89 TNF IL1B
9 regulation of establishment of endothelial barrier GO:1903140 9.88 TNF IL1B
10 negative regulation of lipid storage GO:0010888 9.88 TNF CRP
11 positive regulation of chemokine production GO:0032722 9.88 IFNG IL1B TNF
12 positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production GO:2000343 9.85 TNF MBP
13 vascular endothelial growth factor production GO:0010573 9.84 TNF IL1B
14 positive regulation of fever generation GO:0031622 9.81 TNF IL1B
15 sequestering of triglyceride GO:0030730 9.73 TNF IL1B
16 positive regulation of nitrogen compound metabolic process GO:0051173 9.71 TNF IFNG
17 positive regulation of vitamin D biosynthetic process GO:0060557 9.67 TNF IFNG
18 positive regulation of glial cell proliferation GO:0060252 9.65 TNF IL1B GFAP
19 positive regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis GO:0051044 9.63 TNF IL1B IFNG
20 astrocyte activation GO:0048143 9.43 TNF IL1B IFNG
21 positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity GO:0060559 9.1 TNF IL1B IFNG

Sources for Arachnoiditis

2 CDC
6 CNVD
8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
19 GARD
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HMDB
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 LifeMap
38 LOVD
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
52 NINDS
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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