MCID: ASC010
MIFTS: 49

Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection

Categories: Infectious diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection

MalaCards integrated aliases for Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection:

Name: Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection 56 12
Ascariasis 56 12 74 3 43 15 17 71 32
Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection, Susceptibility to 56
Ascariasis, Susceptibility to 56
Ascariasis - Roundworm 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:456
OMIM 56 604291
ICD9CM 34 127.0
MeSH 43 D001196
NCIt 49 C128392
SNOMED-CT 67 2435008
UMLS 71 C0003950

Summaries for Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection

CDC : 3 An estimated 807 million–1.2 billion people in the world are infected with Ascaris lumbricoides(sometimes called just Ascaris or ascariasis). Ascaris, hookworm, and whipworm are parasitic worms known as soil-transmitted helminths (STH). Together, they account for a major burden of parasitic disease worldwide. Ascariasis is now uncommon in the United States. Ascaris parasites live in the intestine and Ascaris eggs are passed in the feces (poop) of infected people. If an infected person defecates outside (for example, near bushes, in a garden, or in a field), or if the feces of an infected person are used as fertilizer, eggs are deposited on soil. The eggs can then mature into a form of the parasite that is infective. Ascariasis is caused by ingesting eggs. This can happen when hands or fingers that have contaminated dirt on them are put in the mouth, or by consuming vegetables or fruits that have not been carefully cooked, washed, or peeled. People infected with Ascaris often show no symptoms. If symptoms do occur they can be light and include abdominal discomfort. Heavy infections can cause intestinal blockage and impair growth in children. Other symptoms such as cough are due to migration of the worms through the body. Ascariasis is treatable with medication prescribed by your health care provider. Humans can also be infected by pig roundworm (Ascaris suum). Ascaris lumbricoides (human roundworm) and Ascaris suum (pig roundworm) are indistinguishable. It is unknown how many people worldwide are infected with Ascaris suum.

MalaCards based summary : Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection, also known as ascariasis, is related to ige responsiveness, atopic and enterobiasis. An important gene associated with Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection is IL5 (Interleukin 5), and among its related pathways/superpathways are PEDF Induced Signaling and TGF-Beta Pathway. The drugs Pyrantel and Immunologic Factors have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include liver, lung and testes, and related phenotypes are digestive/alimentary and hematopoietic system

Disease Ontology : 12 A parasitic helminthiasis infectious disease that involves infection of the intestine with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides. Larvae migrating through the lungs cause cough, wheezing and hemoptysis. Bowel or biliary obstruction causes cramping abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Peritonitis, enlargement of the liver or spleen, toxicity and pneumonia are observed when larvae get into the portal circulation.

OMIM : 56 More than a quarter of the human population is affected by soil-transmitted helminthes, which impair nutrition and the immune response to widespread pandemics, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (see 609423) and tuberculosis (see 607948). The roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, the most common human parasite of the gastrointestinal tract, causes ascariasis, which has a worldwide distribution with highest prevalence in tropical and subtropical regions and in areas with inadequate sanitation. Ascariasis is triggered by ingestion of parasite eggs. During its life cycle, Ascaris threatens human health with nonspecific abdominal symptoms, intestinal obstruction and perforation, biliary colic, gallstone formation, liver abscesses, pancreatitis, and pulmonary eosinophilia (Sanglas et al., 2009). (604291)

Wikipedia : 74 Ascariasis is a disease caused by the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. Infections have no... more...

Related Diseases for Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection

Diseases related to Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 441)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 ige responsiveness, atopic 31.2 IL5 IL13 IFNG
2 enterobiasis 31.1 STH EPGN
3 necatoriasis 30.9 IL5 EPGN
4 echinococcosis 30.9 IL6 IL5 IFNG
5 schistosomiasis 30.9 IL5 IL13 IFNG
6 appendicitis 30.8 IL6 IL1B IFNG CXCL8
7 cytokine deficiency 30.8 IL5 IL13
8 hypereosinophilic syndrome 30.8 IL5 IL13 IFNG CXCL8
9 urticaria 30.7 IL6 IL5 IL13
10 typhoid fever 30.6 IL6 IL1B IFNG
11 acute pancreatitis 30.6 SERPINA3 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
12 toxocariasis 30.6 TES IL5 EPGN
13 trichinosis 30.6 TSLP IL5 IL13
14 filariasis 30.5 IL7 IL6 IL5 IFNG
15 allergic rhinitis 30.5 IL5 IL13 IFNG CXCL8
16 ileus 30.5 IL6 IL1B IFNG
17 peritonitis 30.4 IL6 IL1B IFNG CXCL8
18 dysentery 30.3 STH IL6 IL1B CXCL8
19 dermatitis 30.3 TSLP IL6 IL5 IL13 IFNG CXCL8
20 rhinitis 30.3 TSLP IL6 IL5 IL13 IFNG CXCL8
21 eosinophilic pneumonia 30.3 IL5 IL13 CXCL8
22 fascioliasis 30.2 IL1B IFNG EPGN
23 diarrhea 30.2 IL6 IL5 IL1B IFNG CXCL8
24 trichuriasis 30.2 STH SERPINA3 IL13 EPGN
25 wells syndrome 30.2 IL5 IL1B CXCL8
26 peptic esophagitis 30.1 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
27 salmonellosis 30.1 IL6 IL1B IFNG
28 strongyloidiasis 30.0 STH IL5 IL13 IFNG EPGN
29 duodenal ulcer 30.0 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
30 dracunculiasis 30.0 STH EPGN
31 neuritis 29.9 IL6 IL1B IFNG CXCL8
32 chagas disease 29.9 IL6 IL1B IFNG CXCL8
33 diphtheria 29.8 IL5 IL13 IFNG
34 crohn's disease 29.8 IL6 IL1B IFNG CXCL8
35 filarial elephantiasis 29.8 STH IL5 IL13 EPGN
36 celiac disease 1 29.8 IL6 IL5 IL13 IFNG CXCL8
37 allergic asthma 29.8 TSLP IL5 IL13 IFNG CXCL8
38 allergic hypersensitivity disease 29.7 TSLP IL5 IL13 IFNG CXCL8
39 otitis media 29.7 IL6 IL5 IL1B IFNG CXCL8
40 meningitis 29.7 IL6 IL5 IL1B IFNG CXCL8
41 middle ear disease 29.6 SERPINA3 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
42 malaria 29.5 TNFSF13B IL7 IL6 IL5 IL1B IL13
43 esophagitis 29.4 TSLP IL6 IL5 IL1B IL13 CXCL8
44 immune deficiency disease 29.4 TNFSF13B LIG4 IL7 IL6 IL13 IFNG
45 gastroenteritis 29.4 TSLP IL6 IL5 IL1B IFNG CXCL8
46 opisthorchiasis 29.4 SERPINA3 IL1B EPGN CXCL8
47 respiratory failure 29.1 SERPINA3 IL6 IL5 IL1B IL13 CXCL8
48 dermatitis, atopic 29.1 TSLP SERPINA3 IL7 IL6 IL5 IL1B
49 parasitic helminthiasis infectious disease 28.5 TSLP TES STH SERPINA3 IL6 IL5
50 skin disease 28.5 TSLP SERPINA3 IL7 IL6 IL5 IL13

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection:



Diseases related to Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection

Clinical features from OMIM:

604291

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.7 IFNG IL13 IL5 IL6 LIG4 TES
2 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.65 EPGN IFNG IL13 IL1B IL5 IL6
3 immune system MP:0005387 9.36 EPGN IFNG IL13 IL1B IL5 IL6

Drugs & Therapeutics for Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection

Drugs for Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 18)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Pyrantel Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 15686-83-6
2 Immunologic Factors Phase 4
3 Adjuvants, Immunologic Phase 4
4 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 4
5 Pyrantel Pamoate Phase 4
6
Ivermectin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 70288-86-7 6474909
7
Mebendazole Approved, Vet_approved 31431-39-7 4030
8
Iodine Approved, Investigational 7553-56-2 807
9
Vitamin C Approved, Nutraceutical 50-81-7 5785 54670067
10 Vitamins
11 Micronutrients
12 Trace Elements
13 Nutrients
14 Antioxidants
15 Protective Agents
16 Antibiotics, Antitubercular
17 Anti-Bacterial Agents
18 cadexomer iodine

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Longitudinal Study of Efficacy of Standard Albendazole Treatment Versus Levamisole/Pyrantel Pamoate on Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections Completed NCT00659997 Phase 4 Albendazole;Levamisole
2 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial to Evaluate the Impact of Anthelmintic Treatment on the Incidence of Diarrheal Disease in School Children in Southern Vietnam Withdrawn NCT02597556 Phase 4 Albendazole;Placebo
3 Efficacy and Nutritional Assessment Following Albendazole and Combined Albendazole/Ivermectin Treatment for Intestinal Helminth Infections in Rural Guatemalan Schoolchildren Completed NCT00207753 albendazole vs. combined albendazole/ivermectin treatment
4 Impact of Repeated Anthelminthic Treatment on Malaria in School Children: an Individual Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial in Western Kenya Completed NCT01658774 Albendazole
5 The Sero-prevalence and Genetic Study for the Infectious Diseases and Metabolic Syndrome in Solomon Islands Completed NCT01080989
6 Paediatric Surgery Across Sub-Saharan Africa: A Multi-Centre Prospective Cohort Study Completed NCT03185637
7 Diagnostics of Intestinal Parasitosis in Inhabitants of Kuyavian-Pomeranian Province in Poland Recruiting NCT03490435

Search NIH Clinical Center for Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


Ivermectin
Mebendazole
Pyrantel
Pyrantel Pamoate

Cochrane evidence based reviews: ascariasis

Genetic Tests for Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection

Anatomical Context for Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection:

40
Liver, Lung, Testes, Spleen, Kidney, Skin, Small Intestine

Publications for Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection

Articles related to Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection:

(show top 50) (show all 2238)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Genetic analysis of susceptibility to infection with Ascaris lumbricoides. 61 56
10403321 1999
2
Ascariasis: a family disease. 61 56
4826619 1974
3
Mammalian metallopeptidase inhibition at the defense barrier of Ascaris parasite. 56
19179285 2009
4
A possible genetic factor influencing protection from infection with Ascaris lumbricoides in Nigerian children. 56
1403439 1992
5
Clustering of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections within households. 56
3188157 1988
6
Epidemiology of Parasitic Infections in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Palestine. 61
31769396 2020
7
PICTORIAL REVIEW OF THORACIC PARASITIC DISEASES: A RADIOLOGICAL GUIDE. 61
31978430 2020
8
Assessing the Parasitic Burden in a Late Antique Florentine Emergency Burial Site. 61
31914509 2019
9
Not everything in the gallbladder is gallstones: an unusual case of biliary ascariasis. 61
31938556 2019
10
Exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides infection and risk of childhood asthma in north of Iran. 61
31350726 2019
11
The role of the liver in the migration of parasites of global significance. 61
31703729 2019
12
Comorbidity associated to Ascaris suum infection during pulmonary fibrosis exacerbates chronic lung and liver inflammation and dysfunction but not affect the parasite cycle in mice. 61
31765381 2019
13
Parasitic infections in Malaysian aborigines with pulmonary tuberculosis: a comparative cross-sectional study. 61
31363922 2019
14
BioStruct-Africa: empowering Africa-based scientists through structural biology knowledge transfer and mentoring - recent advances and future perspectives. 61
31490179 2019
15
Ascariasis Causing Biliary Colic. 61
31750371 2019
16
The liver proteome in a mouse model for Ascaris suum resistance and susceptibility: evidence for an altered innate immune response. 61
31412915 2019
17
Rare presentation of haemobilia and Loeffler's pneumonia in a child by ascaris lumbricoides. 61
31466983 2019
18
Anti-Ascaris suum immunoglobulin Y as a novel biotechnological tool for the diagnosis of human ascariasis. 61
31409433 2019
19
Gallbladder Perforation Due to Ascaris lumbricoides in a Pregnant Woman and 6 Year Old Girl from Afghanistan: Case Report. 61
31673268 2019
20
Differential diagnosis of focal gallbladder lesions: The added value of contrast enhanced ultrasound with liner transducers. 61
31306115 2019
21
In vitro and in vivoAreca catechu crude aqueous extract as an anthelmintic against Ascaridia galli infection in chickens. 61
31440008 2019
22
Old Antiprotozoal Drugs: Are They Still Viable Options for Parasitic Diseases or New Options for Other Diseases? 61
31264538 2019
23
Ascariasis as a model to study the helminth/allergy relationships. 61
30295330 2019
24
Small bowel obstruction complicating an Ascaris lumbricoides infestation in a 4-year-old male: a case report. 61
31122293 2019
25
Dual Parasitization of the Biliary Tree: First Reported Case. 61
31616753 2019
26
Biological role of excretory-secretory proteins in endemic parasites of Latin America and the Caribbean. 61
31092301 2019
27
Secular Trends of Ascariasis Infestation and Nutritional Status in Chinese Children From 2000 to 2014: Evidence From 4 Successive National Surveys. 61
31139673 2019
28
[Interpretation of Diagnosis of Ascariasis (WS/565-2017)]. 61
31184060 2019
29
Prevalence, intensity and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminth infections: A comparison between Negritos (indigenous) in inland jungle and those in resettlement at town peripheries. 61
31009476 2019
30
Ascariasis and its relationship with selected psycho-neurological symptoms among children and adults in Poland. 61
31099762 2019
31
Efficacy of Albendazole and Mebendazole With or Without Levamisole for Ascariasis and Trichuriasis. 61
31110573 2019
32
Molecular analysis of human- and pig-derived Ascaris in Honduras. 61
29502555 2019
33
Ultrasonography for early diagnosis of Toxocara canis infection in puppies. 61
30706166 2019
34
Imaging of toxocariasis. 61
30861557 2019
35
The inner tube sign in Ascariasis. 61
30498923 2019
36
Comparative analysis of excretory-secretory antigens of Anisakis simplex, Pseudoterranova decipiens and Contracaecum osculatum regarding their applicability for specific serodiagnosis of human anisakidosis based on IgG-ELISA. 61
30584924 2019
37
Predictors of therapeutic failure among patients with acute brucellosis treated by dual therapy with doxycycline-rifampin. 61
30411836 2019
38
Homology modeling and molecular dynamics dimulation study of β carbonic anhydrase of Ascaris lumbricoides. 61
31719767 2019
39
Children from a rural region in The Chiapas Highlands, Mexico, show an increased risk of stunting and intestinal parasitoses when compared with urban children. 61
30657470 2019
40
Ascariasis-associated perforated appendicitis: Computed tomography findings. 61
31650119 2019
41
Incidental diagnosis of appendiceal ascariasis during colonoscopy. 61
30115571 2019
42
Biliary Ascariasis Mimicking as Choledocholithiasis on Endoscopic Ultrasound. 61
30935184 2019
43
Biliary Ascariasis: An Unusual Case of Obstructive Jaundice. 61
30710698 2019
44
Ascaris lumbricoides coinfection reduces tissue damage by decreasing IL-6 levels without altering clinical evolution of pulmonary tuberculosis or Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine profile. 61
31800922 2019
45
Ascaris Larval Infection and Lung Invasion Directly Induce Severe Allergic Airway Disease in Mice. 61
30249744 2018
46
Ascaris lumbricoides: challenges in diagnosis, treatment and prevention strategies in a European refugee camp. 61
29458300 2018
47
Differential diagnosis of gallbladder ascariasis debris: the added value of contrast enhanced ultrasound with high frequency transducer. 61
30534646 2018
48
Small bowel volvulus in an adult with mesenteric lymphangioma and ascariasis. 61
28266164 2018
49
Never seen before? Opisthorchiasis and Clonorchiasis. 61
30466135 2018
50
An unusual finding of obstructive jaundice-a case report and review of the literature. 61
30323942 2018

Variations for Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection

Expression for Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection.

Pathways for Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection

Pathways related to Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 47)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.66 TSLP TNFSF13B IL7 IL6 IL5 IL1B
2
Show member pathways
13.5 TNFSF13B IRS2 IL7 IL6 IL5 IL1B
3
Show member pathways
13.38 TNFSF13B IL7 IL6 IL5 IL1B IL13
4
Show member pathways
13.3 TNFSF13B IRS2 IL7 IL6 IL5 IL1B
5
Show member pathways
13.29 TNFSF13B IL7 IL6 IL5 IL1B IL13
6 12.82 IL7 IL6 IL5 IL13 IFNG CXCL8
7
Show member pathways
12.76 TNFSF13B IL6 IL5 IL1B IL13 IFNG
8
Show member pathways
12.58 IL6 IL5 IL1B IL13 IFNG
9
Show member pathways
12.32 SERPINA3 IL6 IL1B IFNG
10
Show member pathways
12.29 IL6 IL1B IFNG CXCL8
11
Show member pathways
12.24 IL6 IL5 IL1B IL13 IFNG CXCL8
12
Show member pathways
12.23 IL6 IL5 IL1B IL13 IFNG CXCL8
13
Show member pathways
12.18 IL6 IL1B IFNG CXCL8
14 12.16 IL6 IL1B IL13 CXCL8
15
Show member pathways
12.16 TSLP IL7 IL6 IL5 IL13 IFNG
16
Show member pathways
12.03 IL6 IL1B IL13 IFNG
17 11.99 IL7 IL6 IL5 IFNG
18 11.98 IL6 IL1B IL13 CXCL8
19 11.93 IL6 IL1B IFNG CXCL8
20 11.93 TNFSF13B IL6 IL1B IFNG CXCL8
21 11.9 IL6 IL1B IFNG CXCL8
22 11.89 TNFSF13B IL1B CXCL8
23 11.88 IL7 IL6 IL5 IL1B
24 11.87 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
25 11.78 IL6 IL1B IFNG CXCL8
26 11.77 TNFSF13B IL6 IL1B IFNG CXCL8
27 11.75 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
28
Show member pathways
11.74 IL5 IFNG CXCL8
29 11.73 IL6 IL1B IFNG
30 11.72 IL6 IL1B IL13 IFNG
31 11.68 IL6 IL5 IL13 IFNG CXCL8
32
Show member pathways
11.66 IL6 IL1B IFNG CXCL8
33 11.61 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
34 11.59 IL6 IFNG CXCL8
35 11.54 TSLP IL7 IL5 IL1B IL13 IFNG
36 11.52 IL6 IL5 IL1B
37 11.51 TSLP IL6 CXCL8
38 11.51 IL6 IL1B IFNG CXCL8
39 11.49 IL5 IL13 IFNG
40 11.49 IL6 IL1B IL13 CXCL8
41 11.48 IL6 IL1B IFNG
42 11.45 IL6 IL5 IL1B IL13 CXCL8
43 11.38 IL6 IL1B IFNG
44 11.19 IL5 IL13 IFNG
45 10.97 TNFSF13B IL7 IL6 IL5 IL1B IL13
46 10.9 IL7 IL6 IL5 IL1B IL13 IFNG
47 10.67 TSLP IL7 IL6 IL5 IL1B IL13

GO Terms for Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection

Cellular components related to Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.7 TSLP TNFSF13B SERPINA3 IL7 IL6 IL5
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.36 TSLP TNFSF13B SERPINA3 IL7 IL6 IL5
3 muscle thin filament tropomyosin GO:0005862 9.16 TPM4 TPM2

Biological processes related to Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 19)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.13 TSLP TNFSF13B IRS2 IL7 IL6 IL5
2 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 9.93 IL7 IL6 IL1B IL13 IFNG
3 MAPK cascade GO:0000165 9.86 IRS2 IL5 IL1B EPGN
4 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.85 SERPINA3 IL6 IL5 IL1B IL13 CXCL8
5 positive regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008284 9.76 TSLP IRS2 IL7 IL6 IL5 IL1B
6 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.73 IL7 IL6 IL5 IL1B IL13 CXCL8
7 positive regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042102 9.7 TNFSF13B IL6 IL1B
8 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 9.69 TSLP IL6 IL1B
9 humoral immune response GO:0006959 9.67 IL7 IL6 IFNG
10 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.62 TSLP IL6 IL13 IFNG
11 interleukin-7-mediated signaling pathway GO:0038111 9.61 TSLP IRS2 IL7
12 positive regulation of neuroinflammatory response GO:0150078 9.58 IL6 IL1B
13 positive regulation of immunoglobulin secretion GO:0051024 9.58 IL6 IL5
14 positive regulation of chemokine production GO:0032722 9.58 TSLP IL7 IL6
15 positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process GO:0045080 9.57 IL1B IFNG
16 immune response GO:0006955 9.56 TNFSF13B IL7 IL6 IL5 IL1B IL13
17 positive regulation of cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0001961 9.55 TSLP IL7
18 positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity GO:0060559 9.46 IL1B IFNG
19 positive regulation of B cell proliferation GO:0030890 9.02 TNFSF13B IRS2 IL7 IL5 IL13

Molecular functions related to Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth factor activity GO:0008083 9.46 IL7 IL6 IL5 EPGN
2 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.28 TSLP TNFSF13B IL7 IL6 IL5 IL1B
3 interleukin-7 receptor binding GO:0005139 8.96 TSLP IL7

Sources for Ascaris Lumbricoides Infection

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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