ASTHMA
MCID: AST005
MIFTS: 76

Asthma (ASTHMA)

Categories: Genetic diseases, Rare diseases, Respiratory diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Asthma

MalaCards integrated aliases for Asthma:

Name: Asthma 57 11 19 75 73 73 28 53 5 41 2 43 14 36 63 63 71 31 33
Chronic Obstructive Asthma 11 53 16 71
Asthma, Diminished Response to Antileukotriene Treatment in 57 12 5
Bronchial Hyperreactivity 11 53 71
Asthma, Nocturnal, Susceptibility to 57 5
Asthma, Protection Against 57 5
Asthma, Susceptibility to 57 38
Asthma, Bronchial 57 5
Nocturnal Asthma 11 14
Asthma, Unspecified, with Stated Status Asthmaticus 33
Chronic Obstructive Asthma with Acute Exacerbation 11
Chronic Obstructive Asthma with Status Asthmaticus 11
Unspecified Asthma with Acute Exacerbation 33
Asthma-Related Traits, Susceptibility to 57
Acute Severe Bronchial Asthma 33
Asthma, Exercise-Induced 71
Exercise-Induced Asthma 11
Exercise Induced Asthma 11
Status Post Asthmaticus 33
Status Asthmaticus Nos 33
Asthma-Related Traits 57
Idiosyncratic Asthma 33
Acute Severe Asthma 33
Asthma, Nocturnal 57
Bronchial Asthma 73
Status Asthma 33

Characteristics:


Inheritance:

Autosomal dominant vs multifactorial 57

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 11 DOID:0080826 DOID:2841
OMIM® 57 600807
ICD9CM 34 493
MeSH 43 D001249
NCIt 49 C28397
SNOMED-CT 68 187687003
ICD10 31 J45 J45.9
SNOMED-CT via HPO 69 195967001 991000119106
UMLS 71 C0004096 C0004099 C0085129 more

Summaries for Asthma

MedlinePlus: 41 What is asthma? Asthma is a chronic (long-term) lung disease. It affects your airways, the tubes that carry air in and out of your lungs. When you have asthma, your airways can become inflamed and narrowed. This can cause wheezing, coughing, and tightness in your chest. When these symptoms get worse than usual, it is called an asthma attack or flare-up. What causes asthma? The exact cause of asthma is unknown. Genetics and your environment likely play a role in who gets asthma. An asthma attack can happen when you are exposed to an asthma trigger. An asthma trigger is something that can set off or worsen your asthma symptoms. Different triggers can cause different types of asthma: Allergic asthma is caused by allergens. Allergens are substances that cause an allergic reaction. They can include Dust mites Mold Pets Pollen from grass, trees, and weeds Waste from pests such as cockroaches and mice Nonallergic asthma is caused by triggers that are not allergens, such as Breathing in cold air Certain medicines Household chemicals Infections such as colds and the flu Outdoor air pollution Tobacco smoke Occupational asthma is caused by breathing in chemicals or industrial dusts at work Exercise-induced asthma happens during physical exercise, especially when the air is dry Asthma triggers may be different for each person and can change over time. Who is at risk for asthma? Asthma affects people of all ages, but it often starts during childhood. Certain factors can raise your risk of having asthma: Being exposed to secondhand smoke when your mother is pregnant with you or when you are a small child Being exposed to certain substances at work, such as chemical irritants or industrial dusts Genetics and family history. You are more likely to have asthma if one of your parents has it, especially if it's your mother. Race or ethnicity. Black and African Americans and Puerto Ricans are at higher risk of asthma than people of other races or ethnicities. Having other diseases or conditions such as obesity and allergies Often having viral respiratory infections as a young child Sex. In children, asthma is more common in boys. In teens and adults, it is more common in women. What are the symptoms of asthma? The symptoms of asthma include: Chest tightness Coughing, especially at night or early morning Shortness of breath Wheezing, which causes a whistling sound when you breathe out These symptoms can range from mild to severe. You may have them every day or only once in a while. When you are having an asthma attack, your symptoms get much worse. The attacks may come on gradually or suddenly. Sometimes they can be life-threatening. They are more common in people who have severe asthma. If you are having asthma attacks, you may need a change in your treatment. How is asthma diagnosed? Your health care provider may use many tools to diagnose asthma: Physical exam Medical history Lung function tests, including spirometry, to test how well your lungs work Tests to measure how your airways react to specific exposures. During this test, you inhale different concentrations of allergens or medicines that may tighten the muscles in your airways. Spirometry is done before and after the test. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) tests to measure how fast you can blow air out using maximum effort Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) tests to measure levels of nitric oxide in your breath when you breathe out. High levels of nitric oxide may mean that your lungs are inflamed. Allergy skin or blood tests, if you have a history of allergies. These tests check which allergens cause a reaction from your immune system. What are the treatments for asthma? If you have asthma, you will work with your health care provider to create a treatment plan. The plan will include ways to manage your asthma symptoms and prevent asthma attacks. It will include: Strategies to avoid triggers. For example, if tobacco smoke is a trigger for you, you should not smoke or allow other people to smoke in your home or car. Short-term relief medicines, also called quick-relief medicines. They help prevent symptoms or relieve symptoms during an asthma attack. They include an inhaler to carry with you all the time. It may also include other types of medicines which work quickly to help open your airways. Control medicines. You take them every day to help prevent symptoms. They work by reducing airway inflammation and preventing narrowing of the airways. If you have a severe attack and the short-term relief medicines do not work, you will need emergency care. Your provider may adjust your treatment until asthma symptoms are controlled. Sometimes asthma is severe and cannot be controlled with other treatments. If you are an adult with uncontrolled asthma, in some cases your provider might suggest bronchial thermoplasty. This is a procedure that uses heat to shrink the smooth muscle in the lungs. Shrinking the muscle reduces your airway's ability to tighten and allows you to breathe more easily. The procedure has some risks, so it's important to discuss them with your provider.

MalaCards based summary: Asthma, also known as chronic obstructive asthma, is related to allergic asthma and childhood-onset asthma, and has symptoms including chest tightness, coughing and shortness of breath. An important gene associated with Asthma is IL13 (Interleukin 13), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Allograft rejection and Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 signaling. The drugs Cathine and Guaifenesin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include Lung, smooth muscle and bone marrow, and related phenotypes are asthma and bronchoconstriction

Disease Ontology 11 Asthma: A bronchial disease that is characterized by chronic inflammation and narrowing of the airways, which is caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. The disease has symptom recurring periods of wheezing (a whistling sound while breathing), has symptom chest tightness, has symptom shortness of breath, has symptom mucus production and has symptom coughing.

Nocturnal asthma: A chronic asthma that is characterized by significant decline in pulmonary function and increase of airway inflammation at night. During sleep, recumbent posture causes a reduction in the lung volumes, respiratory muscle tone, and lung compliance. The overnight physiological abnormalities include: increased airway inflammation and decreased steroid responsiveness, increased pulmonary capillary blood volume, functional differences in blood/air volume ratios and mechanical coupling of the parenchyma to the airways.

GARD: 19 "Asthma is a breathing disorder that affects the airways. People with this condition experience recurrent swelling and narrowing of the airways of the lungs which is associated with wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. Most affected people have episodes of symptoms (""Asthma attacks"") followed by symptom-free periods; however, some may experience persistent shortness of breath in between attacks. Asthma is considered a complex or multifactorial condition that is likely due to a combination of multiple genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Many people with Asthma have a personal or family history of allergies, such as hay fever or eczema. Having a family member with Asthma is associated with an increased risk of developing the condition."

Novus Biologicals: 54 Asthma is a chronic lung disease that causes inflammation, thickening and narrowing of airways, as well as an overproduction of mucus. More than 300 million people worldwide suffer from asthma. Asthma symptoms include wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing and tightness of the chest. Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is the key effector cytokine in asthma. IL-13 stimulates airway fibrosis via action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) on tumor transforming growth factor beta (TGN-beta), and also promotes epithelial damage, mucus production and an increased concentration of eosinophils. The inflammatory response characteristic of asthma is augmented by the production of IL-13 and other TH2 cytokines.

OMIM®: 57 Bronchial asthma is the most common chronic disease affecting children and young adults. It is a complex genetic disorder with a heterogeneous phenotype, largely attributed to the interactions among many genes and between these genes and the environment. Asthma-related traits include clinical symptoms of asthma, such as coughing, wheezing, and dyspnea; bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) as assessed by methacholine challenge test; serum IgE levels; atopy; and atopic dermatitis (Laitinen et al., 2001; Illig and Wjst, 2002; Pillai et al., 2006). See 147050 for information on the asthma-associated phenotype atopy. (600807) (Updated 08-Dec-2022)

PubMed Health : 63 Asthma: Asthma (AZ-ma) is a chronic (long-term) lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways. Asthma causes recurring periods of wheezing (a whistling sound when you breathe), chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. The coughing often occurs at night or early in the morning. Asthma affects people of all ages, but it most often starts during childhood. In the United States, more than 25 million people are known to have asthma. About 7 million of these people are children.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: 73 The most common chronic disease affecting children and young adults. It is a complex genetic disorder with a heterogeneous phenotype, largely attributed to the interactions among many genes and between these genes and the environment. It is characterized by recurrent attacks of paroxysmal dyspnea, with wheezing due to spasmodic contraction of the bronchi.

CDC: 2 Asthma is a disease that affects your lungs. It causes repeated episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and nighttime or early morning coughing. Asthma can be controlled by taking medicine and avoiding the triggers that can cause an attack. You must also remove the triggers in your environment that can make your asthma worse.

Wikipedia: 75 Asthma is a long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs. It is characterized by variable... more...

Related Diseases for Asthma

Diseases in the Asthma family:

Chronic Asthma Acute Asthma
Adult-Onset Severe Asthma

Diseases related to Asthma via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1763)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 allergic asthma 34.0 NPSR1 IL13 CCL11 ALOX5
2 childhood-onset asthma 33.7 NPSR1 IL13 CCL11 ADRB2
3 acute asthma 33.6 TNF IL13 CYSLTR1 CCL11 ADRB2
4 exercise-induced bronchoconstriction 33.5 IL13 CYSLTR1 ALOX5 ADRB2
5 chronic asthma 33.5 TNF IL13 CYSLTR1 CCL11 ADRB2
6 intrinsic asthma 33.4 TNF IL13 CYSLTR1 CCL11
7 allergic rhinitis 33.3 IL13 HNMT CCL11 ALOX5
8 dermatitis, atopic 33.2 TNF IL13 HLA-G CYSLTR1 CCL11
9 pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive 33.2 TNF MIR126 IL13 CCL11 ADRB2
10 intermittent asthma 33.2 IL13 CYSLTR1 CCL11 ADRB2
11 rhinitis 33.2 TNF IL13 CYSLTR1 CCL11
12 status asthmaticus 33.1 IL13 CCL11 ADRB2
13 allergic disease 33.0 TNF IL13 CCL11 ALOX5
14 persistent mild asthma 32.9 IL13 CYSLTR1 ALOX5
15 aspirin-induced respiratory disease 32.9 IL13 CYSLTR1 ALOX5
16 near-fatal asthma 32.9 IL13 ADRB2
17 common cold 32.9 TNF IL13 CCL11
18 respiratory failure 32.8 TNF MIR126 IL13 CYSLTR1 CCL11 ALOX5
19 dermatitis 32.7 TNF NPSR1 IL13 CCL11 CARD11
20 churg-strauss syndrome 32.7 TNF CYSLTR1 CCL11
21 bronchitis 32.6 TNF IL13 CCL11
22 urticaria 32.5 TNF IL13 HNMT CYSLTR1 ALOX5
23 hypereosinophilic syndrome 32.4 IL13 CCL11 ALOX5
24 proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome 1 32.4 TNF IL13 CCL11 ALOX5
25 food allergy 32.4 TNF IL13 HNMT CCL11
26 bronchiolitis 32.3 TNF IL13 CCL11
27 cystic fibrosis 32.2 TNF MUC7 IL13 CCL11 ALOX5 ADRB2
28 respiratory allergy 32.2 TNF IL13 CYSLTR1 CCL11
29 conjunctivitis 32.1 TNF IL13 CCL11
30 otitis media 31.8 TNF MUC7 IL13 CCL11
31 pulmonary eosinophilia 31.7 IL13 CYSLTR1 CCL11
32 inflammatory bowel disease 31.7 TNF PLA2G7 NPSR1 IL13 HLA-G CCL11
33 contact dermatitis 31.7 TNF IL13 CCL11
34 esophagitis 31.7 TNF IL13 CCL11
35 parasitic helminthiasis infectious disease 31.6 TNF IL13 CCL11
36 allergic conjunctivitis 31.6 TNF IL13 CCL11
37 bronchial disease 31.6 TNF MIR126 IL13 CYSLTR1 CCL11 ALOX5
38 adult respiratory distress syndrome 31.6 TNF PLA2G7 MIR126 ALOX5
39 allergic contact dermatitis 31.6 TNF IL13 CCL11
40 immune system disease 31.5 TNF MIR148A MIR126 IL13
41 angioedema 31.5 HNMT CYSLTR1 ALOX5
42 interstitial lung disease 2 31.4 TNF IL13 CCL11 ALOX5
43 type 1 diabetes mellitus 31.4 TNF PVT1 PLA2G7 ADRB2
44 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 31.4 TNF PLA2G7 MIR148A MIR126 IL13 CCL11
45 cardiovascular system disease 31.3 TNF PLA2G7 MIR126 ALOX5 ADRB2
46 myocardial infarction 31.3 TNF PLA2G7 MIR126 CCL11 ALOX5 ADRB2
47 vasomotor rhinitis 31.0 IL13 CCL11
48 lipid metabolism disorder 30.9 TNF PLA2G7 MIR148A MIR126 ADRB2
49 keratoconjunctivitis 30.9 TNF IL13 CCL11
50 type 2 diabetes mellitus 30.8 TNF PVT1 PLA2G7 MIR148A MIR126 CCL11

Comorbidity relations with Asthma via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Acute Cystitis Bronchitis
Familial Atrial Fibrillation Heart Disease
Hypertension, Essential Osteoporosis
Respiratory Failure Status Asthmaticus

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Asthma:



Diseases related to Asthma

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Asthma

Human phenotypes related to Asthma:

30
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 asthma 30 HP:0002099
2 bronchoconstriction 30 HP:4000007
3 airway hyperresponsiveness 30 HP:0032933

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
Resp:
asthma
airway hyperresponsiveness

Clinical features from OMIM®:

600807 (Updated 08-Dec-2022)

Symptoms:

11
  • chest tightness
  • coughing
  • shortness of breath
  • recurring periods of wheezing
  • mucus production

UMLS symptoms related to Asthma:


dyspnea; cyanosis; wheezing; snoring; coughing; sneezing; spasm; expiratory wheeze; labored breathing

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Asthma:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 immune system MP:0005387 9.73 ADRB2 ALOX5 BRCA2 CARD11 CCL11 CYSLTR1
2 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.23 CARD11 CCL11 CYSLTR1 IL13 MIR126 NPSR1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Asthma

PubMed Health treatment related to Asthma: 63

Asthma is a long-term disease that has no cure. The goal of asthma treatment is to control the disease. Good asthma control will: Prevent chronic and troublesome symptoms, such as coughing and shortness of breath Reduce your need for quick-relief medicines (see below) Help you maintain good lung function Let you maintain your normal activity level and sleep through the night Prevent asthma attacks that could result in an emergency room visit or hospital stay To control asthma , partner with your doctor to manage your asthma or your child's asthma. Children aged 10 or older—and younger children who are able—should take an active role in their asthma care. Taking an active role to control your asthma involves: Working with your doctor to treat other conditions that can interfere with asthma management. Avoiding things that worsen your asthma (asthma triggers). However, one trigger you should not avoid is physical activity. Physical activity is an important part of a healthy lifestyle. Talk with your doctor about medicines that can help you stay active. Working with your doctor and other health care providers to create and follow an asthma action plan. An asthma action plan gives guidance on taking your medicines properly, avoiding asthma triggers (except physical activity), tracking your level of asthma control, responding to worsening symptoms, and seeking emergency care when needed. Asthma is treated with two types of medicines: long-term control and quick-relief medicines. Long-term control medicines help reduce airway inflammation and prevent asthma symptoms . Quick-relief, or "rescue," medicines relieve asthma symptoms that may flare up. Your initial treatment will depend on the severity of your asthma . Followup asthma treatment will depend on how well your asthma action plan is controlling your symptoms and preventing asthma attacks. Your level of asthma control can vary over time and with changes in your home, school, or work environments. These changes can alter how often you're exposed to the factors that can worsen your asthma. Your doctor may need to increase your medicine if your asthma doesn't stay under control. On the other hand , if your asthma is well controlled for several months, your doctor may decrease your medicine. These adjustments to your medicine will help you maintain the best control possible with the least amount of medicine necessary. Asthma treatment for certain groups of people—such as children, pregnant women, or those for whom exercise brings on asthma symptoms —will be adjusted to meet their special needs.

Drugs for Asthma (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 568)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Cathine Approved, Experimental, Illicit, Vet_approved, Withdrawn Phase 4 14838-15-4, 492-39-7 131954576 4786 26934
2
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 93-14-1 3516
3
Cisatracurium Approved, Investigational Phase 4 96946-41-7 62887
4
Atracurium Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 64228-79-1 47319
5
Etomidate Approved Phase 4 33125-97-2 667484
6
Remifentanil Approved Phase 4 132875-61-7 60815
7
Montelukast Approved Phase 4 158966-92-8 5281040
8
Procaterol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 72332-33-3 688561 4916
9
Clarithromycin Approved Phase 4 81103-11-9 84029
10
Sorbitol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 69-65-8, 50-70-4 453 6251 5780
11
Ketotifen Approved Phase 4 34580-14-8, 34580-13-7 3827
12
Hydrocortisone succinate Approved Phase 4 2203-97-6 3643
13
Hydrocortisone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-03-3
14
Hydrocortisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-23-7 3640 5754
15
Cetirizine Approved Phase 4 83881-51-0 2678
16
Carbamazepine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 298-46-4 2554
17
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
18
Lamotrigine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 84057-84-1 3878
19
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
20
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 318-98-9, 525-66-6 62882 4946
21
Citalopram Approved Phase 4 59729-32-7, 59729-33-8 2771
22
Phenytoin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 57-41-0 1775
23
Erythromycin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 114-07-8 12560
24
Etidronic acid Approved Phase 4 2809-21-4, 7414-83-7 3305
25
Hyaluronic acid Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 9004-61-9 53477741
26
Fenoterol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 13392-18-2 3343
27
Oxcarbazepine Approved Phase 4 28721-07-5 34312
28
Varenicline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 249296-44-4 5310966
29
Zafirlukast Approved, Investigational Phase 4 107753-78-6 5717
30
Carvedilol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 72956-09-3 2585
31
Metoprolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 37350-58-6, 51384-51-1 4171
32
Terbutaline Approved Phase 4 23031-25-6 5403
33
Azithromycin Approved Phase 4 83905-01-5 447043
34
Ciclesonide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 126544-47-6, 141845-82-1 444033 6918155
35
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-45-6 774
36
Metronidazole Approved Phase 4 443-48-1, 69198-10-3 4173
37
Ipratropium Approved, Experimental Phase 4 22254-24-6, 60205-81-4 657309 3746
38
Racepinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 51-43-4, 329-65-7 838 5816
39
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 1177-87-3 3680
40
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 3003 5743
41
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 616-91-1 581 12035
42
Ancrod Approved, Investigational Phase 4 9046-56-4
43
Azelastine Approved Phase 4 58581-89-8 2267
44
Theophylline Approved Phase 4 58-55-9 2153
45
Ciprofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 85721-33-1, 93107-08-5 2764
46
Vancomycin Approved Phase 4 1404-90-6 14969
47
Zileuton Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Phase 4 111406-87-2 60490
48
Pimecrolimus Approved, Investigational Phase 4 137071-32-0 17753757 6509979
49
Lactitol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 585-86-4 157355
50
Calcitriol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 32222-06-3 5280453

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 4209)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 How to "Choosebetweenamab" for Severe Asthma, Comparing Treatment With Mepolizumab and Omalizumab for Patients With Severe Allergic and Eosinophilic Asthma. Unknown status NCT04585997 Phase 4 Mepolizumab;Omalizumab
2 Assessing Decision Maker Tools for Asthma: the Asthma APGAR Unknown status NCT01446315 Phase 4
3 Treatment Efficacy of Budesonide/Formoterol in Cough Variant Asthma and Typical Asthma Patients Unknown status NCT02934945 Phase 4 budesonide 160μg/formoterol 4.5μg
4 The Effect of Probiotics on Asthma Risk in Animal Laboratory Workers: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Unknown status NCT03021161 Phase 4 Probiotic Formula
5 Differences of Small Airways Function Between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease(COPD) and Asthma-copd Overlap(ACO) Unknown status NCT03563001 Phase 4 Budesonide(160ug) and Formoterol(4.5ug) bid
6 Does a Low Exhaled Nitric Oxide Level Exclude a Clinical Benefit From Inhaled Corticosteroids in Suspected Asthma: A Randomised, Placebo Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02771717 Phase 4 Budesonide (Pulmicort);Placebo - dummy inhaler
7 A Pilot Efficacy Study of Inhaled Albuterol Delivered With Akita Breath Control and Pari Nebulization for the Treatment of Adults With Moderate Asthma Unknown status NCT00385359 Phase 4 Albuterol
8 Effect of Vitamin d Supplementation on the Control of Persistent Asthma in Children at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa Unknown status NCT02053402 Phase 4 Vitamin D
9 The RECONSTRUCT Study - Reconstructing Disease Mechanisms in Asthma Unknown status NCT03034005 Phase 4 Budesonide
10 Evaluation of Long-term Clinical Efficacy of House Dust Mite Immunotherapy in Children With Bronchial Asthma Unknown status NCT00496574 Phase 4
11 Asthma and Vitamin D (a Clinical Pilot Study) Unknown status NCT00712205 Phase 4 Placebo;Calcitriol
12 Efficacy of Bronchial Thermoplasty in Korean Patients With Severe Asthma Unknown status NCT02031263 Phase 4
13 Efficacy and Safety of LAIS® Mites Sublingual Tablets in Patients Aged Over 60 Years Suffering From House Dust Mite-induced Allergic Rhino-conjunctivitis With/Without Asthma Unknown status NCT02277483 Phase 4 LAIS®
14 Assessment of Utility of Exhaled Nitric Oxide Measurement for Treatment Monitoring in Children With Asthma Unknown status NCT00500253 Phase 4
15 A Pragmatic Study to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of Mepolizumab in Severe Uncontrolled Asthma in Brazil Unknown status NCT04228588 Phase 4 Mepolizumab 100 MG [Nucala]
16 Efficacy of Nebulized Magnesium Sulfate as an Adjunct to Standard Therapy in Asthma Exacerbation. A Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02584738 Phase 4 Nebulized Magnesium Sulfate;Nebulized isotonic saline;Nebulized Salbutamol;Ipratropium bromide;Methylprednisolone or Prednisolone
17 Evaluation of Early Clinical and Immunological Efficacy of Specific Immunotherapy to Dust Mites in Children With Asthma Unknown status NCT00496561 Phase 4
18 Treatment of Acute Asthma in ER With Combination of Systemic Steroids and Inhaled Steroids Unknown status NCT00397267 Phase 4 inhalation of corticosteroids
19 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Parallel Group, Placebo-controlled Study to Compare the Efficacy and Safety of Activation Energy Serum (AES) Versus Placebo on Patients With Mild to Moderate Persistent Asthma. Unknown status NCT01939951 Phase 4
20 Comparison Efficacy in Patients With Asthma Using Foster MDI and Relvar Medications Unknown status NCT04185129 Phase 4 Foster
21 Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Levels of Plasma Inflammatory Factor in Asthma Patients Undergoing General Anesthesia-single Center,Randomized,Double-blind,Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02289391 Phase 4 Anesthesia induction;Anesthesia maintenance;Assisted anesthesia
22 Blood and Urinary Concentrations of Terbutaline in Asthmatics and Elite Athletes With Asthma: Comparison Between Inhalation vs. Oral Administration. Unknown status NCT00914797 Phase 4 inhaled and oral terbutaline
23 Inflammatory, Functional and Image Composite Measure to Define Asthma Control Unknown status NCT00597064 Phase 4 prednisone
24 Assessment of Effectiveness and Safety of Annual Sublingual Immunotherapy in Children With Bronchial Asthma and/or Allergic Rhinitis Allergic to House Dust Mites Unknown status NCT01052610 Phase 4 sublingual house dust mites allergen extract;placebo in sublingual applicator
25 Blood and Urinary Concentrations of Inhaled Formoterol in Asthmatic Subjects and Elite Athletes With Asthma Unknown status NCT00914654 Phase 4 inhaled formoterol
26 Impact of Benralizumab Treatment on Circulating Dendritic Cells in Patients With Eosinophilic Asthma Unknown status NCT03652376 Phase 4 Benralizumab
27 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Therapy ( Lansoprazole; Solutab) in the Management of Childhood Asthma Unknown status NCT00237068 Phase 4 Lansoprazole; Solutab
28 A Pilot Study to Assess the Incidence of Local Oropharyngeal and Laryngeal Adverse Effects of Advair DISKUS 250/50 Mcg BID as Assessed by the Development of Laryngitis and Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Adults With Mild Persistent Asthma Unknown status NCT00235053 Phase 4 fluticasone/salmeterol DISKUS 250/50
29 Blood and Urinary Concentrations of Inhaled Salmeterol in Asthmatic Subjects and Elite Athletes With Asthma. Unknown status NCT00914901 Phase 4 inhaled salmeterol
30 Comparing Rapid Bronchodilatory Effect of Formoterol and Salbutamol in Children Between 5-15 Years With Mild to Moderate Acute Exacerbation of Asthma- A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT00900874 Phase 4 salbutamol;Formoterol
31 A Pilot Study Involving an Asthma Management Program for Inner-city Early Head Start Children Unknown status NCT00624429 Phase 4 Budesonide respules
32 Mechanisms of Adverse Effects of Long-Acting Beta-Agonists in Asthma Unknown status NCT04503460 Phase 4 Salmeterol Xinafoate;Salmeterol Fluticasone
33 A Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Different Stepping-down Therapy for Childhood Asthma Unknown status NCT04953741 Phase 4 Fluticasone propionate inhaled aerosol
34 Randomised, Open-label, Parallel-group Study of Therapeutic Effect of Leukotriene Modulator Montelukast Alone or Combined With Inhaled Corticosteroid on Cough Variant Asthma Unknown status NCT01404013 Phase 4 ICS/LABA;Montelukast;ICS/LABA and Montelukast
35 Inhaler Technique Education in Elderly Patients With Asthma or COPD: Impact on Disease Exacerbations - a Protocol for a Single-blinded Randomised Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT03449316 Phase 4
36 A Multicentered, Double-blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Procaterol Hydrochloride With Inhaled Glucocorticoid in Treatment Patients With Cough Variant Asthma (CVA) Unknown status NCT01170429 Phase 4 Procaterol hydrochloride;Meptin placebo
37 Randomised, Double-blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study of Therapeutic Effect of Su-Huang Antitussive Capsule on Cough Variant Asthma(CVA) Unknown status NCT01584804 Phase 4 Su-Huang antitussive capsule;Sugar pill
38 Comparison of Different Methodologies Assessing Airway Responsiveness and Investigation of Treatment Efficacy of Budesonide /Formoterol in Asthmatics Unknown status NCT02574975 Phase 4 methacholine;adenosine monophosphate;leukotriene D4;budesonide /formoterol
39 Randomised, Open-label, Parallel-group Study of the Response to Bronchodilator Treatment in Subjects With Eosinophilic Bronchitis and the Mechanism of Varied Responses to Bronchodilator Treatment. Unknown status NCT02002754 Phase 4 Bambuterol Hydrochloride tablets
40 Onset of Action of Advair HFA 115/21 in Comparison to Symbicort pMDI 160/4.5 Measured by Impulse Oscillometry, IOS. Unknown status NCT00867737 Phase 4 Advair HFA MDI 115/21;Symbicort 160/4.5 pMDI
41 Efficacy and Safety of Sublingual Immunotherapy With House Dust Mite Extract in Asthmatic Children: A Double-Blind, Randomized, and Placebo-Controlled Study Unknown status NCT00172341 Phase 4 Staloral TM
42 Extra-fine Formoterol/Beclomethasone in the Treatment of Asthmatic Crisis Unknown status NCT02345993 Phase 4 Extra fine Formoterol/Beclomethasone
43 mRNA Expression as a Biomarker of Xolair (Omalizumab) Response Unknown status NCT01584687 Phase 4
44 The Effects of Xolair (Omalizumab) on Airway Hyperresponsiveness Unknown status NCT00208234 Phase 4 Omalizumab;Placebo for Omalizumab;omalizumab
45 Improving Inhaler Treatment and Small Airways Assessment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Unknown status NCT01721291 Phase 4 SALBUTAMOL
46 Does the Use of a New Written Action Plan Increase Short-term Adherence to Prescribed Medication and Asthma Control in Children Treated for an Asthma Attack in the Emergency Department: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Completed NCT00381355 Phase 4
47 Inhaled Steroid Treatment As Regular Therapy in Early Asthma. A Study on the Effect of Early Intervention With Long-Term Inhaled Budesonide (Pulmicort Turbuhaler ® ) in Newly Diagnosed Asthma. Completed NCT00641914 Phase 4 budesonide;Placebo
48 CONNected Electronic Inhalers Asthma Control Trial 1 ("CONNECT 1"), a 12-Week Treatment, Multicenter, Open-Label, Randomized, Parallel Group Comparison, Feasibility Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Albuterol eMDPI Digital System, to Optimize Outcomes in Patients at Least 13 Years of Age or Older With Asthma Completed NCT03890666 Phase 4 Albuterol eMDPI DS;albuterol
49 An Open-Label Randomized, Multicenter Study in Patients With Asthma to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Alvesco® (Ciclesonide) Compared to Asthma Usual Care in a Primary Practice Setting Completed NCT00404547 Phase 4 Ciclesonide;Usual Care Inhaled Glucocorticosteroids
50 CONNected Electronic Inhalers Asthma Control Trial 2 ("CONNECT 2"), a 24-Week Treatment, Multicenter, Open-Label, Randomized, Parallel Group Comparison, Feasibility Study of Standard of Care Treatment Versus the eMDPI Digital System, to Optimize Outcomes in Patients at Least 13 Years of Age or Older With Asthma Completed NCT04677959 Phase 4 Fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (FS);Albuterol;Standard of Care Asthma Medication;Standard of Care Rescue Medication

Search NIH Clinical Center for Asthma

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


Albuterol
ALBUTEROL SO4 PWDR
Albuterol Sulfate
Aminophylline
aminophylline dihydrate
AMINOPHYLLINE PWDR
ANTIASTHMA,ANTILEUKOTRIENES
ANTIASTHMA,OTHER
ANTIASTHMA/BRONCHODILATORS
ANTI-INFLAMMATORIES,INHALATION
bitolterol
bitolterol mesylate
BRONCHODILATORS,ANTICHOLINERGIC
BRONCHODILATORS,SYMPATHOMIMETIC,INHALATION
BRONCHODILATORS,SYMPATHOMIMETIC,ORAL
BRONCHODILATORS,XANTHINE-DERIVATIVE
Cromolyn
Cromolyn Sodium
Ephedra vulgaris preparation
Ephedrine
Ephedrine hydrochloride
Ephedrine sulfate
EPHEDRINE TANNATE
formoterol
formoterol fumarate
formoterol fumarate dihydrate
iodinated glycerol
Isoetharine
Isoetharine hydrochloride
Isoetharine Mesylate
metaproterenol
Metaproterenol Sulfate
montelukast
montelukast sodium
oxtriphylline
pirbuterol
Pirbuterol acetate
Pseudoephedrine
Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride
Pseudoephedrine sulfate
salmeterol
Salmeterol xinafoate
Terbutaline
Terbutaline Sulfate
Theophylline
Theophylline anhydrous
Theophylline calcium salicylate
Theophylline Sodium Glycinate
zafirlukast
zileuton

Cell-based therapeutics:


LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Asthma cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.
Stem-cell-based therapeutic approaches for Asthma:
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for severe refractory asthma
Embryonic/Adult Cultured Cells Related to Asthma:
Mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (family) PMIDs: 20801416 21653527

Cochrane evidence based reviews: asthma

Genetic Tests for Asthma

Genetic tests related to Asthma:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Asthma 28

Anatomical Context for Asthma

Organs/tissues related to Asthma:

MalaCards : Lung, Smooth Muscle, Bone Marrow, Skin, T Cells, Adrenal Cortex, Bronchial Epithelium
LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Asthma:
# Tissue Anatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 Lung Trachea Airway Smooth Muscle Cells Affected by disease, potential therapeutic candidate

Publications for Asthma

Articles related to Asthma:

(show top 50) (show all 53376)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Association of tumor necrosis factor polymorphisms with asthma and serum total IgE. 53 62 57 5
14681301 2004
2
A polymorphism in the human UGRP1 gene promoter that regulates transcription is associated with an increased risk of asthma. 53 62 57 5
11813133 2002
3
Gene-gene interaction in asthma: IL4RA and IL13 in a Dutch population with asthma. 53 62 57 5
11709756 2002
4
Relation between tumour necrosis factor polymorphism TNFalpha-308 and risk of asthma. 53 62 57 5
11896460 2002
5
Identification and association of polymorphisms in the interleukin-13 gene with asthma and atopy in a Dutch population. 53 62 57 5
11588017 2001
6
Genetic variants of IL-13 signalling and human asthma and atopy. 53 62 57 5
10699178 2000
7
A hexanucleotide repeat upstream of eotaxin gene promoter is associated with asthma, serum total IgE and plasma eotaxin levels. 53 57 5
17220216 2007
8
An association between asthma and TNF-308G/A polymorphism: meta-analysis. 53 57 5
16865291 2006
9
Genetic polymorphism of MUC7: allele frequencies and association with asthma. 62 57 5
11378823 2001
10
MUC7 haplotype analysis: results from a longitudinal birth cohort support protective effect of the MUC7*5 allele on respiratory function. 57 5
16759176 2006
11
Meta-analysis of the association of beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms with asthma phenotypes. 53 62 5
15867853 2005
12
Sequence variants of the gene encoding chemoattractant receptor expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) are associated with asthma and differentially influence mRNA stability. 53 62 57
15345705 2004
13
Chromosome 12q harbors multiple genetic loci related to asthma and asthma-related phenotypes. 53 62 57
12913068 2003
14
Association of Eotaxin gene family with asthma and serum total IgE. 53 62 57
12761043 2003
15
Association of the ADAM33 gene with asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. 53 62 57
12110844 2002
16
STAT6 as an asthma candidate gene: polymorphism-screening, association and haplotype analysis in a Caucasian sib-pair study. 53 62 57
11912176 2002
17
TH2 cytokine-associated transcription factors in atopic and nonatopic asthma: evidence for differential signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 expression. 53 62 57
11295643 2001
18
Familial aggregation and heritability of asthma-associated quantitative traits in a population-based sample of nuclear families. 53 62 57
11093275 2000
19
Identification of complement factor 5 as a susceptibility locus for experimental allergic asthma. 53 62 57
10973279 2000
20
The Ile198Thr and Ala379Val variants of plasmatic PAF-acetylhydrolase impair catalytical activities and are associated with atopy and asthma. 53 62 57
10733466 2000
21
Histamine N-methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: association of a common functional polymorphism with asthma. 53 62 5
10803682 2000
22
Pharmacogenetic association between ALOX5 promoter genotype and the response to anti-asthma treatment. 53 62 5
10369259 1999
23
Interleukin 9: a candidate gene for asthma. 53 62 57
9371819 1997
24
Evidence for linkage between asthma/atopy in childhood and chromosome 5q31-q33 in a Japanese population. 53 62 57
9372650 1997
25
Genetic polymorphisms of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor in nocturnal and nonnocturnal asthma. Evidence that Gly16 correlates with the nocturnal phenotype. 53 62 5
7706471 1995
26
A large-scale, consortium-based genomewide association study of asthma. 62 57
20860503 2010
27
Variants of DENND1B associated with asthma in children. 62 57
20032318 2010
28
PRKCA: a positional candidate gene for body mass index and asthma. 62 57
19576566 2009
29
An african-specific functional polymorphism in KCNMB1 shows sex-specific association with asthma severity. 62 57
18535015 2008
30
Allele-specific targeting of microRNAs to HLA-G and risk of asthma. 53 62 46
17847008 2007
31
A GABAergic system in airway epithelium is essential for mucus overproduction in asthma. 62 57
17589520 2007
32
IRAK-M is involved in the pathogenesis of early-onset persistent asthma. 62 57
17503328 2007
33
Significant linkage to airway responsiveness on chromosome 12q24 in families of children with asthma in Costa Rica. 62 57
17024367 2007
34
Protectin D1 is generated in asthma and dampens airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. 62 57
17182589 2007
35
The adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein aP2 is required in allergic airway inflammation. 53 57
16841093 2006
36
Beta 2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms: pharmacogenetic response to bronchodilator among African American asthmatics. 53 5
16596417 2006
37
A genome-wide search for linkage to asthma phenotypes in the genetics of asthma international network families: evidence for a major susceptibility locus on chromosome 2p. 62 57
16391567 2006
38
A testing framework for identifying susceptibility genes in the presence of epistasis. 53 57
16385446 2006
39
Genetic pleiotropy between asthma and obesity in a community-based sample of twins. 62 57
16337451 2005
40
Protection from experimental asthma by an endogenous bronchodilator. 62 57
15919956 2005
41
NOD1 variation, immunoglobulin E and asthma. 62 57
15718249 2005
42
IL-13 R130Q, a common variant associated with allergy and asthma, enhances effector mechanisms essential for human allergic inflammation. 62 5
15711639 2005
43
Fine mapping and positional candidate studies identify HLA-G as an asthma susceptibility gene on chromosome 6p21. 62 57
15611928 2005
44
Lack of association of histamine-N-methyltransferase (HNMT) polymorphisms with asthma in the Indian population. 53 5
16205835 2005
45
Use of regularly scheduled albuterol treatment in asthma: genotype-stratified, randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over trial. 62 5
15500895 2004
46
Defining a link with asthma in mice congenitally deficient in eosinophils. 62 57
15375267 2004
47
Variation in dinucleotide (GT) repeat sequence in the first exon of the STAT6 gene is associated with atopic asthma and differentially regulates the promoter activity in vitro. 62 57
15235025 2004
48
Positional cloning of a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 13q14 that influences immunoglobulin E levels and asthma. 62 57
12754510 2003
49
Involvement of PTEN in airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in bronchial asthma. 62 57
12671058 2003
50
A major susceptibility gene for asthma maps to chromosome 14q24. 62 57
12119603 2002

Variations for Asthma

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Asthma:

5 (show all 14)
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 MUC7 NM_152291.3(MUC7):c.710_778del (p.Ala237_Ala259del) DEL Protective
777971 rs1560560839 GRCh37: 4:71347139-71347207
GRCh38: 4:70481422-70481490
2 BRCA2 NM_000059.4(BRCA2):c.4936_4939del (p.Glu1646fs) DEL Pathogenic
37935 rs80359473 GRCh37: 13:32913425-32913428
GRCh38: 13:32339288-32339291
3 CARD11 NM_032415.7(CARD11):c.367G>A (p.Gly123Ser) SNV Pathogenic
48648 rs387907352 GRCh37: 7:2984163-2984163
GRCh38: 7:2944529-2944529
4 IL13 NM_001354991.2(IL13):c.-93+487C>T SNV Risk Factor
14672 GRCh37: 5:131992809-131992809
GRCh38: 5:132657117-132657117
5 IL13 NM_002188.3(IL13):c.431A>G (p.Gln144Arg) SNV Risk Factor
14673 rs20541 GRCh37: 5:131995964-131995964
GRCh38: 5:132660272-132660272
6 ADRB2 NM_000024.6(ADRB2):c.46= (p.Gly16=) SNV Risk Factor
17742 rs1042713 GRCh37: 5:148206440-148206440
GRCh38: 5:148826877-148826877
7 TNF NM_000594.3(TNF):c.-488G>A SNV Risk Factor
225964 rs1800629 GRCh37: 6:31543031-31543031
GRCh38: 6:31575254-31575254
8 HNMT NM_006895.3(HNMT):c.314C>T (p.Thr105Ile) SNV Risk Factor
5160 rs11558538 GRCh37: 2:138759649-138759649
GRCh38: 2:138002079-138002079
9 CCL11 CCL11, (GAAGGA)n VAR Risk Factor
8368 GRCh37:
GRCh38:
10 FKBP5 NM_004117.4(FKBP5):c.106-2332A>C SNV Risk Factor
638564 rs1581842283 GRCh37: 6:35607267-35607267
GRCh38: 6:35639490-35639490
11 ALOX5 NG_011437.1:g.4922GGGGGC[2] MICROSAT Drug Response
14446 rs59439148 GRCh37: 10:45869548-45869571
GRCh38: 10:45374100-45374123
12 SCGB3A2 NC_000005.10:g.147878599G>A SNV Risk Factor
4253 GRCh37: 5:147258162-147258162
GRCh38: 5:147878599-147878599
13 SCGB1A1 NM_003357.5(SCGB1A1):c.-38= SNV Uncertain Significance
12253 rs41364547 GRCh37: 11:62186530-62186530
GRCh38: 11:62419058-62419058
14 IL12B IL12B, 4237G-A SNV Uncertain Significance
14055 GRCh37:
GRCh38:

Copy number variations for Asthma from CNVD:

6 (show all 24)
# CNVD ID Chromosome Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 14274 1 106371568 116327195 Gain Asthma
2 14309 1 107000000 111600000 Deletion GSTM1 Asthma
3 18540 1 146397003 146438291 Deletion NBPF1 Asthma
4 18541 1 146397003 146438291 Deletion NBPF10 Asthma
5 18542 1 146397003 146438291 Deletion NBPF12 Asthma
6 18543 1 146397003 146438291 Deletion NBPF14 Asthma
7 18544 1 146397003 146438291 Deletion PPIAL4A Asthma
8 25946 1 195089653 195163711 Gain Asthma
9 54168 11 38249818 38282959 Loss Asthma
10 57122 11 63100000 76700000 Deletion GSTP1 Asthma
11 73905 12 98433426 98580660 Loss Asthma
12 98110 16 15387380 16197033 Gain Asthma
13 102400 16 54000488 54351802 Gain Asthma
14 113189 17 42008822 42137359 Deletion ARL17B Asthma
15 113190 17 42008822 42137359 Deletion ARL17A Asthma
16 113191 17 42008822 42137359 Deletion ARL17B Asthma
17 113192 17 42008822 42137359 Deletion ARL17A Asthma
18 113193 17 42008822 42137359 Deletion NSF Asthma
19 121615 18 45282024 47194369 Gain Asthma
20 147144 2 60591731 60750244 Gain Asthma
21 161118 22 17295347 17792353 Loss Asthma
22 161119 22 17295963 19782237 Loss Asthma
23 162464 22 21800000 24300000 Deletion GSTT1 Asthma
24 184674 4 179040624 179102293 Gain Asthma

Expression for Asthma

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Asthma.

Pathways for Asthma

Pathways related to Asthma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.4 TNF IL13 HLA-G
2 10.96 TNF IL13 CCL11 ALOX5
3 10.93 TNF IL13 CCL11
4 10.06 CYSLTR1 ALOX5

GO Terms for Asthma

Cellular components related to Asthma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.55 TNF SCGB3A2 PLA2G7 MIR152 MIR148B MIR148A

Biological processes related to Asthma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 negative regulation of vascular wound healing GO:0061044 9.46 TNF ALOX5
2 miRNA-mediated gene silencing by inhibition of translation GO:0035278 9.43 MIR148B MIR148A MIR126
3 lipid oxidation GO:0034440 9.26 PLA2G7 ALOX5
4 positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to arterial endothelial cell GO:1904999 8.92 TNF ALOX5

Molecular functions related to Asthma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 mRNA base-pairing translational repressor activity GO:1903231 8.92 MIR152 MIR148B MIR148A MIR126

Sources for Asthma

2 CDC
6 CNVD
8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
19 GARD
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HMDB
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 LifeMap
38 LOVD
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
52 NINDS
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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