MCID: ASH001
MIFTS: 32

Asherman's Syndrome

Categories: Rare diseases, Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Asherman's Syndrome

MalaCards integrated aliases for Asherman's Syndrome:

Name: Asherman's Syndrome 52
Asherman Syndrome 52 58 71
Intrauterine Adhesions 58 71
Intrauterine Synechiae 52 58
Adhesions of Uterus 71
Uterine Synechiae 52

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare gynaecological and obstetric diseases


External Ids:

ICD10 via Orphanet 33 N85.6
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0156372 C0241593 C1704274
Orphanet 58 ORPHA137686
UMLS 71 C0156372 C0241593 C1704274

Summaries for Asherman's Syndrome

MalaCards based summary : Asherman's Syndrome, also known as asherman syndrome, is related to amenorrhea and infertility. An important gene associated with Asherman's Syndrome is NFKB1 (Nuclear Factor Kappa B Subunit 1). The drugs Dimenhydrinate and Polyestradiol phosphate have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include uterus, placenta and bone, and related phenotypes are secondary amenorrhea and episodic abdominal pain

Related Diseases for Asherman's Syndrome

Diseases related to Asherman's Syndrome via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 49)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 amenorrhea 10.7
2 infertility 10.7
3 placenta accreta 10.6
4 adhesions of uterus 10.4
5 endometriosis 10.3
6 cervical incompetence 10.3
7 preterm premature rupture of the membranes 10.3
8 ectopic pregnancy 10.2
9 endometritis 10.2
10 placenta praevia 10.2
11 placenta disease 10.2
12 hypogonadotropism 10.2
13 myoma 10.2
14 endometrial cancer 10.1
15 schistosoma mansoni infection, susceptibility/ 10.1
16 multinucleated neurons, anhydramnios, renal dysplasia, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hydranencephaly 10.1
17 pre-eclampsia 10.1
18 schistosomiasis 10.1
19 hemometra 10.1
20 uterine inversion 10.1
21 placental abruption 10.0
22 septate uterus 10.0
23 scoliosis 10.0
24 thrombosis 10.0
25 hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 10.0
26 hypogonadism 10.0
27 thrombophilia 10.0
28 aneurysm 10.0
29 bicornuate uterus 10.0
30 constricting bands, congenital 10.0
31 endometrial adenocarcinoma 10.0
32 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 1 10.0
33 leukemia, acute lymphoblastic 3 10.0
34 48,xyyy 10.0
35 uterine anomalies 9.9
36 leiomyoma 9.9
37 myofibroma 9.9
38 ocular motor apraxia 9.7
39 premature ovarian failure 1 9.7
40 adenomyosis 9.7
41 endometrial hyperplasia 9.7
42 vaginal cancer 9.7
43 reproductive system disease 9.7
44 hyperglycemia 9.7
45 keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma 9.7
46 severe combined immunodeficiency 9.7
47 combined t cell and b cell immunodeficiency 9.7
48 rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma 9.7
49 overgrowth syndrome 9.7

Comorbidity relations with Asherman's Syndrome via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Myofibroma

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Asherman's Syndrome:



Diseases related to Asherman's Syndrome

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Asherman's Syndrome

Human phenotypes related to Asherman's Syndrome:

58 (show all 11)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 secondary amenorrhea 58 Occasional (29-5%)
2 episodic abdominal pain 58 Occasional (29-5%)
3 infertility 58 Occasional (29-5%)
4 abnormality of the menstrual cycle 58 Frequent (79-30%)
5 metrorrhagia 58 Occasional (29-5%)
6 spontaneous abortion 58 Occasional (29-5%)
7 dysmenorrhea 58 Occasional (29-5%)
8 decreased fertility in females 58 Frequent (79-30%)
9 oligomenorrhea 58 Frequent (79-30%)
10 chronic infection 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
11 abnormality of the placenta 58 Very rare (<4-1%)

Drugs & Therapeutics for Asherman's Syndrome

Drugs for Asherman's Syndrome (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 53)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Dimenhydrinate Approved Phase 4 523-87-5 441281
2
Polyestradiol phosphate Approved Phase 4 28014-46-2
3
Estradiol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-28-2 5757
4 Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium Phase 4
5 Estrogens Phase 4
6 Contraceptive Agents Phase 4
7 Estradiol 17 beta-cypionate Phase 4
8 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
9 Estradiol 3-benzoate Phase 4
10 Hormones Phase 4
11 Progestins Phase 4
12
Mifepristone Approved, Investigational Phase 3 84371-65-3 55245
13
Misoprostol Approved Phase 3 59122-46-2 5282381
14
Tacrolimus Approved, Investigational Phase 3 104987-11-3 445643 439492 6473866
15 Contraceptives, Postcoital Phase 3
16 Anti-Ulcer Agents Phase 3
17 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 3
18 Oxytocics Phase 3
19 Contraceptives, Oral Phase 3
20 Luteolytic Agents Phase 3
21 Antacids Phase 3
22 Immunologic Factors Phase 3
23 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 3
24 Calcineurin Inhibitors Phase 3
25
Sargramostim Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 123774-72-1, 83869-56-1
26
Lenograstim Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 135968-09-1
27 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 2
28 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 2
29 Adjuvants, Immunologic Phase 1, Phase 2
30
Copper Approved, Investigational 7440-50-8 27099
31
Ethanol Approved Early Phase 1 64-17-5 702
32
Hyaluronic acid Approved, Vet_approved 9004-61-9 53477741
33
Zaleplon Approved, Illicit, Investigational 151319-34-5 5719
34
Povidone Approved 9003-39-8
35
Iodine Approved, Investigational 7553-56-2 807
36
carbamide peroxide Approved 124-43-6
37
Progesterone Approved, Vet_approved 57-83-0 5994
38
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved 50-78-2 2244
39
Povidone-iodine Approved 25655-41-8
40
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved 137-58-6 3676
41
Medroxyprogesterone acetate Approved, Investigational 71-58-9
42
Azathioprine Approved 446-86-6 2265
43
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved 53-03-2 5865
44
Mycophenolic acid Approved 24280-93-1 446541
45
Imidacloprid Vet_approved 105827-78-9 86418
46 Viscosupplements
47 Protective Agents
48 Calamus
49 cadexomer iodine
50 Anesthetics

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 64)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Role of Seprafilm Bioresorbable Slurry in the Prevention of Intrauterine Synechiae in Patients Undergoing Hysteroscopic Myomectomy Unknown status NCT01632202 Phase 4
2 Effectiveness of Self-cross-linked Hyaluronic Acid Gel in the Prevention of Intrauterine Adhesions After Second Trimester Abortion Unknown status NCT02868437 Phase 4
3 Clinical Study of the Treatment of Infertility Caused by Severe Intrauterine Adhesions by Collagen Scaffold Loaded With Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cells Unknown status NCT02204358 Phase 4
4 New Therapeutic Approaches to Treat Asherman's Syndrome and Endometrial Atrophy Based in BM Stem Cells Autologous Transplantation Completed NCT02144987 Phase 4
5 The Effect of Estrogen in the Prevention of Adhesion Reformation After Hysteroscopic Adhesiolysis Enrolling by invitation NCT03620929 Phase 4 Estradiol Valerate
6 Cervical Preparation for Surgical Abortion at 12-14 Weeks: a Prospective, Randomized, Evaluator-blinded, Multicenter, Controlled Comparison Between Mifepristone, Misoprostol and Their Combination Unknown status NCT01795599 Phase 3 Mifegyne ®;Gymiso®
7 Uterus Transplantation From Live Donors and From Deceased Donors - Clinical Study Recruiting NCT03277430 Phase 3 Tacrolimus
8 Non-stick Gel Applicated After Scraping Surgery for Natural Miscarriage and Uterine Synechiae Prevention Active, not recruiting NCT02248376 Phase 3 Gel
9 A Multi-center, Randomized, Single-blind, Controlled Clinical Trial of Treatment of Severe Asherman Syndrome by Collagen Scaffold Loaded With Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Unknown status NCT02680366 Phase 2
10 A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing 2 Different Doses of Estrogen Therapy After Hysteroscopic Adhesiolysis as an Adjuvant to Prevent Recurrence of Intrauterine Adhesions Completed NCT02726971 Phase 1, Phase 2 Femoston
11 Platelet-rich Plasma (PRP) for Endometrial Regeneration and Repair: a Prospective Randomised Pilot Study Completed NCT02825849 Phase 2
12 Intrauterine Infusion of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) in Women With Thin Endometrium Undergoing Embryo-transfer. Recruiting NCT03067623 Phase 2 PRP
13 Open Randomized Trial of Clinical Efficiency and Safety of Cell Product of Autologous Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Reparative Treatment of Destructively Changed Endometrium in Patients With Repeated IVF Failures Active, not recruiting NCT03166189 Phase 2
14 G-CSF and Endometrial Growth, Embryo Implantation and Pregnancy Following FET or Donor ET Terminated NCT01202643 Phase 1, Phase 2 G-CSF;Saline
15 Phase I Study of Role of Stem Cells in Improving Implantation Rates in ICSI Patients Unknown status NCT01649752 Phase 1
16 Cesarean Myomectomy : Safety and Risk of Intrauterine Synechiae Completed NCT03095014 Phase 1
17 Safety and Therapeutic Effect of Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells in Severe Refractory Asherman's Syndrome Not yet recruiting NCT03223454 Phase 1
18 Randomized, Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Disposable Balloon Uterine Stent Combined With Estrogen or Dried Biological Amnion Graft for the Therapy of Uterine Adhesion Unknown status NCT03346317 estradiol valerate tablets+dydrogesterone tablets
19 Randomized, Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Estrogen Therapy Combined With Disposable Balloon Uterine Stent and Dried Biological Amnion Graft in the Prevention of Adhesion Reformation After Hysteroscopic Adhesiolysis Unknown status NCT03351205 estradiol valerate tablets+dydrogesterone tablets
20 Randomized, Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Disposable Balloon Uterine Stent and Foley Catheter in the Prevention of Adhesion Reformation After Hysteroscopic Adhesiolysis Unknown status NCT03330873
21 Randomized, Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Disposable Balloon Uterine Stent Combined With Estrogen or Dried Biological Amnion Graft in the Prevention of Adhesion Reformation After Hysteroscopic Adhesiolysis Unknown status NCT03329898 estradiol valerate tablets;dydrogesterone Tablets
22 A Randomized Clinical Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Intrauterine Balloon Compared to Intrauterine Contraceptive Device in the Therapy for Uterine Adhesion After Hysteroscopic Adhesiolysis Unknown status NCT02867202
23 Amnion Graft for Preventing Intrauterine Adhesions Following Hysteroscopic Surgery Unknown status NCT02132104 Femoston
24 Use Of Hyaluronic Acid Gel To Prevent Intrauterine Adhesions In Hysteroscopic Surgery Unknown status NCT01464528 Early Phase 1 Hyaluronan
25 The Efficacy and Safety of the Dried Biological Amnion Graft Following Hysteroscopic Lysis for the Prevention of Postoperative Adhesions in Patients With Intrauterine Adhesions Unknown status NCT02496052 estradiol valerate tablets+dydrogesterone Tablets
26 Prevention of Intrauterine Adhesions After Hysteroscopic Metroplasty With Autocross-linked Hyaluronic Acid Gel Unknown status NCT02404454
27 Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing Immediate and Delayed Intrauterine Balloon Therapy in the Prevention of Adhesion Reformation After Hysteroscopic Adhesiolysis Unknown status NCT03171454
28 Efficiency of INTERCOAT (Oxiplex/AP Gel) in Preventing Intrauterine Adhesion Formation in Hysteroscopic Surgery - a Prospective Double Blind Randomized Study Unknown status NCT01637974 INTERCOAT administration
29 The Efficacy of Intrauterine Balloon Dilatation Therapy in the Prevention of Adhesion Formation After Hysteroscopicremovalof Multiple Fibroids Unknown status NCT03169478
30 Description of the Uterine Cavity in Patients With Recurrent Miscarriages Unknown status NCT02746588
31 MONOBISY: Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Intra Uterine Synechiae Occurence Using Bipolar Energy Compared With Monopolar Energy in Myoma Resection on Women Having Menorraghia and/or Infertility Unknown status NCT02661087
32 The Value of Diagnostic Hysterolaparoscopy in Infertile Patients With Normal Hysterosalpingography Unknown status NCT03106012
33 Intercoat (Oxiplex/AP Gel) for Preventing Intrauterine Adhesions Following Operative Hysteroscopy for Suspected Retained Products of Conception - a Prospective Randomized Pilot Study Completed NCT01377779 Oxiplex/AP gel;Normal Saline
34 Reproductive Outcome Affected by Two Adjunctive Treatments in Patients With Infertility Due to Severe Intrauterine Adhesions. Completed NCT02708277
35 Prevalence of Chronic Endometritis in Severe Intrauterine Adhesions and Role of Chronic Endometritis in Postoperative Recurrence of Severe Intrauterine Completed NCT02744807
36 The Value of Using Platelet Rich Plasma After Hysteroscopic Lysis of Severe Intrauterine Adhesions (A Randomized Controlled Trial) Completed NCT03541746
37 Impact of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction on Anxiety, Depression and Quality of Life in Women With Intrauterine Adhesion:a Randomized Controlled Trial. Completed NCT02746679
38 Prevention of Postoperative Adhesion Reformation by Intrauterine Balloon Therapy: a Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT03131596
39 Autocrosslinked Hyaluronic Acid Gel in Prevention of Intrauterine Adhesions After Bipolar Radiofrequency Endometrial Ablation: a Randomised, Controlled and Double Blind Study Completed NCT01829451
40 Evaluation of Uterine Patency Following Sonography-guided Transcervical Ablation of Fibroids Completed NCT02844920
41 Clinical Study of the Treatment of Infertility Caused by Recurrent Intrauterine Adhesions by Collagen Scaffold Loaded With Umbilical Cord -Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (UC-MSCs) Completed NCT02313415
42 The Efficacy of A New Crosslinked Hyaluronan Gel in the Prevention of Postoperative Intrauterine Adhesion After Dilatation and Curettage in Women With Delayed Miscarriage: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial Completed NCT03353909
43 A Post-Market Clinical Follow-up Study to Investigate the Usability of the CollaGUARD Adhesion Barrier Following Hysteroscopic Adhesiolysis Completed NCT02348541 Early Phase 1
44 Prevention of Postsurgical Uterine Synechia With HyalobarrierR Gel Endo in Hysteroscopic Myomectomy : a Prospective Multicenter Study Completed NCT01412489
45 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Hysterosalpingography Versus Radiographic Hysterosalpingography in Female Infertility Completed NCT02108665
46 Sonohysterography and 3D Ultrasonography Versus Diagnostic Hysteroscopy in Assessment of Uterine Factor in Cases of Female Infertility Completed NCT02399501
47 Biomedical Study of Toxicity, Biodistribution, Expression and Cellular Characterization of Autologous CD133+ Stem Cells From Donors of Hematopoietic Progenitors (IGX1) in Murine Model With Asherman-induced Syndrome. Recruiting NCT03665649
48 Endometrial Reconstruction by Human Regenerative Factors Derived From Platelet-Rich Plasma in Mice Models Recruiting NCT03249415
49 Treatment of Intrauterine Adhesions and Its Distribution of Genital Tract Flora Recruiting NCT03731689 Intrauterine lavage therapy;Intrauterine gel-injection therapy
50 The Efficacy of G-CSF Against Adhesion Reformation After Hysteroscopic Adhesiolysis Recruiting NCT02855632 G-CSF;Normal saline;hormone therapy

Search NIH Clinical Center for Asherman's Syndrome

Genetic Tests for Asherman's Syndrome

Anatomical Context for Asherman's Syndrome

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Asherman's Syndrome:

40
Uterus, Placenta, Bone, Bone Marrow, Cervix, Endothelial, T Cells

Publications for Asherman's Syndrome

Articles related to Asherman's Syndrome:

(show top 50) (show all 292)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Asherman syndrome in adenomyosis treated with uterine artery embolization: incidence predictive factors. 61
32020527 2020
2
Asherman syndrome and insufficient endometrial thickness: A hypothesis of integrated approach to restore the endometrium. 61
31887722 2020
3
Effects of uterus derived mesenchymal stem cells and their exosomes on asherman's syndrome. 61
31776004 2020
4
CSF1-associated decrease in endometrial macrophages may contribute to Asherman's syndrome. 61
31536655 2020
5
Endometrial stromal cells exhibit a distinct phenotypic and immunomodulatory profile. 61
31907034 2020
6
Meta-analysis of the use of hyaluronic acid gel to prevent intrauterine adhesions after miscarriage. 61
31731019 2020
7
Stem cell paracrine actions in tissue regeneration and potential therapeutic effect in human endometrium: a retrospective study. 61
31876085 2019
8
Secondary Prevention of Intrauterine Adhesions Following Hysteroscopic Surgery in Women With Asherman Syndrome: Is Something Better Than Nothing? 61
31815774 2019
9
Meta-analysis on the use of hyaluronic acid gel to prevent recurrence of intrauterine adhesion after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis. 61
31759520 2019
10
Effectiveness, complications and reproductive outcome of selective chemoembolization with methotrexate followed by suction curettage for caesarean scar pregnancy - A prospective observational study. 61
31437622 2019
11
Vascular endothelial growth factor 165 inhibits pro-fibrotic differentiation of stromal cells via the DLL4/Notch4/smad7 pathway. 61
31515487 2019
12
A cohort study comparing 4 mg and 10 mg daily doses of postoperative oestradiol therapy to prevent adhesion reformation after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis. 61
29504823 2019
13
Human amniotic epithelial cells improve fertility in an intrauterine adhesion mouse model. 61
31412924 2019
14
Reproductive outcomes after surgical treatment of asherman syndrome: A systematic review. 61
30713131 2019
15
A cohort study comparing the severity and outcome of intrauterine adhesiolysis for Asherman syndrome after first- or second-trimester termination of pregnancy. 61
31082744 2019
16
Assisted reproductive technology strategies in uterus transplantation. 61
31277762 2019
17
Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel Integrated with Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Secretome to Treat Endometrial Injury in a Rat Model of Asherman's Syndrome. 61
31148407 2019
18
One-Year Follow-Up of Women with Severe Acute Maternal Morbidity (SAMM): A Cohort Study. 61
31178635 2019
19
Mechanisms of endometrial fibrosis and the potential application of stem cell therapy. 61
31421695 2019
20
Cell and biomaterial-based approaches to uterus regeneration. 61
31198582 2019
21
Cellular therapies for the endometrium: An update. 61
30815850 2019
22
Single cell-derived clonally expanded mesenchymal progenitor cells from somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived pluripotent stem cells ameliorate the endometrial function in the uterus of a murine model with Asherman's syndrome. 61
30896075 2019
23
A Novel Ultrasound-Guided Technique for Hysteroscopic Adhesiolysis in High-Risk Patients. 61
30208242 2019
24
Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMSCs) Restore Functional Endometrium in the Rat Model for Severe Asherman Syndrome. 61
30458678 2019
25
The efficacy of Ankaferd Blood Stopper® in an experimental Asherman syndrome model created in rats. 61
31019834 2019
26
Bioengineering strategies of the uterus towards improving current investigative models and female reproductive health. 61
31695861 2019
27
Asherman's syndrome: current perspectives on diagnosis and management. 61
30936754 2019
28
Endometrial Regeneration in Asherman's Syndrome: Clinical and Translational evidence of Stem Cell Therapies. 61
30760192 2019
29
Silicone Plate for the Prevention of Postoperative Adhesions in Patients with Asherman Syndrome. 61
31871802 2019
30
Case report of pelvic tuberculosis resulting in Asherman's syndrome and infertility. 61
31388435 2019
31
Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Treat Female Infertility: An Update on Female Reproductive Diseases. 61
31885630 2019
32
The multi-functional roles of menstrual blood-derived stem cells in regenerative medicine. 61
30606242 2019
33
A multidisciplinary approach to pregnancy loss: the pregnancy loss prevention center. 61
29858908 2018
34
Detection of Asherman's syndrome after conservative management of placenta accreta: a case report. 61
30454053 2018
35
Uterine stem cells: from basic research to advanced cell therapies. 61
30239705 2018
36
The CXL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis in female reproductive tract disease: Review. 61
30106199 2018
37
Infertility after abdominal trachelectomy. 61
30063086 2018
38
Meta-analysis of the use of amniotic membrane to prevent recurrence of intrauterine adhesion after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis. 61
30073656 2018
39
Live birth rate and obstetric complications following the hysteroscopic management of intrauterine adhesions including Asherman syndrome. 61
30239778 2018
40
[Asherman's syndrome : management after curettage following a postnatal placental retention and literature review]. 61
30335256 2018
41
Asherman's Syndrome: it may not be all our fault. 61
31986212 2018
42
The birth weight in pregnant women with Asherman syndrome compared to normal intrauterine cavity: A case-control study. 61
30095642 2018
43
The association between menstrual cycle pattern and hysteroscopic march classification with endometrial thickness among infertile women with Asherman syndrome. 61
29979403 2018
44
Therapeutic strategies involving uterine stem cells in reproductive medicine. 61
29652725 2018
45
Stem cell therapy in Asherman syndrome and thin endometrium: Stem cell- based therapy. 61
29571018 2018
46
Platelet-rich plasma in the management of Asherman syndrome: case report. 61
29455274 2018
47
Laparoscopic-Assisted Uterus Retrieval From Live Organ Donors for Uterine Transplant. 61
29133152 2018
48
Hysteroscopic Removal of Retained Products of Conception Implanted Over a Focal Area of Adenomyosis: A Case Report. 61
28939480 2018
49
Hysteroscopic Management of Asherman's Syndrome. 61
29024798 2018
50
Human mesenchymal stem cells in spheroids improve fertility in model animals with damaged endometrium. 61
29482664 2018

Variations for Asherman's Syndrome

Expression for Asherman's Syndrome

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Asherman's Syndrome.

Pathways for Asherman's Syndrome

GO Terms for Asherman's Syndrome

Sources for Asherman's Syndrome

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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