ALP
MCID: ATH013
MIFTS: 55

Atherosclerosis Susceptibility (ALP)

Categories: Cardiovascular diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Atherosclerosis Susceptibility

MalaCards integrated aliases for Atherosclerosis Susceptibility:

Name: Atherosclerosis Susceptibility 57 13
Atherosclerosis 57 38 12 76 29 55 43 44 15 63 73
Atherosclerosis, Susceptibility to 57 6
Atherogenic Lipoprotein Phenotype; Alp 57
Atherogenic Lipoprotein Phenotype 57
Arteriosclerosis 73
Aths 57
Alp 57

Characteristics:

OMIM:

57
Inheritance:
autosomal dominant
? same as ldlr


HPO:

32
atherosclerosis susceptibility:
Inheritance autosomal dominant inheritance


Classifications:



External Ids:

OMIM 57 108725
Disease Ontology 12 DOID:1936
ICD10 33 I25.1 I70
ICD9CM 35 440
MeSH 44 D050197
MedGen 42 C1531719
SNOMED-CT via HPO 69 263681008 22298006 190785000
UMLS 73 C0004153

Summaries for Atherosclerosis Susceptibility

MedlinePlus : 43 Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries. Plaque is a sticky substance made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. Over time, plaque hardens and narrows your arteries. That limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your body. Atherosclerosis can lead to serious problems, including Coronary artery disease. These arteries supply blood to your heart. When they are blocked, you can suffer angina or a heart attack. Carotid artery disease. These arteries supply blood to your brain. When they are blocked you can suffer a stroke. Peripheral arterial disease. These arteries are in your arms, legs and pelvis. When they are blocked, you can suffer from numbness, pain and sometimes infections. Atherosclerosis usually doesn't cause symptoms until it severely narrows or totally blocks an artery. Many people don't know they have it until they have a medical emergency. A physical exam, imaging, and other diagnostic tests can tell if you have it. Medicines can slow the progress of plaque buildup. Your doctor may also recommend procedures such as angioplasty to open the arteries, or surgery on the coronary or carotid arteries. Lifestyle changes can also help. These include following a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, quitting smoking, and managing stress. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

MalaCards based summary : Atherosclerosis Susceptibility, also known as atherosclerosis, is related to cerebral atherosclerosis and peripheral vascular disease, and has symptoms including angina pectoris, chest pain and edema. An important gene associated with Atherosclerosis Susceptibility is CDKN2B-AS1 (CDKN2B Antisense RNA 1
abundantly expressed in atherosclerotic lesions.
Dysfunction Pattern: Expression [differentially expressed]), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins and Interleukin-4 and 13 signaling. The drugs insulin and Insulin, Globin Zinc have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include Endothelium and Heart, and related phenotypes are myocardial infarction and hypertriglyceridemia

OMIM : 57 The atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype (ALP) is a common heritable trait characterized by a preponderance of small, dense low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles (subclass pattern B), increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, reduction in high density lipoprotein, and a 3-fold increased risk of myocardial infarction (summary by Nishina et al., 1992). The so-called atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype was shown by Austin et al. (1988) to be independently associated with an increased risk for coronary artery disease. Allayee et al. (1998) concluded, furthermore, that there is a genetically based association between familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL; 144250) and small, dense LDL particles and that the genetic determinants for LDL particle size are shared, at least in part, among FCHL families and the more general population at risk for coronary artery disease. Juo et al. (1998) concluded from a bivariate segregation analysis of small, dense LDL particles and elevated apolipoprotein B levels (APOB; 107730), which are commonly found together in members of FCHL families, that the 2 traits share a common major gene plus individual polygenic components. The common major gene was estimated to explain 37% of the variance of adjusted LDL particle size and 23% of the variance of adjusted apoB levels. (108725)

PubMed Health : 63 About atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis (ath-er-o-skler-O-sis) is a disease in which plaque (plak) builds up inside your arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to your heart and other parts of your body.Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. Over time, plaque hardens and narrows your arteries. This limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs and other parts of your body.Atherosclerosis can lead to serious problems, including heart attack, stroke, or even death.

Wikipedia : 76 Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.... more...

Related Diseases for Atherosclerosis Susceptibility

Diseases related to Atherosclerosis Susceptibility via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 142)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cerebral atherosclerosis 34.9 APOA1 APOE
2 peripheral vascular disease 32.3 APOA1 APOB CRP VCAM1
3 coronary heart disease 1 31.8 APOA1 APOB APOE CRP LDLR PON1
4 hyperlipidemia, familial combined 31.3 APOA1 APOB APOE
5 xanthomatosis 30.7 APOB APOE LDLR
6 aortic atherosclerosis 30.7 APOE LDLR PON1
7 periodontitis 30.6 CCL2 CDKN2B-AS1 CRP TLR4
8 peripheral artery disease 30.4 APOB CCL2 CDKN2B-AS1 CRP VCAM1
9 rheumatoid arthritis 30.3 CCL2 CRP H19 TLR4 VCAM1
10 gastric cancer 30.1 CDKN2B-AS1 H19 HULC TP53COR1 TUG1
11 diabetes mellitus 30.0 APOA1 APOB CDKN2B-AS1 CRP PON1 TUG1
12 diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent 29.7 APOA1 APOB APOE CCL2 CDKN2B-AS1 CRP
13 arteries, anomalies of 29.6 APOA1 APOB APOE CCL2 CRP LDLR
14 myocardial infarction 29.0 APOA1 APOB APOE CCL2 CDKN2B-AS1 CRP
15 coronary artery anomaly 29.0 APOA1 APOB APOE CCL2 CDKN2B-AS1 CRP
16 autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome 12.1
17 ras-associated autoimmune leukoproliferative disorder 11.6
18 caspase 8 deficiency 11.6
19 autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, type v 11.5
20 autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome due to ctla4 haploinsuffiency 11.1
21 xanthoma disseminatum 11.1 APOB APOE
22 bile duct carcinoma 11.0
23 familial lcat deficiency 11.0 APOA1 APOE
24 generalized atherosclerosis 11.0 APOE CRP
25 hypercholesterolemia, autosomal dominant, type b 10.9 APOB APOE LDLR
26 defective apolipoprotein b-100 10.9 APOB APOE LDLR
27 leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 3 10.9 APOA1 APOB APOE
28 hyperlipoproteinemia, type iv 10.9 APOA1 APOB APOE
29 carotid stenosis 10.9 APOE CDKN2B-AS1 CRP
30 lipoprotein glomerulopathy 10.9 APOB APOE LDLR
31 hypolipoproteinemia 10.9 APOA1 APOB APOE
32 homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia 10.9 APOB APOE LDLR
33 uterine anomalies 10.9 CRP ESR1 TLR4
34 abetalipoproteinemia 10.9 APOA1 APOB APOE
35 fetal macrosomia 10.9 APOA1 APOB H19
36 hypophosphatemic rickets, autosomal dominant 10.9
37 autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, type iii 10.9
38 hepatic lipase deficiency 10.8 APOA1 APOE
39 aortic valve disease 1 10.8 APOB CRP H19
40 pelvic inflammatory disease 10.8 CCL2 CRP TLR4
41 gallbladder disease 10.8 APOA1 APOB APOE
42 tangier disease 10.8 APOA1 APOB APOE
43 prostate disease 10.8 CDKN2B-AS1 H19
44 osteogenic sarcoma 10.8 CDKN2B-AS1 H19 HULC TUG1
45 pyelonephritis 10.8 CCL2 CRP TLR4
46 chorioamnionitis 10.8 CCL2 CRP TLR4
47 hypoalphalipoproteinemia, primary 10.8 APOA1 APOB LDLR
48 hypertriglyceridemia, familial 10.8 APOA1 APOB LDLR
49 pleurisy 10.8 ALOX5 CCL2 CRP
50 hepatoblastoma 10.7 APOA1 H19 TUG1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Atherosclerosis Susceptibility:



Diseases related to Atherosclerosis Susceptibility

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Atherosclerosis Susceptibility

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

57
Cardiac:
increased myocardial infarction risk

Lab:
preponderance of small, dense low density lipoprotein (ldl) particles (subclass pattern b)
increased triglyceride-rich lipoproteins
reduced high density lipoprotein


Clinical features from OMIM:

108725

Human phenotypes related to Atherosclerosis Susceptibility:

32
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 myocardial infarction 32 HP:0001658
2 hypertriglyceridemia 32 HP:0002155
3 decreased hdl cholesterol concentration 32 HP:0003233

UMLS symptoms related to Atherosclerosis Susceptibility:


angina pectoris, chest pain, edema

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Atherosclerosis Susceptibility according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased free cholesterol GR00340-A-2 9.26 APOA1 APOB APOE LDLR
2 Increased LDL uptake GR00340-A-1 8.8 APOA1 APOE LDLR

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Atherosclerosis Susceptibility:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 9.32 ALOX5 APOA1 APOB APOE CRP ESR1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Atherosclerosis Susceptibility

PubMedHealth treatment related to Atherosclerosis Susceptibility: 63

Treatments for atherosclerosis may include lifestyle changes, medicines, and medical procedures or surgery.The goals of treatment include:Relieving symptomsReducing risk factors in an effort to slow or stop the buildup of plaqueLowering the risk of blood clots formingWidening or bypassing plaque-clogged arteriesPreventing atherosclerosis-related diseases

Drugs for Atherosclerosis Susceptibility (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):


# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 insulin Not Applicable
2 Insulin, Globin Zinc Not Applicable
3 Liver Extracts Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 How Does Dietary Carbohydrate Influence the Formation of an Atherogenic Lipoprotein Phenotype (ALP)? Completed NCT01790984 Not Applicable
2 Genetic Mapping of Atherogenic Lipoprotein Phenotypes Completed NCT00005465
3 Genetic Epidemiology of Hypertriglyceridemia Completed NCT00005368
4 Effects of Almond Intake on Atherogenic Lipoprotein Particles Completed NCT01792648 Not Applicable
5 Resistant Starch Insulin Sensitivity Trial Completed NCT01027325 Not Applicable
6 Lipids Profile in Subclinical Hypothyroidism Terminated NCT00962221
7 Lipids Profile in Primary Hyperparathyroidism Terminated NCT00961701

Search NIH Clinical Center for Atherosclerosis Susceptibility

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 73 / NDF-RT 51 :


Cochrane evidence based reviews: atherosclerosis

Genetic Tests for Atherosclerosis Susceptibility

Genetic tests related to Atherosclerosis Susceptibility:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Atherosclerosis 29

Anatomical Context for Atherosclerosis Susceptibility

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Atherosclerosis Susceptibility:

41
Heart, Testes, Lung, Kidney, Brain, Liver, Endothelial
LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Atherosclerosis Susceptibility:
# Tissue Anatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 Endothelium Arteries Arterial Endothelial Cells Affected by disease
2 Heart Coronary Capillary Plexus Affected by disease
3 Heart Coronary Vessels Affected by disease

Publications for Atherosclerosis Susceptibility

Articles related to Atherosclerosis Susceptibility:

(show all 34)
# Title Authors Year
1
Genetic analysis of a mouse cross implicates an anti-inflammatory gene in control of atherosclerosis susceptibility. ( 28116503 )
2017
2
KrA1ppel-Like Factor 4 Regulation of Cholesterol-25-Hydroxylase and Liver X Receptor Mitigates Atherosclerosis Susceptibility. ( 28794002 )
2017
3
The association of apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphisms with atherosclerosis susceptibility: a meta-analysis. ( 26005211 )
2016
4
The 9p21 Locus and its Potential Role in Atherosclerosis Susceptibility; Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Implications. ( 27356775 )
2016
5
Transmission of atherosclerosis susceptibility with gut microbial transplantation. ( 25550161 )
2015
6
Atherosclerosis Susceptibility in Mice Is Independent of the V1 Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene. ( 26564818 )
2015
7
Prolactin receptor antagonism uncouples lipids from atherosclerosis susceptibility. ( 25063756 )
2014
8
Genetic network identifies novel pathways contributing to atherosclerosis susceptibility in the innominate artery. ( 25115202 )
2014
9
Transcriptome analysis of genes regulated by cholesterol loading in two strains of mouse macrophages associates lysosome pathway and ER stress response with atherosclerosis susceptibility. ( 23705026 )
2013
10
Atherosclerosis susceptibility Loci identified in an extremely atherosclerosis-resistant mouse strain. ( 23938286 )
2013
11
Atherosclerosis-susceptible and atherosclerosis-resistant pigeon aortic cells express different genes in vivo. ( 24046414 )
2013
12
Sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in endothelium mediates hemodynamic-induced atherosclerosis susceptibility. ( 23838163 )
2013
13
Hyperglycemia in apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse strains with different atherosclerosis susceptibility. ( 22204493 )
2011
14
Characterization of Ath29, a major mouse atherosclerosis susceptibility locus, and identification of Rcn2 as a novel regulator of cytokine expression. ( 21666121 )
2011
15
Genetic mechanisms mediating atherosclerosis susceptibility at the chromosome 9p21 locus. ( 21487702 )
2011
16
A role for MMP-3 genetic variation in atherosclerosis susceptibility? ( 19815209 )
2010
17
Non-redundant roles for LXRalpha and LXRbeta in atherosclerosis susceptibility in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice. ( 20388921 )
2010
18
Novel strategy using F1-congenic mice for validation of QTLs: studies at the proximal chromosome 10 atherosclerosis susceptibility locus. ( 19251590 )
2009
19
Microarray analysis of gene expression in mouse aorta reveals role of the calcium signaling pathway in control of atherosclerosis susceptibility. ( 19304945 )
2009
20
Differentially expressed soluble proteins in aortic cells from atherosclerosis-susceptible and resistant pigeons. ( 18577612 )
2008
21
Association of a Vcam1 mutation with atherosclerosis susceptibility in diet-induced models of atherosclerosis. ( 17572430 )
2008
22
Artery regional properties and atherosclerosis susceptibility. ( 17084416 )
2007
23
Direct evidence for a crucial role of the arterial wall in control of atherosclerosis susceptibility. ( 17101850 )
2006
24
Positional identification of TNFSF4, encoding OX40 ligand, as a gene that influences atherosclerosis susceptibility. ( 15750594 )
2005
25
Analysis of gender-specific atherosclerosis susceptibility in transgenic[hCETP]25DS rat model. ( 15488860 )
2004
26
Locating Ath8, a locus for murine atherosclerosis susceptibility and testing several of its candidate genes in mice and humans. ( 15530921 )
2004
27
Impaired function of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase in atherosclerosis-susceptible White Carneau pigeons: possible effects on metabolism of oxidized phospholipids. ( 9507985 )
1998
28
Dietary cholesterol-induced xanthomatosis in atherosclerosis-susceptible Japanese quail (Cotunix japonica). ( 9839203 )
1998
29
Dramatically decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased remnant clearance, and insulin hypersensitivity in apolipoprotein A-II knockout mice suggest a complex role for apolipoprotein A-II in atherosclerosis susceptibility. ( 8962133 )
1996
30
Genetic analysis of murine strains C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ to confirm the map position of Ath-1, a gene determining atherosclerosis susceptibility. ( 3128974 )
1987
31
Apolipoprotein genetic variation in the assessment of atherosclerosis susceptibility. ( 2886398 )
1987
32
Effect of cholesterol feeding on serum lipoproteins and atherosclerosis in atherosclerosis-susceptible and atherosclerosis-resistant Japanese quail. ( 7163118 )
1982
33
Risk factors in pigeons genetically selected for increased atherosclerosis susceptibility. ( 728242 )
1978
34
Interactions among dietary fat, protein, and cholesterol in atherosclerosis-susceptible pigeons. Effects on serum cholesterol and aortic atherosclerosis. ( 13763158 )
1961

Variations for Atherosclerosis Susceptibility

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Atherosclerosis Susceptibility:

6
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 ALOX5 ALOX5, VARIANT PROMOTER SP1 BINDING undetermined variant drug response,risk factor
2 ESR1 ESR1, IVS1, T-C, -401 single nucleotide variant drug response,risk factor

Copy number variations for Atherosclerosis Susceptibility from CNVD:

7
# CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 207754 6 160900000 164400000 Gain LPA Atherosclerosis

Expression for Atherosclerosis Susceptibility

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Atherosclerosis Susceptibility.

Pathways for Atherosclerosis Susceptibility

GO Terms for Atherosclerosis Susceptibility

Cellular components related to Atherosclerosis Susceptibility according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 early endosome GO:0005769 9.63 APOA1 APOB APOE LDLR TLR4 VCAM1
2 clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane GO:0030669 9.61 APOB APOE LDLR
3 high-density lipoprotein particle GO:0034364 9.58 APOA1 APOE PON1
4 very-low-density lipoprotein particle GO:0034361 9.54 APOA1 APOB APOE
5 endocytic vesicle lumen GO:0071682 9.5 APOA1 APOB APOE
6 spherical high-density lipoprotein particle GO:0034366 9.49 APOA1 PON1
7 discoidal high-density lipoprotein particle GO:0034365 9.46 APOA1 APOE
8 chylomicron GO:0042627 9.43 APOA1 APOB APOE
9 intermediate-density lipoprotein particle GO:0034363 9.13 APOA1 APOB APOE
10 low-density lipoprotein particle GO:0034362 8.92 APOA1 APOB APOE LDLR
11 extracellular space GO:0005615 10.13 ALOX5 APOA1 APOB APOE CCL2 CRP

Biological processes related to Atherosclerosis Susceptibility according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 37)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 receptor-mediated endocytosis GO:0006898 9.89 APOA1 APOB APOE LDLR
2 lipid transport GO:0006869 9.84 APOA1 APOB APOE LDLR
3 steroid metabolic process GO:0008202 9.83 APOA1 APOB APOE LDLR
4 retinoid metabolic process GO:0001523 9.76 APOA1 APOB APOE
5 cholesterol homeostasis GO:0042632 9.73 APOA1 APOB APOE LDLR
6 cholesterol transport GO:0030301 9.69 APOA1 APOB LDLR
7 reverse cholesterol transport GO:0043691 9.67 APOA1 APOE
8 high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling GO:0034375 9.67 APOA1 APOE
9 lipoxygenase pathway GO:0019372 9.67 ALOX5 PON1
10 triglyceride catabolic process GO:0019433 9.67 APOA1 APOB APOE
11 positive regulation of lipid biosynthetic process GO:0046889 9.66 APOA1 APOE
12 positive regulation of cholesterol efflux GO:0010875 9.66 APOE PON1
13 positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase biosynthetic process GO:0051770 9.65 CCL2 TLR4
14 phosphatidylcholine metabolic process GO:0046470 9.65 APOA1 PON1
15 high-density lipoprotein particle assembly GO:0034380 9.64 APOA1 APOE
16 low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling GO:0034374 9.64 APOB APOE
17 phospholipid efflux GO:0033700 9.63 APOA1 APOE
18 regulation of protein metabolic process GO:0051246 9.63 APOE LDLR
19 cholesterol efflux GO:0033344 9.63 APOA1 APOB APOE
20 regulation of cholesterol metabolic process GO:0090181 9.62 APOE LDLR
21 very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling GO:0034372 9.62 APOA1 APOE
22 positive regulation of cholesterol esterification GO:0010873 9.61 APOA1 APOE
23 high-density lipoprotein particle clearance GO:0034384 9.61 APOA1 APOE
24 neuron projection regeneration GO:0031102 9.6 APOA1 APOE
25 regulation of cholesterol transport GO:0032374 9.58 APOA1 APOE
26 chylomicron assembly GO:0034378 9.58 APOA1 APOB APOE
27 regulation of Cdc42 protein signal transduction GO:0032489 9.57 APOA1 APOE
28 cholesterol import GO:0070508 9.56 APOA1 LDLR
29 very-low-density lipoprotein particle clearance GO:0034447 9.55 APOB APOE
30 cholesterol metabolic process GO:0008203 9.55 APOA1 APOB APOE LDLR PON1
31 chylomicron remodeling GO:0034371 9.54 APOA1 APOB APOE
32 chylomicron remnant clearance GO:0034382 9.5 APOB APOE LDLR
33 response to caloric restriction GO:0061771 9.48 APOE LDLR
34 lipoprotein biosynthetic process GO:0042158 9.43 APOA1 APOB APOE
35 lipoprotein catabolic process GO:0042159 9.13 APOB APOE LDLR
36 lipoprotein metabolic process GO:0042157 8.92 APOA1 APOB APOE LDLR
37 lipid metabolic process GO:0006629 10.04 APOA1 APOB APOE LDLR PON1

Molecular functions related to Atherosclerosis Susceptibility according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 lipid binding GO:0008289 9.76 APOA1 APOB APOE ESR1
2 amyloid-beta binding GO:0001540 9.58 APOA1 APOE LDLR
3 phospholipid binding GO:0005543 9.56 APOA1 APOB APOE PON1
4 low-density lipoprotein particle binding GO:0030169 9.43 CRP LDLR
5 phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase activator activity GO:0060228 9.37 APOA1 APOE
6 lipid transporter activity GO:0005319 9.33 APOA1 APOB APOE
7 lipoprotein particle binding GO:0071813 9.32 APOA1 APOE
8 low-density lipoprotein particle receptor binding GO:0050750 9.13 APOB APOE CRP
9 cholesterol transporter activity GO:0017127 8.8 APOA1 APOB APOE

Sources for Atherosclerosis Susceptibility

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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