A-FIB
MCID: ATR011
MIFTS: 69

Atrial Fibrillation (A-FIB)

Categories: Blood diseases, Cardiovascular diseases, Genetic diseases, Rare diseases, Respiratory diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Atrial Fibrillation

MalaCards integrated aliases for Atrial Fibrillation:

Name: Atrial Fibrillation 12 38 30 56 6 44 45 15 17 74 3 64 64
Fibrillation, Atrial 41
a-Fib 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0060224
KEGG 38 H00731
ICD9CM 36 427.31
MeSH 45 D001281
NCIt 51 C50466
SNOMED-CT 69 49436004
UMLS 74 C0004238

Summaries for Atrial Fibrillation

PubMed Health : 64 About atrial fibrillation: Atrial fibrillation (A-tre-al fi-bri-LA-shun), or AF, is the most common type of arrhythmia (ah-RITH-me-ah). An arrhythmia is a problem with the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat. During an arrhythmia, the heart can beat too fast, too slow, or with an irregular rhythm.AF occurs if rapid, disorganized electrical signals cause the heart's two upper chambers—called the atria (AY-tree-uh)—to fibrillate. The term "fibrillate" means to contract very fast and irregularly.In AF, blood pools in the atria. It isn't pumped completely into the heart's two lower chambers, called the ventricles (VEN-trih-kuls). As a result, the heart's upper and lower chambers don't work together as they should.People who have AF may not feel symptoms. However, even when AF isn't noticed, it can increase the risk of stroke. In some people, AF can cause chest pain or heart failure, especially if the heart rhythm is very rapid.AF may happen rarely or every now and then, or it may become an ongoing or long-term heart problem that lasts for years.

MalaCards based summary : Atrial Fibrillation, also known as fibrillation, atrial, is related to familial atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure, and has symptoms including angina pectoris, edema and chest pain. An important gene associated with Atrial Fibrillation is KCNQ1 (Potassium Voltage-Gated Channel Subfamily Q Member 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Vascular smooth muscle contraction and Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes. The drugs Atorvastatin and Amiodarone have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include heart, kidney and testes, and related phenotypes are no effect and cardiovascular system

Disease Ontology : 12 A heart conduction disease that is characterized by uncoordinated electrical activity in the heart's upper chambers (the atria), which causes the heartbeat to become fast and irregular and has symptoms palpitations, weakness, fatigue, lightheadedness, dizziness, confusion, shortness of breath and chest pain.

MedlinePlus : 44 An arrhythmia is a problem with the speed or rhythm of the heartbeat. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of arrhythmia. The cause is a disorder in the heart's electrical system. Often, people who have AF may not even feel symptoms. But you may feel Palpitations -- an abnormal rapid heartbeat Shortness of breath Weakness or difficulty exercising Chest pain Dizziness or fainting Fatigue Confusion AF can lead to an increased risk of stroke. In many patients, it can also cause chest pain, heart attack, or heart failure. Doctors diagnose AF using family and medical history, a physical exam, and a test called an electrocardiogram (EKG), which looks at the electrical waves your heart makes. Treatments include medicines and procedures to restore normal rhythm. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

CDC : 3 Electrical activity of a normal heart (left) and a heart with atrial fibrillation (right).

Wikipedia : 77 Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular... more...

Related Diseases for Atrial Fibrillation

Diseases in the Atrial Fibrillation family:

Atrial Fibrillation, Familial, 3 Atrial Fibrillation, Familial, 1
Atrial Fibrillation, Familial, 2 Atrial Fibrillation, Familial, 4
Atrial Fibrillation, Familial, 5 Atrial Fibrillation, Familial, 6
Atrial Fibrillation, Familial, 7 Atrial Fibrillation, Familial, 8
Atrial Fibrillation, Familial, 9 Atrial Fibrillation, Familial, 10
Atrial Fibrillation, Familial, 11 Atrial Fibrillation, Familial, 12
Atrial Fibrillation, Familial, 13 Atrial Fibrillation, Familial, 14
Atrial Fibrillation, Familial, 15 Atrial Fibrillation, Familial, 18
Familial Atrial Fibrillation

Diseases related to Atrial Fibrillation via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 510)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 familial atrial fibrillation 33.9 ABCC9 GJA5 KCNA5 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNJ2
2 congestive heart failure 31.6 ACE ADRB1 NPPA NPPB
3 mitral valve insufficiency 31.6 ACE NPPA NPPB
4 progressive familial heart block, type ia 31.5 GJA5 SCN5A
5 cardiac conduction defect 31.3 KCNH2 KCNQ1 SCN5A
6 atrioventricular block 31.3 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNQ1 NPPB SCN5A
7 ventricular fibrillation, paroxysmal familial, 1 31.3 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNQ1 SCN5A
8 myocardial infarction 31.3 ABCC9 ACE ADRB1 NPPA NPPB
9 left bundle branch hemiblock 31.2 ACE NPPB SCN5A
10 coronary artery anomaly 31.1 ACE ADRB1 NPPA NPPB
11 syncope 31.1 KCNH2 KCNJ2 KCNQ1 NPPA NPPB SCN5A
12 acute myocardial infarction 31.1 ACE ADRB1 NPPA NPPB
13 atrial standstill 1 31.1 ACE ADRB1 GJA5 NPPB SCN1B SCN5A
14 right bundle branch block 31.0 SCN1B SCN2B SCN3B SCN5A
15 systolic heart failure 31.0 ACE ADRB1 NPPB
16 cardiac arrhythmia 30.9 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNJ2 KCNQ1 SCN5A
17 heart disease 30.8 ACE ADRB1 GJA5 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNJ2
18 brugada syndrome 30.8 ABCC9 KCNA5 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNQ1 SCN1B
19 short qt syndrome 30.8 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNJ2 KCNQ1
20 aortic valve disease 2 30.8 ACE MYL4 NPPA NPPB
21 cardiac arrest 30.8 ACE KCNH2 KCNQ1 NPPB SCN5A
22 central sleep apnea 30.7 NPPA NPPB
23 diastolic heart failure 30.7 ACE NPPA NPPB
24 catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 30.7 KCNH2 KCNJ2 SCN5A
25 pulmonary hypertension 30.6 ACE KCNA5 NPPA NPPB
26 third-degree atrioventricular block 30.6 KCNE2 NPPB SCN5A
27 coronary heart disease 1 30.6 ACE ADRB1 NPPB
28 pulmonary edema 30.6 ACE NPPA NPPB
29 first-degree atrioventricular block 30.5 GJA5 SCN5A
30 atrial standstill 30.5 GJA5 NPPA SCN5A
31 tetralogy of fallot 30.5 GJA5 KCNH2 NPPA NPPB
32 hypertension, essential 30.4 ACE ADRB1 NPPA NPPB
33 chagas disease 30.4 ACE ADRB1 NPPB
34 dilated cardiomyopathy 30.3 ABCC9 ACE ADRB1 GJA5 KCNH2 KCNQ1
35 anterolateral myocardial infarction 30.3 ACE NPPA NPPB
36 long qt syndrome 30.2 ADRB1 KCNA5 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNJ2 KCNQ1
37 timothy syndrome 30.0 KCNH2 KCNQ1
38 atrial fibrillation, familial, 15 12.7
39 atrial fibrillation, familial, 3 12.6
40 atrial fibrillation, familial, 4 12.6
41 atrial fibrillation, familial, 6 12.6
42 atrial fibrillation, familial, 7 12.6
43 atrial fibrillation, familial, 9 12.6
44 atrial fibrillation, familial, 10 12.6
45 atrial fibrillation, familial, 11 12.6
46 atrial fibrillation, familial, 12 12.6
47 atrial fibrillation, familial, 13 12.6
48 atrial fibrillation, familial, 14 12.6
49 atrial fibrillation, familial, 18 12.6
50 atrial fibrillation, familial, 1 12.6

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Atrial Fibrillation:



Diseases related to Atrial Fibrillation

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Atrial Fibrillation

UMLS symptoms related to Atrial Fibrillation:


angina pectoris, edema, chest pain

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Atrial Fibrillation according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

27
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 no effect GR00402-S-1 9.92 ABCC9 ACE ADRB1 GJA5 KCNA5 KCNE2

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Atrial Fibrillation:

47
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 9.97 ABCC9 ACE ADRB1 GJA5 KCNA5 KCNH2
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.8 ABCC9 ACE ADRB1 GJA5 KCNA5 KCNE2
3 muscle MP:0005369 9.28 ABCC9 ADRB1 GJA5 KCNA5 KCNH2 KCNJ2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Atrial Fibrillation

PubMedHealth treatment related to Atrial Fibrillation: 64

Treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF) depends on how often you have symptoms, how severe they are, and whether you already have heart disease. General treatment options include medicines, medical procedures, and lifestyle changes.

Drugs for Atrial Fibrillation (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 629)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Atorvastatin Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 134523-00-5 60823
2
Amiodarone Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1 1951-25-3 2157
3
tannic acid Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 1401-55-4
4
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
5
Warfarin Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 81-81-2 6691 54678486
6
Apixaban Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 503612-47-3 10182969
7
Rivaroxaban Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 366789-02-8
8
Propafenone Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2,Not Applicable 54063-53-5 4932
9
Sotalol Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 3930-20-9, 959-24-0 5253
10
Carvedilol Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable 72956-09-3 2585
11
Metoprolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 37350-58-6, 51384-51-1 4171
12
Dronedarone Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 141626-36-0, 141625-93-6 154087
13
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 50-78-2 2244
14
Clopidogrel Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 120202-66-6, 113665-84-2 60606
15
Ticagrelor Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1 274693-27-5 9871419
16
Diltiazem Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 42399-41-7 39186
17
Edoxaban Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 480449-70-5
18
Phylloquinone Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable 84-80-0
19
Irbesartan Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3 138402-11-6 3749
20
Angiotensin II Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 68521-88-0, 11128-99-7, 4474-91-3 172198 65143
21
carbamide peroxide Approved Phase 4,Not Applicable 124-43-6
22
Acenocoumarol Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 152-72-7 9052 54676537
23
Salicylic acid Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3 69-72-7 338
24
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3 302-25-0
25
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3 50-24-8 5755
26
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3 83-43-2 6741
27
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 2921-57-5
28
Phenprocoumon Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3 435-97-2 9908 54680692
29
Imiquimod Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99011-02-6 57469
30
Dalteparin Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 9005-49-6
31 fluindione Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3 957-56-2
32
Amlodipine Approved Phase 4,Not Applicable 88150-42-9 2162
33
Amiloride Approved Phase 4 2016-88-8, 2609-46-3 16231
34
Telmisartan Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Not Applicable 144701-48-4 65999
35
Simvastatin Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable 79902-63-9 54454
36
Ranolazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 142387-99-3, 95635-55-5 56959
37
Ramipril Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 87333-19-5 5362129
38
Enalaprilat Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable 76420-72-9 6917719
39
Captopril Approved Phase 4,Not Applicable 62571-86-2 44093
40
Bisoprolol Approved Phase 4,Early Phase 1,Not Applicable 66722-44-9 2405
41
Candesartan cilexetil Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 145040-37-5 2540
42
Valsartan Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 137862-53-4 60846
43
Nebivolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Not Applicable 118457-14-0, 99200-09-6, 152520-56-4 71301
44
Spironolactone Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 52-01-7, 1952-01-7 5833
45
Enalapril Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable 75847-73-3 5362032 40466924
46
Lisinopril Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Not Applicable 83915-83-7, 76547-98-3 5362119
47
Eplerenone Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 107724-20-9 150310 443872
48
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 1,Not Applicable 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
49
Magnesium Sulfate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable 7487-88-9 24083
50
Adenosine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 58-61-7 60961

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 2652)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Compared to Rate Control Strategy in Patients With Impaired Left Ventricular Function Unknown status NCT02509754 Phase 4
2 Intensive Statin Therapy Effect on Post-Operative Atrial Fibrillation (POAF) Unknown status NCT02029534 Phase 4 Atorvastatin 20 mg;Atorvastatin 80 mg
3 Amiodarone Prophylaxis for Atrial Fibrillation in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Lung Cancer Unknown status NCT00724581 Phase 4 Amiodarone
4 Cardioversion vs. Catheter Ablation for Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Unknown status NCT00196209 Phase 4
5 The Effect of Chest Tubes Using Active Clearance Technology® on the Incidence of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation Unknown status NCT02808897 Phase 4
6 AF Ablation With or Without ROX Coupler Study Unknown status NCT02243891 Phase 4
7 Line Versus Spot Ablation in Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Unknown status NCT00196157 Phase 4
8 AMIOdarone vs. Catheter Ablation for Prevention of Recurrent Symptomatic Atrial Fibrillation Unknown status NCT02341105 Phase 4 Amiodarone
9 The Efficacy and Safety Study of Dabigatran and Warfarin to Non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation Patients Unknown status NCT02646267 Phase 4 standard intensity warfarin;low intensity warfarin;dabigatran etexilate
10 Left Atrial Ablation of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation With Implantable Loop Recorder Follow Up Study: The LAAPITUP 2 Study Unknown status NCT01504451 Phase 4
11 Comparison of Efficacy and Safety Among Dabigatran, Rivaroxaban, and Apixaban in Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation Unknown status NCT02666157 Phase 4 Dabigatran etexilate;Rivaroxaban;Apixaban
12 Cardiac Resynchronization in Atrial Fibrillation Trial - a Pilot Study Unknown status NCT01850277 Phase 4 Amiodarone;Pharmacotherapy to slow and control ventricular rate
13 Antiarrhythmic Drugs Assessment in Preventing Atrial Fibrillation Unknown status NCT02145546 Phase 4 Amiodarone;Propafenone;Sotalol
14 Graz Study on the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation Unknown status NCT01461434 Phase 4
15 Rate Control in Atrial Fibrillation Unknown status NCT02251509 Phase 4 Carvedilol;Metoprolol tartrate
16 Vernakalant Versus Flecainide: Atrial Contractility Unknown status NCT01646281 Phase 4 Vernakalant;Flecainide
17 Catheter Ablation Versus Antiarrythmic Drugs for Atrial Fibrillation in China Unknown status NCT01341353 Phase 4 Digaoxin,amiodarone,β receptor antagonist, Calcium Antagonists
18 Efficacy and Safety Study of Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation Unknown status NCT01113294 Phase 4
19 Dronedarone in Pacemakers Patients With Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Unknown status NCT01070667 Phase 4 Dronedarone;Placebo
20 Atrial Fibrillation and Ischemic Events With Rivaroxaban in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease Study Unknown status NCT02642419 Phase 4 Rivaroxaban and single antiplatelet drug (aspirin, clopidogrel or prasugrel);Rivaroxaban
21 Rivaroxaban in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Unknown status NCT02334254 Phase 4 rivaroxaban and ticagrel therapy;triple antithrombotic regimen with warfarin, asipirin and clopidogrel
22 Pulmonary Vein (PV) -Isolation: Arrhythmogenic Vein(s) Versus All Veins Unknown status NCT00605748 Phase 4
23 Low Dose of Diltiazem for Rate Control of Atrial Fibrillation Unknown status NCT00834925 Phase 4 low dose diltiazem
24 Evaluation of WATCHMAN Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion Device in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Versus Rivaroxaban Unknown status NCT02549963 Phase 4 Rivaroxaban
25 Anti-inflammatory Effects of Rivaroxaban Versus Dabigatran Unknown status NCT02331602 Phase 4 Rivaroxaban;Dabigatran
26 Pulmonary Vein Isolation With Versus Without Continued Antiarrhythmic Drug Treatment in Subjects With Recurrent Atrial Fibrillation Unknown status NCT02475642 Phase 4
27 N-3 Fatty Acids for the Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With Acute Heart Failure Unknown status NCT00692718 Phase 4 Epadel, Eicosapentaenoic acid
28 A Prospective Randomized Study Comparing Radiofrequency Energy With Cryoenergy Unknown status NCT00773539 Phase 4
29 ORal anticoaGulants in diAbetic and Nondiabetic Patients With nOn-valvular Atrial fibrillatioN (ORGANON) Unknown status NCT02935855 Phase 4 Dabigatran;Apixaban;Rivaroxaban;Edoxaban;Warfarin;Acenocumarole
30 EvaluAtion of Predictive Value of Multisite Intracardiac EchoCardiography During Imaging of Structure and funCTION of Left Atrial Appendage in Comparison to Transesophageal Echocardiography Unknown status NCT01371279 Phase 4
31 Comparison Between Contact Force Guided and Blinded Strategy on PV Isolation in AF Patients Unknown status NCT02924181 Phase 4
32 Irbesartan and Adhesion Molecules in AF Unknown status NCT00613496 Phase 4 irbesartan;placebo
33 Anticoagulation in Stent Intervention Unknown status NCT01141153 Phase 4 Acetylsalicylic Acid + clopidogrel + acenocoumarol;Acetylsalicylic Acid + clopidogrel
34 Corticosteroid Pulse After Ablation Unknown status NCT00807586 Phase 4 Solumedrol;Placebo
35 Mode Evaluation in Sick Sinus Syndrome Trial (MODEST) Unknown status NCT00161551 Phase 4
36 Left Atrial Thrombus Reduction - Effect of Dabigatran Versus Phenprocoumon Unknown status NCT02591225 Phase 4 Dabigatranetexilate;Phenprocoumon
37 Safety of "Ticagrelor+ Warfarin"in Comparison With "Clopidogrel+Aspirin+Warfarin" Unknown status NCT02206815 Phase 4 Ticagrelor+Warfarin;Clopidogrel+Aspirin+Warfarin
38 Arrhythmia Restart Prevention and RatE STabilization in Atrial Fibrillation Unknown status NCT00224341 Phase 4
39 Catheter Contact Force and Electrograms Unknown status NCT01587404 Phase 4
40 Ventricular Pacing Site Selection (V-PASS) Unknown status NCT00292383 Phase 4
41 Resolution of Left Atrial-Appendage Thrombus - Effects of Dabigatran in Patients With AF Unknown status NCT02256683 Phase 4 Dabigatran etexilate;Phenprocoumon
42 SmartTouch Catheter for Left Anterior Line - SmarT Line Study Unknown status NCT02217657 Phase 4
43 The Efficacy and Safety of CARTO 3D Mapping System Versus Conventional Method in AF and VT Unknown status NCT00959205 Phase 4
44 Triple Therapy in Patients on Oral Anticoagulation After Drug Eluting Stent Implantation Unknown status NCT00776633 Phase 4 aspirin;clopidogrel;oral anticoagulation
45 Potential Effect of Topical Imiquimod on Atrial Ectopy in Patients With Actinic Keratosis Unknown status NCT01413763 Phase 4 Imiquimod cream 3.75%;Placebo cream
46 Vascular CalcIfiCation and sTiffness Induced by ORal antIcoAgulation Unknown status NCT02161965 Phase 4 Rivaroxaban;Fluindione;Warfarin
47 RAAS Inhibitor Drugs in Dialysis Patients Unknown status NCT01635387 Phase 4 aliskiren
48 Right Ventricular Septal Pacing for the Prevention of Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Patients With Atrio-Ventricular Block Unknown status NCT00709774 Phase 4
49 Applying Pharmacogenetics to Warfarin Dosing in Chinese Patients Unknown status NCT01610141 Phase 4
50 Cerebral Artery Stenosis, Coronary Artery Disease and Arrhythmia Unknown status NCT00247533 Phase 4

Search NIH Clinical Center for Atrial Fibrillation

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 74 / NDF-RT 52 :


Cochrane evidence based reviews: atrial fibrillation

Genetic Tests for Atrial Fibrillation

Genetic tests related to Atrial Fibrillation:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Atrial Fibrillation 30

Anatomical Context for Atrial Fibrillation

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Atrial Fibrillation:

42
Heart, Kidney, Testes, Lung, Brain, Liver, Endothelial

Publications for Atrial Fibrillation

Articles related to Atrial Fibrillation:

(show top 50) (show all 6903)
# Title Authors Year
1
Galectin-3 in acute myocardial infarction patients with atrial fibrillation. ( 30726858 )
2019
2
Impact of atrial fibrillation on patients hospitalized for acute myocarditis: Insights from a nationally-representative United States cohort. ( 30284301 )
2019
3
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, atrial fibrillation, and the role of senile amyloidosis. ( 30753432 )
2019
4
Case 9-2019: A 62-Year-Old Man with Atrial Fibrillation, Depression, and Worsening Anxiety. ( 30893540 )
2019
5
Triggers for Atrial Fibrillation: The Role of Anxiety. ( 30906592 )
2019
6
Association of Ustekinumab vs TNF Inhibitor Therapy With Risk of Atrial Fibrillation and Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Psoriasis or Psoriatic Arthritis. ( 30916734 )
2019
7
Risk Factors and Localization of Silent Cerebral Infarction in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation. ( 30898584 )
2019
8
External continuous ECG versus loop recording for atrial fibrillation detection in patients who had a stroke. ( 30898849 )
2019
9
Atrial fibrillation: what do we know about screening and what do we not know about treatment? ( 30898850 )
2019
10
DNA damage-induced PARP1 activation confers cardiomyocyte dysfunction through NAD+ depletion in experimental atrial fibrillation. ( 30898999 )
2019
11
Beneficial effects of pre-stroke statins use in cardioembolic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation: a hospital-based retrospective analysis. ( 30899291 )
2019
12
Changes in Oral Anticoagulation Therapy over One Year in 51,000 Atrial Fibrillation Patients at Risk for Stroke: A Practice-Derived Study. ( 30900220 )
2019
13
Incident Co-Morbidities in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Initially with a CHA2DS2-VASc Score of 0 (Males) or 1 (Females): Implications for Reassessment of Stroke Risk in Initially 'Low-Risk' Patients. ( 30900222 )
2019
14
Non-Vitamin K Oral Anticoagulants in Comparison to Phenprocoumon in Geriatric and Non-Geriatric Patients with Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation. ( 30900223 )
2019
15
The Addition of Atrial Fibrillation to the Los Angeles Motor Scale May Improve Prediction of Large Vessel Occlusion. ( 30900276 )
2019
16
Unilateral versus Bilateral Groin Puncture for Atrial Fibrillation Ablation: Multi-Center Prospective Randomized Study. ( 30900422 )
2019
17
Association of frailty and cognitive impairment with benefits of oral anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation. ( 30901602 )
2019
18
Concomitant ablation of atrial fibrillation in rheumatic mitral valve surgery. ( 30901792 )
2019
19
Stop the Clot: Should Emergency Clinicians Champion Stroke Prevention and Prescribe Anticoagulation for Patients With Atrial Fibrillation?: April 2019 Annals of Emergency Medicine Journal Club. ( 30902173 )
2019
20
A 79-year-old woman with atrial fibrillation and new onset of heart failure. ( 30903653 )
2019
21
Update and Unmet Needs on the Use of Nonvitamin K Oral Anticoagulants for Stroke Prevention in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation. ( 30904157 )
2019
22
Regional Disparities of Left Atrial Appendage Wall Contraction in Patients With Sinus Rhythm and Atrial Fibrillation. ( 30904369 )
2019
23
Association between antithrombotic treatment and outcomes at 1-year follow-up in patients with atrial fibrillation: the EORP-AF General Long-Term Registry. ( 30904925 )
2019
24
How to Reach the Left Atrium in Atrial Fibrillation Ablation? ( 30905166 )
2019
25
Electroanatomical mapping based on discrimination of electrograms clusters for localization of critical sites in atrial fibrillation. ( 30905342 )
2019
26
Efficacy and Safety of Apixaban versus Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Prior Bioprosthetic Valve Replacement or Valve Repair: Insights from the ARISTOTLE Trial. ( 30907005 )
2019
27
Effect of Acupuncture at Neiguan Point Combined with Amiodarone Therapy on Early Recurrence After Pulmonary Vein Electrical Isolation in Patients with Persistent Atrial Fibrillation. ( 30907035 )
2019
28
Routine Coagulation Tests in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Under Dabigatran and Rivaroxaban Therapy: An Affordable and Reliable Strategy? ( 30907118 )
2019
29
Atrial Fibrillation and Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abnormalities. ( 30908155 )
2019
30
Effectiveness and safety of oral anticoagulants in older adults with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and heart failure. ( 30908512 )
2019
31
Meta-analysis of risk factors and complications associated with atrial fibrillation after oesophagectomy. ( 30908612 )
2019
32
Right atrial flutter as a marker of biatrial substrate for atrial fibrillation: Is More always better? ( 30908682 )
2019
33
Combined assessment of left atrial volume parameters for predicting recurrence of atrial fibrillation following pulmonary vein isolation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. ( 30908731 )
2019
34
Do the Natriuretic Peptides Cause Atrial Fibrillation or is it Not So Black and White? ( 30909777 )
2019
35
Relationships between maintenance of sinus rhythm and clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and atrial fibrillation. ( 30910388 )
2019
36
Relation of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 with prevalent and incident atrial fibrillation in a population-based study. ( 30910708 )
2019
37
Prevalence of extra-appendage thrombosis in non-valvular atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter in patients undergoing cardioversion: a large Transeophageal Echo study. ( 30910768 )
2019
38
Patient characteristics as predictors of recurrence of atrial fibrillation following cryoballoon ablation. ( 30912155 )
2019
39
NT -pro BNP as a Mediator of the Racial Difference in Incident Atrial Fibrillation and Heart Failure. ( 30912456 )
2019
40
Effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: data from a contemporary Spanish registry. ( 30912682 )
2019
41
A link between bilirubin levels and atrial fibrillation recurrence after catheter ablation. ( 30913114 )
2019
42
Association of central blood pressure with left atrial structural and functional abnormalities in hypertensive patients. Implications for atrial fibrillation prevention. ( 30913902 )
2019
43
Optimal Rivaroxaban Dose in Asian Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Normal or Mildly Impaired Renal Function. ( 30913984 )
2019
44
Tailored Practical Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Risk Factor-Based Approach. ( 30915342 )
2019
45
Circulating primary bile acid is correlated with structural remodeling in atrial fibrillation. ( 30915593 )
2019
46
Exchange-protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) regulates L-type calcium channel in atrial fibrillation of heart failure model. ( 30915767 )
2019
47
Postoperative Metabolic, Inflammation, and Atrial Fibrillation Control: a Relentless Battle. ( 30916120 )
2019
48
Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation: Evaluation of its Economic Impact on the Costs of Cardiac Surgery. ( 30916128 )
2019
49
Mobile Phone-Based Use of the Photoplethysmography Technique to Detect Atrial Fibrillation in Primary Care: Diagnostic Accuracy Study of the FibriCheck App. ( 30916656 )
2019
50
The impact of a nurse-led elective Direct Current Cardioversion (DCCV) in Atrial Fibrillation (AF) on patient outcomes: A systematic review. ( 30916816 )
2019

Variations for Atrial Fibrillation

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Atrial Fibrillation:

6 (show all 42)
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 KCNQ1 NM_000218.2(KCNQ1): c.418A> G (p.Ser140Gly) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs120074192 GRCh37 Chromosome 11, 2549189: 2549189
2 KCNQ1 NM_000218.2(KCNQ1): c.418A> G (p.Ser140Gly) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs120074192 GRCh38 Chromosome 11, 2527959: 2527959
3 KCNE2 NM_172201.1(KCNE2): c.79C> T (p.Arg27Cys) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs74315449 GRCh37 Chromosome 21, 35742856: 35742856
4 KCNE2 NM_172201.1(KCNE2): c.79C> T (p.Arg27Cys) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs74315449 GRCh38 Chromosome 21, 34370557: 34370557
5 SCN5A NM_000335.4(SCN5A): c.5958C> A (p.Asn1986Lys) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs199473335 GRCh37 Chromosome 3, 38591902: 38591902
6 SCN5A NM_000335.4(SCN5A): c.5958C> A (p.Asn1986Lys) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs199473335 GRCh38 Chromosome 3, 38550411: 38550411
7 SCN5A NM_198056.2(SCN5A): c.1333C> G (p.His445Asp) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs199473112 GRCh37 Chromosome 3, 38647447: 38647447
8 SCN5A NM_198056.2(SCN5A): c.1333C> G (p.His445Asp) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs199473112 GRCh38 Chromosome 3, 38605956: 38605956
9 SCN5A NM_000335.4(SCN5A): c.1410C> G (p.Asn470Lys) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs199473115 GRCh37 Chromosome 3, 38646328: 38646328
10 SCN5A NM_000335.4(SCN5A): c.1410C> G (p.Asn470Lys) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs199473115 GRCh38 Chromosome 3, 38604837: 38604837
11 SCN5A NM_000335.4(SCN5A): c.1282G> A (p.Glu428Lys) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs199473111 GRCh37 Chromosome 3, 38647498: 38647498
12 SCN5A NM_000335.4(SCN5A): c.1282G> A (p.Glu428Lys) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs199473111 GRCh38 Chromosome 3, 38606007: 38606007
13 SCN5A NM_198056.2(SCN5A): c.1963G> A (p.Glu655Lys) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs199473579 GRCh37 Chromosome 3, 38640469: 38640469
14 SCN5A NM_198056.2(SCN5A): c.1963G> A (p.Glu655Lys) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs199473579 GRCh38 Chromosome 3, 38598978: 38598978
15 KCNJ2 NM_000891.2(KCNJ2): c.277G> A (p.Val93Ile) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs147750704 GRCh37 Chromosome 17, 68171457: 68171457
16 KCNJ2 NM_000891.2(KCNJ2): c.277G> A (p.Val93Ile) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs147750704 GRCh38 Chromosome 17, 70175316: 70175316
17 SCN5A NM_000335.4(SCN5A): c.5848G> T (p.Val1950Leu) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs41315493 GRCh37 Chromosome 3, 38592012: 38592012
18 SCN5A NM_000335.4(SCN5A): c.5848G> T (p.Val1950Leu) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs41315493 GRCh38 Chromosome 3, 38550521: 38550521
19 KCNQ1 NM_000218.2(KCNQ1): c.421G> A (p.Val141Met) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs199472687 GRCh37 Chromosome 11, 2549192: 2549192
20 KCNQ1 NM_000218.2(KCNQ1): c.421G> A (p.Val141Met) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs199472687 GRCh38 Chromosome 11, 2527962: 2527962
21 KCNQ1 NM_000218.2(KCNQ1): c.440A> G (p.Gln147Arg) single nucleotide variant not provided rs199472689 GRCh37 Chromosome 11, 2549211: 2549211
22 KCNQ1 NM_000218.2(KCNQ1): c.440A> G (p.Gln147Arg) single nucleotide variant not provided rs199472689 GRCh38 Chromosome 11, 2527981: 2527981
23 KCNQ1 NM_000218.2(KCNQ1): c.625T> C (p.Ser209Pro) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs199472705 GRCh37 Chromosome 11, 2592575: 2592575
24 KCNQ1 NM_000218.2(KCNQ1): c.625T> C (p.Ser209Pro) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs199472705 GRCh38 Chromosome 11, 2571345: 2571345
25 KCNH2 NM_000238.3(KCNH2): c.2690A> C (p.Lys897Thr) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs1805123 GRCh37 Chromosome 7, 150645534: 150645534
26 KCNH2 NM_000238.3(KCNH2): c.2690A> C (p.Lys897Thr) single nucleotide variant Benign/Likely benign rs1805123 GRCh38 Chromosome 7, 150948446: 150948446
27 KCNE2 NM_172201.1(KCNE2): c.269A> G (p.Glu90Gly) single nucleotide variant not provided rs199473366 GRCh37 Chromosome 21, 35743046: 35743046
28 KCNE2 NM_172201.1(KCNE2): c.269A> G (p.Glu90Gly) single nucleotide variant not provided rs199473366 GRCh38 Chromosome 21, 34370747: 34370747
29 SCN5A NM_198056.2(SCN5A): c.3392C> T (p.Thr1131Ile) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs199473197 GRCh37 Chromosome 3, 38618271: 38618271
30 SCN5A NM_198056.2(SCN5A): c.3392C> T (p.Thr1131Ile) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs199473197 GRCh38 Chromosome 3, 38576780: 38576780
31 SCN5A NM_000335.4(SCN5A): c.414G> A (p.Met138Ile) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs199473060 GRCh37 Chromosome 3, 38663959: 38663959
32 SCN5A NM_000335.4(SCN5A): c.414G> A (p.Met138Ile) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs199473060 GRCh38 Chromosome 3, 38622468: 38622468
33 SCN5A NM_198056.2(SCN5A): c.4478A> G (p.Lys1493Arg) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs199473260 GRCh37 Chromosome 3, 38597211: 38597211
34 SCN5A NM_198056.2(SCN5A): c.4478A> G (p.Lys1493Arg) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs199473260 GRCh38 Chromosome 3, 38555720: 38555720
35 SCN5A NM_198056.2(SCN5A): c.5476C> T (p.Arg1826Cys) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs199473635 GRCh37 Chromosome 3, 38592387: 38592387
36 SCN5A NM_198056.2(SCN5A): c.5476C> T (p.Arg1826Cys) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs199473635 GRCh38 Chromosome 3, 38550896: 38550896
37 SCN5A NM_198056.2(SCN5A): c.5624T> C (p.Met1875Thr) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs199473324 GRCh37 Chromosome 3, 38592239: 38592239
38 SCN5A NM_198056.2(SCN5A): c.5624T> C (p.Met1875Thr) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs199473324 GRCh38 Chromosome 3, 38550748: 38550748
39 SCN5A NM_198056.2(SCN5A): c.5851G> A (p.Val1951Met) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs41315493 GRCh37 Chromosome 3, 38592012: 38592012
40 SCN5A NM_198056.2(SCN5A): c.5851G> A (p.Val1951Met) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs41315493 GRCh38 Chromosome 3, 38550521: 38550521
41 MYH7 NM_000257.4(MYH7): c.5190G> T (p.Met1730Ile) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance GRCh38 Chromosome 14, 23415474: 23415474
42 MYH7 NM_000257.4(MYH7): c.5190G> T (p.Met1730Ile) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance GRCh37 Chromosome 14, 23884683: 23884683

Expression for Atrial Fibrillation

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Atrial Fibrillation.

Pathways for Atrial Fibrillation

Pathways related to Atrial Fibrillation according to KEGG:

38
# Name Kegg Source Accession
1 Vascular smooth muscle contraction hsa04270
2 Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes hsa04261

Pathways related to Atrial Fibrillation according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 16)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
12.92 ADRB1 GJA5 SCN1B SCN2B SCN3B SCN4B
2
Show member pathways
12.82 ADRB1 KCNQ1 MYL4 SCN1B SCN4B SCN5A
3
Show member pathways
12.5 SCN1B SCN2B SCN3B SCN4B SCN5A
4
Show member pathways
12.46 ABCC9 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNJ2 KCNQ1 MYL4
5 12.38 ADRB1 SCN1B SCN2B SCN5A
6 12.19 KCNA5 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNJ2 KCNQ1
7
Show member pathways
12.01 ADRB1 KCNE2 KCNJ2 KCNQ1
8 12.01 KCNH2 KCNQ1 SCN3B SCN4B SCN5A
9
Show member pathways
11.94 ABCC9 KCNA5 KCNH2 KCNJ2 KCNQ1
10
Show member pathways
11.82 SCN1B SCN2B SCN3B SCN4B SCN5A
11
Show member pathways
11.57 KCNE2 KCNQ1 SCN1B SCN2B SCN3B SCN4B
12 11.54 ACE ADRB1 KCNJ2
13 11.18 ABCC9 ADRB1 GJA5 KCNA5 KCNE2 KCNH2
14 11.13 SCN1B SCN2B SCN3B SCN4B SCN5A
15 10.9 NPPA NPPB
16 10.82 KCNJ2 KCNQ1

GO Terms for Atrial Fibrillation

Cellular components related to Atrial Fibrillation according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Z disc GO:0030018 9.61 KCNA5 SCN3B SCN5A
2 voltage-gated potassium channel complex GO:0008076 9.55 KCNA5 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNJ2 KCNQ1
3 T-tubule GO:0030315 9.5 KCNJ2 SCN1B SCN5A
4 intercalated disc GO:0014704 9.43 GJA5 KCNA5 KCNJ2 SCN1B SCN4B SCN5A
5 voltage-gated sodium channel complex GO:0001518 9.02 SCN1B SCN2B SCN3B SCN4B SCN5A
6 membrane GO:0016020 10.27 ABCC9 ACE ADRB1 GJA5 KCNA5 KCNE2
7 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10.22 ABCC9 ACE ADRB1 GJA5 KCNA5 KCNE2
8 integral component of membrane GO:0016021 10.13 ABCC9 ACE ADRB1 GJA5 KCNA5 KCNE2

Biological processes related to Atrial Fibrillation according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 48)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 sodium ion transmembrane transport GO:0035725 9.97 SCN1B SCN2B SCN3B SCN4B SCN5A
2 regulation of ion transmembrane transport GO:0034765 9.96 KCNA5 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNJ2 KCNQ1 SCN1B
3 ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential GO:0086005 9.88 GJA5 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNQ1 SCN3B SCN5A
4 regulation of sodium ion transmembrane transporter activity GO:2000649 9.87 SCN1B SCN2B SCN3B SCN4B
5 cellular response to drug GO:0035690 9.86 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNQ1
6 positive regulation of sodium ion transport GO:0010765 9.86 SCN1B SCN3B SCN4B SCN5A
7 regulation of blood pressure GO:0008217 9.85 ACE NPPA NPPB
8 potassium ion export across plasma membrane GO:0097623 9.85 KCNA5 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNQ1
9 regulation of atrial cardiac muscle cell membrane depolarization GO:0060371 9.85 GJA5 SCN1B SCN2B SCN3B SCN5A
10 membrane depolarization during cardiac muscle cell action potential GO:0086012 9.85 KCNJ2 SCN1B SCN2B SCN3B SCN4B SCN5A
11 potassium ion import across plasma membrane GO:1990573 9.84 ABCC9 KCNE2 KCNJ2
12 regulation of membrane repolarization GO:0060306 9.84 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNJ2 KCNQ1
13 membrane depolarization GO:0051899 9.83 SCN1B SCN3B SCN5A
14 membrane repolarization during action potential GO:0086011 9.83 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNJ2 KCNQ1
15 atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential GO:0086014 9.83 KCNA5 KCNQ1 NUP155 SCN3B SCN5A
16 positive regulation of heart rate GO:0010460 9.82 KCNQ1 NPPA SCN3B
17 membrane depolarization during action potential GO:0086010 9.82 KCNH2 SCN3B SCN5A
18 positive regulation of potassium ion transmembrane transport GO:1901381 9.81 KCNH2 KCNJ2 KCNQ1
19 regulation of blood vessel diameter GO:0097746 9.81 ACE GJA5 NPPB
20 cardiac conduction GO:0061337 9.8 GJA5 SCN1B SCN3B
21 membrane repolarization during ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential GO:0098915 9.8 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNQ1
22 regulation of atrial cardiac muscle cell membrane repolarization GO:0060372 9.8 KCNA5 KCNQ1 NPPA SCN5A
23 membrane repolarization GO:0086009 9.79 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNQ1
24 membrane repolarization during cardiac muscle cell action potential GO:0086013 9.79 KCNH2 KCNJ2 KCNQ1
25 regulation of ventricular cardiac muscle cell membrane depolarization GO:0060373 9.77 GJA5 SCN3B SCN5A
26 SA node cell action potential GO:0086015 9.76 GJA5 SCN3B SCN5A
27 cardiac muscle contraction GO:0060048 9.76 KCNH2 KCNQ1 MYL4 SCN1B SCN2B SCN3B
28 regulation of vasoconstriction GO:0019229 9.7 ACE KCNA5
29 regulation of potassium ion transmembrane transport GO:1901379 9.7 KCNE2 KCNH2
30 regulation of blood vessel size GO:0050880 9.7 NPPA NPPB
31 potassium ion homeostasis GO:0055075 9.7 KCNA5 KCNH2
32 regulation of cardiac muscle cell contraction GO:0086004 9.69 KCNJ2 SCN5A
33 cGMP biosynthetic process GO:0006182 9.69 NPPA NPPB
34 positive regulation of cardiac muscle contraction GO:0060452 9.69 KCNQ1 NPPA
35 receptor guanylyl cyclase signaling pathway GO:0007168 9.68 NPPA NPPB
36 membrane repolarization during atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential GO:0098914 9.68 KCNA5 KCNQ1
37 AV node cell action potential GO:0086016 9.67 SCN4B SCN5A
38 response to pyrethroid GO:0046684 9.67 SCN1B SCN2B
39 AV node cell to bundle of His cell communication GO:0086067 9.66 GJA5 SCN5A
40 membrane depolarization during Purkinje myocyte cell action potential GO:0086047 9.65 SCN1B SCN5A
41 cardiac muscle cell action potential involved in contraction GO:0086002 9.5 KCNE2 KCNJ2 SCN1B SCN2B SCN3B SCN4B
42 regulation of ventricular cardiac muscle cell membrane repolarization GO:0060307 9.17 GJA5 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNQ1 SCN1B SCN4B
43 ion transport GO:0006811 10.21 KCNA5 KCNE2 KCNH2 KCNJ2 KCNQ1 SCN1B
44 transmembrane transport GO:0055085 10.14 ABCC9 GJA5