MCID: ATM075
MIFTS: 42

Autoimmune Encephalitis

Categories: Immune diseases, Infectious diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Autoimmune Encephalitis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Autoimmune Encephalitis:

Name: Autoimmune Encephalitis 53
Hashimoto's Encephalitis 73

Classifications:



External Ids:

UMLS 73 C0393639

Summaries for Autoimmune Encephalitis

NIH Rare Diseases : 53 Autoimmune encephalitis refers to a group of conditions that occur when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy brain cells, leading to inflammation of the brain. People with autoimmune encephalitis may have various neurologic and/or psychiatric symptoms. Neurologic symptoms may include impaired memory and cognition, abnormal movements, seizures, and/or problems with balance, speech, or vision. Psychiatric symptoms may include psychosis, aggression, inappropriate sexual behaviors, panic attacks, compulsive behaviors, euphoria or fear. Symptoms may fluctuate, but often progress over days to a few weeks. Symptoms can progress to loss of consciousness or even coma. Autoimmune encephalitis may be associated with antibodies to proteins on the surface of nerve cells, or within nerve cells. Some of these proteins are involved in passing signals between nerve cells. In some cases it occurs in association with cancer (a paraneoplastic syndrome). Research regarding why specific antibodies attack the body's healthy cells is ongoing. Autoimmune encephalitis generally occurs sporadically, in people with no family history of the condition.   Treatment may involve intravenous immunosuppressive therapy, and tumor removal when necessary. Early treatment decreases the likelihood for long-term complications, speeds recovery, and reduces the risk of recurrence (relapse). If not treated, the condition can lead to progressive neurologic deterioration and loss of life.

MalaCards based summary : Autoimmune Encephalitis, also known as hashimoto's encephalitis, is related to encephalitis and multiple sclerosis. An important gene associated with Autoimmune Encephalitis is CNR1 (Cannabinoid Receptor 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Neuroscience and Eicosanoid ligand-binding receptors. The drugs Hematinics and Epoetin alfa have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, testes and t cells, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and growth/size/body region

Wikipedia : 76 Autoimmune encephalitis is a type of encephalitis that can result from a number of autoimmune diseases... more...

Related Diseases for Autoimmune Encephalitis

Diseases in the Encephalitis family:

Viral Encephalitis Autoimmune Encephalitis

Diseases related to Autoimmune Encephalitis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 79)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 encephalitis 10.9
2 multiple sclerosis 10.2
3 hallucinogen dependence 10.2 CNR1 FAAH
4 polysubstance abuse 10.1 CNR1 FAAH
5 post-traumatic stress disorder 10.1 CNR1 FAAH
6 alcohol abuse 10.1 CNR1 FAAH
7 amnestic disorder 10.1 CNR1 LGI1
8 creutzfeldt-jakob disease 10.1
9 status epilepticus 10.1
10 choreatic disease 10.1 CNTNAP2 LGI1
11 internuclear ophthalmoplegia 10.0 HCRT LGI1
12 epilepsy 10.0
13 glioma 10.0
14 cannabis dependence 10.0 CNR1 FAAH HCRT
15 diverticulitis of colon 10.0 CNR1 TRPV1
16 herpes simplex 10.0
17 somatoform disorder 10.0 FAAH TRPV1
18 diabetic neuropathy 10.0 CNR1 TRPV1
19 bone cancer 9.9 CNR1 TRPV1
20 overnutrition 9.9 CNR1 TRPV1
21 specific developmental disorder 9.9 CNR1 TRPV1
22 thymoma 9.9
23 movement disease 9.9
24 herpes simplex encephalitis 9.9
25 seizure disorder 9.9
26 pain agnosia 9.9 CNR1 FAAH TRPV1
27 agnosia 9.9 CNR1 FAAH TRPV1
28 herpes zoster 9.9 IFNG TRPV1
29 upper respiratory tract disease 9.9 IFNG TRPV1
30 bone inflammation disease 9.8 IFNG TRPV1
31 disease of mental health 9.8 CNR1 HCRT TRPV1
32 migraine with or without aura 1 9.8 CNR1 HCRT TRPV1
33 immune system disease 9.8 IFNG TRPV1
34 speech and communication disorders 9.8 CNTNAP2 LGI1 TRPV1
35 focal epilepsy 9.8 CNTNAP2 LGI1 TRPV1
36 mouth disease 9.8 IFNG TRPV1
37 rheumatoid arthritis 9.7
38 small cell cancer of the lung 9.7
39 lung cancer 9.7
40 myasthenia gravis 9.7
41 aceruloplasminemia 9.7
42 malaria 9.7
43 lung cancer susceptibility 3 9.7
44 ataxia, combined cerebellar and peripheral, with hearing loss and diabetes mellitus 9.7
45 arthritis 9.7
46 brain injury 9.7
47 neuromyelitis optica 9.7
48 temporal lobe epilepsy 9.7
49 traumatic brain injury 9.7
50 lambert-eaton myasthenic syndrome 9.7

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Autoimmune Encephalitis:



Diseases related to Autoimmune Encephalitis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Autoimmune Encephalitis

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Autoimmune Encephalitis:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.91 CNR1 CNTNAP2 FAAH HCRT IFNG LGI1
2 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 9.8 CNR1 CNTNAP2 HCRT IFNG LGI1 TRPV1
3 nervous system MP:0003631 9.76 CNR1 CNTNAP2 FAAH HCRT IFNG LGI1
4 integument MP:0010771 9.73 CNR1 CNTNAP2 FAAH IFNG LGI1 TRPV1
5 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.26 CNR1 IFNG S1PR1 TRPV1
6 taste/olfaction MP:0005394 8.8 CNR1 CNTNAP2 TRPV1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Autoimmune Encephalitis

Drugs for Autoimmune Encephalitis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 52)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Hematinics Phase 4
2 Epoetin alfa Phase 4 113427-24-0
3
Aldesleukin Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 85898-30-2, 110942-02-4
4
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 50-24-8 5755
5
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 302-25-0
6
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 83-43-2 6741
7
rituximab Approved Phase 2 174722-31-7 10201696
8
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 2 2921-57-5
9
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 2 2920-86-7
10 Antiviral Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
11 Anti-Retroviral Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
12 Anti-HIV Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
13 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
14 Methylprednisolone acetate Phase 2
15 Rho(D) Immune Globulin Phase 2
16 Antibodies Phase 2,Not Applicable
17 Prednisolone acetate Phase 2
18 Immunologic Factors Phase 2,Not Applicable
19 gamma-Globulins Phase 2
20 Immunoglobulins Phase 2,Not Applicable
21 Immunoglobulins, Intravenous Phase 2
22 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 2
23 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2
24 Autoantibodies Phase 2
25
Cyclophosphamide Approved, Investigational 6055-19-2, 50-18-0 2907
26
Heparin Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 9005-49-6 772 46507594
27
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Not Applicable 1177-87-3
28
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Not Applicable 50-02-2 5743
29
Vigabatrin Approved Not Applicable 60643-86-9, 68506-86-5 5665
30 Aspartic Acid
31 N-Methylaspartate
32 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
33 Alkylating Agents
34 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists ,Not Applicable
35 Antiemetics
36 Anti-Inflammatory Agents
37 Protective Agents
38 Neuroprotective Agents
39 Immunosuppressive Agents
40 Peripheral Nervous System Agents
41 Hormone Antagonists ,Not Applicable
42 glucocorticoids ,Not Applicable
43 Gastrointestinal Agents
44 Hormones ,Not Applicable
45 Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
46 Autonomic Agents
47 calcium heparin Not Applicable
48 Anticoagulants Not Applicable
49 BB 1101 Not Applicable
50 Neurotransmitter Agents Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 13)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Effect of Erythropoietin in Refractory Autoimmune Encephalitis Patients Unknown status NCT03004209 Phase 4 Erythropoietin
2 IL-2 in Refractory Autoimmune Encephalitis Unknown status NCT02714959 Phase 1, Phase 2 Proleukin
3 IVIG and Rituximab in Antibody-associated Psychosis - SINAPPS2 Recruiting NCT03194815 Phase 2 Intravenous immunoglobulin;Placebo;Rituximab
4 Multicenter and Prospective Clinical Registry Study of Autoimmune Encephalitis in China Unknown status NCT02561260
5 Multicenter and Prospective Clinical Registry Study of Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis in Beijing Area Unknown status NCT02443350
6 Multicenter and Prospective Clinical Registry Study of Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis in China Unknown status NCT02559089
7 To Explore Cognitive Neural Mechanism of Autoimmune Encephalitis by Using Neuropsychological Tests and Multi-modal MRI Completed NCT03530462 rituximab;cyclophosphamide;Steroids;Intravenous immunoglobulin
8 Sodium Intake in Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT01846234
9 Mechanisms of Auto-immune Encephalitis Recruiting NCT02905136
10 Immunotherapy in Autoimmune Encephalitis Recruiting NCT03542279 Not Applicable IVIG, High-dose glucocorticoid
11 Effect of Vigabatrin in Refractory Autoimmune Encephalitis Patients Recruiting NCT03003143 Not Applicable Vigabatrin 500 MG
12 Antibodies Causing Epilepsy Syndromes: The ACES Study. Recruiting NCT02802475
13 Phenotypic and Functional Study of 4BL B Cells in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Not yet recruiting NCT03796611

Search NIH Clinical Center for Autoimmune Encephalitis

Genetic Tests for Autoimmune Encephalitis

Anatomical Context for Autoimmune Encephalitis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Autoimmune Encephalitis:

41
Brain, Testes, T Cells, Lung, Bone, Temporal Lobe, Colon

Publications for Autoimmune Encephalitis

Articles related to Autoimmune Encephalitis:

(show top 50) (show all 249)
# Title Authors Year
1
Autoimmune encephalitis (NMDAR antibody) in a patient receiving chronic post-transplant immunosuppression. ( 29588384 )
2018
2
Isolated pseudotumoural demyelination: A focal, monophasic autoimmune encephalitis? ( 29525395 )
2018
3
Predictive values and specificity of electroencephalographic findings in autoimmune encephalitis diagnosis. ( 29738958 )
2018
4
Coexistence of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome and autoimmune encephalitis with anti-CRMP5/CV2 and anti-GABAB receptor antibodies in small cell lung cancer: A case report. ( 29742721 )
2018
5
EEG Differences in Two Clinically Similar Rapid Dementias: Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Complex-Associated Autoimmune Encephalitis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. ( 29788790 )
2018
6
Perfusion Imaging in Autoimmune Encephalitis. ( 29854534 )
2018
7
Evaluation and Management of Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Clinical Overview for the Practicing Child Psychiatrist. ( 29157501 )
2018
8
Autoimmune encephalitis and psychiatric disorders. ( 29609960 )
2018
9
Autoimmune Encephalitis Following Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis in an Infant. ( 29629704 )
2018
10
Autoimmune Encephalitis Epidemiology and a comparison to Infectious Encephalitis. ( 29293273 )
2018
11
Autoimmune encephalitis associated with two antibodies. ( 29928585 )
2018
12
Differing Outcome of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalitis in Macrophage/Neutrophil- and T Cell-Specific gp130-Deficient Mice. ( 29770132 )
2018
13
Autoimmune encephalitis associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies: a case series. ( 29349679 )
2018
14
Practice Current: When do you suspect autoimmune encephalitis and what is the role of antibody testing? ( 29517071 )
2018
15
Pediatric <i>N</i>-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Autoimmune Encephalitis. ( 29899790 )
2018
16
Glioblastoma as differential diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis. ( 29383516 )
2018
17
Analysis and discussion of the rare complication of autoimmune encephalitis: Two case reports. ( 29979382 )
2018
18
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) with super-refractory status epilepticus revealing autoimmune encephalitis due to GABA<sub>A</sub>R antibodies. ( 29203057 )
2018
19
Paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis associated with pleomorphic lung carcinoma: An autopsy case report. ( 29781194 )
2018
20
NMDA Receptor Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Encephalitis Cause a Subunit-Specific Nanoscale Redistribution of NMDA Receptors. ( 29949761 )
2018
21
Treatment strategies for autoimmune encephalitis. ( 29399043 )
2018
22
High albumin level is a predictor of favorable response to immunotherapy in autoimmune encephalitis. ( 29343812 )
2018
23
Autoimmune encephalitis positive for both anti-I^-aminobutyric acid B receptor and anticollapsin response-mediator protein 5 antibodies: A case report. ( 29504979 )
2018
24
An Update on the Treatment of Pediatric Autoimmune Encephalitis. ( 29780690 )
2018
25
Autoimmune encephalitis with GABA<sub>A</sub>receptor antibodies in a 10-year-old girl. ( 29245105 )
2018
26
Autoimmune Encephalitis as an Extra-articular Manifestation of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Case Report. ( 30449780 )
2018
27
Management of Autoimmune Encephalitis: An Observational Monocentric Study of 38 Patients. ( 30524441 )
2018
28
Cerebrolysin increases motor recovery and decreases inflammation in a mouse model of autoimmune encephalitis. ( 30534814 )
2018
29
Autoimmune encephalitis following alemtuzumab treatment of multiple sclerosis. ( 30553166 )
2018
30
Mechanisms of Caspr2 antibodies in autoimmune encephalitis and neuromyotonia. ( 29244234 )
2018
31
Autoimmune encephalitis: a review of diagnosis and treatment. ( 29364393 )
2018
32
Autoimmune Encephalitis With Multiple Autoantibodies: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge. ( 29494437 )
2018
33
Apathy - Forme Fruste of Autoimmune Encephalitis. ( 29532325 )
2018
34
Long-Term Cognitive Outcomes in Patients with Autoimmune Encephalitis. ( 29936915 )
2018
35
P2X4 receptor controls microglia activation and favors remyelination in autoimmune encephalitis. ( 29973381 )
2018
36
Malignant tumors in autoimmune encephalitis with anti-NMDA receptor antibodies. ( 30003358 )
2018
37
Electroclinical features of seizures associated with autoimmune encephalitis. ( 30031297 )
2018
38
Autoimmune encephalitis after herpes simplex encephalitis: insights into pathogenesis. ( 30049613 )
2018
39
Frequency, symptoms, risk factors, and outcomes of autoimmune encephalitis after herpes simplex encephalitis: a prospective observational study and retrospective analysis. ( 30049614 )
2018
40
Nivolumab-Induced Autoimmune Encephalitis in Two Patients with Lung Adenocarcinoma. ( 30073101 )
2018
41
Two Case Reports of Neuropsychological Outcomes following Pediatric anti-N-methyl D-aspartate Receptor Autoimmune Encephalitis. ( 30095300 )
2018
42
Posttransplant autoimmune encephalitis. ( 30175169 )
2018
43
Tocilizumab in Refractory Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Series of Pediatric Cases. ( 30177347 )
2018
44
Autoimmune encephalitis and immune therapy: lessons from Argentina. ( 30182259 )
2018
45
Autoimmune encephalitis. ( 30188216 )
2018
46
Movement disorders in autoimmune encephalitis and paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. ( 30201423 )
2018
47
Use of intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of autoimmune encephalitis: audit of the NHS experience. ( 30202534 )
2018
48
Efficacy of subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy in a patient with autoimmune encephalitis: a case report. ( 30232671 )
2018
49
Systematic Review: Syndromes, Early Diagnosis, and Treatment in Autoimmune Encephalitis. ( 30233481 )
2018
50
Hippocampal Functional Dynamics Are Clinically Implicated in Autoimmune Encephalitis With Faciobrachial Dystonic Seizures. ( 30233485 )
2018

Variations for Autoimmune Encephalitis

Expression for Autoimmune Encephalitis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Autoimmune Encephalitis.

Pathways for Autoimmune Encephalitis

Pathways related to Autoimmune Encephalitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.87 CNR1 CNTNAP2 HCRT
2
Show member pathways
10.64 CNR1 S1PR1
3 10.07 CNR1 FAAH

GO Terms for Autoimmune Encephalitis

Cellular components related to Autoimmune Encephalitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cell junction GO:0030054 9.26 CNTNAP2 HCRT LGI1 TRPV1
2 intrinsic component of plasma membrane GO:0031226 8.62 S1PR1 TRPV1

Biological processes related to Autoimmune Encephalitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 excitatory postsynaptic potential GO:0060079 9.37 HCRT TRPV1
2 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 9.32 CNR1 IFNG
3 sensory perception of pain GO:0019233 9.26 CNR1 TRPV1
4 positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0045429 9.16 IFNG TRPV1
5 temperature homeostasis GO:0001659 8.96 HCRT TRPV1
6 transmission of nerve impulse GO:0019226 8.62 CNTNAP2 S1PR1

Sources for Autoimmune Encephalitis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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