MCID: BRB001
MIFTS: 44

Beriberi

Categories: Cardiovascular diseases, Metabolic diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases, Respiratory diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Beriberi

MalaCards integrated aliases for Beriberi:

Name: Beriberi 12 74 52 36 54 43 15 17 71 32
Thiamine Deficiency 52 54 17 71 32
Vitamin B1 Deficiency 52

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13725
KEGG 36 H01566
ICD9CM 34 265.0
MeSH 43 D001602
NCIt 49 C34418
SNOMED-CT 67 36656008
ICD10 32 E51 E51.1
UMLS 71 C0005122 C0039841

Summaries for Beriberi

NIH Rare Diseases : 52 Beriberi is a condition that occurs in people who are deficient in thiamine (vitamin B1). There are two major types of beriberi: wet beriberi which affects the cardiovascular system and dry beriberi which affects the nervous system. People with wet beriberi may experience increased heart rate, shortness of breath, and swelling of the lower legs. Signs and symptoms of dry beriberi include difficulty walking; loss of feeling in the hands and/or feet; paralysis of the lower legs; mental confusion; speech difficulty; pain; and/or vomiting. Beriberi is rare in the United States since many foods are now vitamin enriched; however, alcohol abuse, dialysis and taking high doses of diuretics increases the risk of developing the condition. In most cases, beriberi occurs sporadically in people with no family history of the condition. A rare condition known as genetic beriberi is inherited (passed down through families) and is associated with an inability to absorb thiamine from foods. Treatment generally includes thiamine supplementation, given by injection or taken by mouth.

MalaCards based summary : Beriberi, also known as thiamine deficiency, is related to wernicke encephalopathy and alcoholic neuropathy. An important gene associated with Beriberi is TKT (Transketolase), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Metabolism and Metabolism of water-soluble vitamins and cofactors. The drugs Metformin and leucovorin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include heart, brain and liver.

Disease Ontology : 12 A thiamine deficiency disease that is characterized by being severe and chronic.

KEGG : 36 Beriberi is the classical syndrome caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Beriberi has two major clinical manifestations, dry beriberi characterized by neurologic manifestations that include peripheral neuropathy and acute encephalopathy, and wet beriberi with cardiovascular involvement including high cardiac output heart failure. Rarely, a fulminant or pernicious variant, termed Shoshin beriberi may occur, and is characterized by cardiovascular collapse. Appropriate management of this form is mandatory since thiamine supplementation leads to rapid recovery while untreated forms are fatal.

Wikipedia : 74 Thiamine deficiency is a medical condition of low levels of thiamine (vitamin B1). A severe and chronic... more...

Related Diseases for Beriberi

Diseases in the Beriberi family:

Dry Beriberi

Diseases related to Beriberi via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 302)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 wernicke encephalopathy 31.3 TSPO TPK1 TKT THTPA SLC19A3 SLC19A2
2 alcoholic neuropathy 30.2 TKT THTPA
3 thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome 29.9 SLC19A3 SLC19A2
4 thiamine metabolism dysfunction syndrome 2 29.7 TPK1 SLC19A3 SLC19A2
5 wernicke-korsakoff syndrome 29.7 TPK1 TKT THTPA SLC19A3 SLC19A2 OGDH
6 megaloblastic anemia 29.6 TPK1 TKT SLC19A3 SLC19A2
7 wet beriberi 12.7
8 dry beriberi 12.7
9 thiamine deficiency disease 12.5
10 cerebral beriberi 12.3
11 korsakoff's amnesic syndrome 11.4
12 heart disease 10.7
13 lactic acidosis 10.6
14 encephalopathy 10.6
15 polyneuropathy 10.5
16 neuropathy 10.5
17 metabolic acidosis 10.5
18 alcohol dependence 10.5
19 congestive heart failure 10.4
20 peripheral nervous system disease 10.4
21 cardiogenic shock 10.4
22 pathologic nystagmus 10.3
23 kearns-sayre syndrome 10.3
24 hydrops, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia 10.3
25 pulmonary edema 10.3
26 guillain-barre syndrome 10.3
27 paresthesia 10.3
28 inflammatory and toxic neuropathy 10.2 TKT THTPA
29 neuroblastoma 10.2
30 cerebellar degeneration 10.2
31 atrial standstill 1 10.2
32 ataxia and polyneuropathy, adult-onset 10.2
33 leptin deficiency or dysfunction 10.2
34 pulmonary hypertension 10.2
35 alcohol use disorder 10.2
36 subacute delirium 10.1
37 mitochondrial dna depletion syndrome 9 10.1 SLC19A3 SLC19A2
38 graves disease 1 10.1
39 cardiac arrest 10.1
40 short bowel syndrome 10.1
41 respiratory failure 10.1
42 acute kidney failure 10.1
43 myopathy 10.1
44 pellagra 10.1
45 huntington disease 10.0
46 leigh syndrome 10.0
47 body mass index quantitative trait locus 1 10.0
48 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 10.0
49 malaria 10.0
50 ptosis 10.0

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Beriberi:



Diseases related to Beriberi

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Beriberi

Drugs & Therapeutics for Beriberi

Drugs for Beriberi (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 67)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Metformin Approved Phase 4 657-24-9 14219 4091
2
leucovorin Approved Phase 4 58-05-9 6006 143
3
Trimethoprim Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 738-70-5 5578
4
Hydrocortisone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-03-3
5
Hydrocortisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-23-7 5754
6
Entecavir Approved, Investigational Phase 4 142217-69-4 153941
7
Lamivudine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 134678-17-4 60825
8
Folic acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-30-3 6037
9
Thiamine Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 70-16-6, 59-43-8 1130
10
Vitamin C Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-81-7 5785 54670067
11 Folic Acid Antagonists Phase 4
12 Renal Agents Phase 4
13 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 4
14 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 4
15 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 4
16 Antimalarials Phase 4
17 Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary Phase 4
18 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 4
19 Micronutrients Phase 4
20 Vitamins Phase 4
21 Trace Elements Phase 4
22 Vitamin B Complex Phase 4
23 Vitamin B9 Phase 4
24 Nutrients Phase 4
25 Folate Phase 4
26 Thiamin Phase 4
27 Protective Agents Phase 4
28 Hydrocortisone hemisuccinate Phase 4
29 Hydrocortisone-17-butyrate Phase 4
30 Hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate Phase 4
31 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
32 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
33 Antioxidants Phase 4
34 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
35 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Phase 4
36 Anti-Retroviral Agents Phase 4
37 Antiviral Agents Phase 4
38 Anti-HIV Agents Phase 4
39
Ethanol Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 64-17-5 702
40
Magnesium Sulfate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 7487-88-9 24083
41 Analgesics Phase 2, Phase 3
42 Tocolytic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
43 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
44 Anticonvulsants Phase 2, Phase 3
45 calcium channel blockers Phase 2, Phase 3
46 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 2, Phase 3
47 Hormones Phase 2, Phase 3
48 Hormone Antagonists Phase 2
49 glucocorticoids Phase 2
50 pyruvate Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 40)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Preoperative Parenteral Thiamine Supplementation in Patients Undergoing Heart Surgery - a Pilot Study Unknown status NCT01524315 Phase 4 Vitamin B1-ratiopharm;Placebo
2 Prevention of Renal Complications of Diabetes With Thiamine Unknown status NCT01725412 Phase 4
3 Thiamin Deficiency in Obese Thai Children Completed NCT02464865 Phase 4 Thiamine 1;Thiamine 2
4 Thiamine Supplementation in High Risk Cardiac Surgery Patients Completed NCT03306732 Phase 4 Thiamine hydrochloride (200mg) dissolved in 100 ml of normal saline;Normal saline (100ml)
5 Optimum Thiamine Intervention (OpT In) for Treatment and Prevention of Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS): A Randomised Controlled Trial Completed NCT02788552 Phase 4 Thiamine Hydrochloride
6 The Effect of SLC19A3 Inhibition on the Pharmacokinetics of Thiamine Recruiting NCT03746106 Phase 4 Trimethoprim;Metformin
7 Effects of Vitamin C, Thiamine and Hydrocortisone in Septic Shock: a Randomized, Controlled Trial Enrolling by invitation NCT04039815 Phase 4 Ascorbic acid-Vitamin B1-Hydrocortisone;Placebo
8 The Incidence of Lactic Acidosis During Entecavir Treatment in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients With Severe Cirrhosis or Hepatic Failure Terminated NCT01354652 Phase 4 entecavir, lamivudine
9 A Prospective Randomised Controlled Trial of the Effect of Magnesium Sulphate Administration on Red Cell Transketolase Activity in Alcohol Dependent Patients at Risk of Wernicke Korsakoff Syndrome Treated With Thiamine Completed NCT03466528 Phase 2, Phase 3 Magnesium Sulfate;Pabrinex
10 Ascorbic Ccid, Hydrocortisone, and Thiamine in Sepsis and Septic Shock - A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Recruiting NCT03389555 Phase 2, Phase 3 vitamin C, vitamin B1, hydrocortisone;Normal saline
11 Evaluation of Hydrocortisone, Vitamin C and Thiamine for the Treatment of Septic Shock Recruiting NCT03380507 Phase 2, Phase 3 Triple therapy group
12 Effect of IV Vitamin C, Thiamine, and Steroids on Mortality of Septic Shock Enrolling by invitation NCT03828929 Phase 3 Vitamin C;Normal saline
13 The Effect of Thiamine vs. Placebo on VO2 in Critical Illness Completed NCT01985685 Phase 2 Thiamine
14 Outcomes of Metabolic Resuscitation Using Ascorbic Acid, Thiamine, and Glucocorticoids in the Early Treatment of Sepsis. Completed NCT03422159 Phase 2 Ascorbic Acid;Thiamine;Hydrocortisone;Sodium Chloride 0.9%
15 Thiamine as a Renal Protective Agent in Septic Shock: A Randomized, Controlled Study Recruiting NCT03550794 Phase 2 Thiamine Hydrochloride;Placebo
16 Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial of the Effect of Thiamine on Oxygen Consumption After In-hospital Cardiac Arrest. Recruiting NCT02974257 Phase 2 Thiamine
17 Thiamine as Adjunctive Therapy for Diabetic Ketoacidosis Recruiting NCT03717896 Phase 2 200mg IV thiamine in 50mL 0.9% saline;Placebo
18 A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial to Investigate the Effect of Vitamin C, Hydrocortisone and Thiamine on the Outcome of Patients With Septic Shock Recruiting NCT03592693 Phase 2 Combined Vitamin C and Stress-Dose Hydrocortisone;Placebo plus placebo
19 Effect of Combined Vitamin C, Stress-dose Steroids, and Thiamine on Cerebral Autoregulation and Functional Outcomes of Patients With Septic Shock Recruiting NCT03649633 Phase 1, Phase 2 Stress-dose Hydrocortisone plus Vitamin C;isotonic sodium chloride solution placebo plus isotonic sodium chloride solution placebo
20 Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of High Dose Intravenous Thiamine for the Prevention of Delirium in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Enrolling by invitation NCT03263442 Phase 2 Thiamine;Normal saline
21 Pharmacokinetics of Thiamine in Breastfeeding Mothers and Infants Completed NCT01864057 Phase 1 thiamine hydrochloride 100 mg
22 Thiamin Fortified Fish Sauce as a Means of Combating Infantile Beriberi in Rural Cambodia Completed NCT02221063 Phase 1
23 Thiamine Supplementation in Heart Failure: a Pilot Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial Recruiting NCT03228030 Phase 1
24 Thiamine Supplementation in Patients With Septic Shock: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Trial Withdrawn NCT03122678 Phase 1 Thiamine;Placebos
25 Determination Study of Dry Beriberi in Patients Native to the Comoro Archipelago, in Mayotte (MABECO). Unknown status NCT00934349
26 Evaluating the B1 Status in Eating Disorder Female Adolescent Patients Unknown status NCT02164487
27 Assessment of Nutritional Consequences of Sleeve Gastrectomy Unknown status NCT01475903
28 Cutaneous Denervation in Alcoholic Neuropathy Unknown status NCT00190073
29 Efficacy of Thiamine Supplement for Improve Cardiovascular Function in Patients With Severe Hyperthyroidism Completed NCT02767245 Thiamine
30 Thiamine Supplementation to Improve Cardiac Function in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure on Long-term Treatment With Diuretic Drugs Completed NCT00770107 Thiamine;Placebo
31 The Effect of Thiamine on VO2 Levels in Critically Ill Patients Completed NCT01462279 Thiamine
32 The Prevalence of Thiamin Deficiency in Ambulatory Patients With Heart Failure Completed NCT00953823
33 Epidemiology of Long QTand Asian Sudden Death in Sleep Completed NCT00005367
34 Glycemic Index of Bread: Fiber or Minerals? This is the Question. Completed NCT02598986
35 A Study to Establish a Case Definition of Thiamine Responsive Disorders (TRD) Among Infants in Lao PDR Recruiting NCT03626337 Thiamine 100 MG/ML
36 The Relation Between Acute Changes in the Systemic Inflammatory Response, Thiamine and Magnesium Concentrations and Transketolase Activity After Elective Knee Arthroplasty. Recruiting NCT03554668
37 Thiamine As An Adjuvant Therapy For Hyperlactatemia In Septic Shock Patients: A Prospective Randomized Study Recruiting NCT03649009 Thiamine;Hydrocortisone
38 Improving Estimates of the Global Burden of Thiamine Deficiency Disorders and Approaches to Their Control: Trial of Thiamine Supplementation in Cambodia Active, not recruiting NCT03616288
39 Evaluation of s100β, NSE and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Levels in Preoperative and Postoperative Renal Transplantation Not yet recruiting NCT04042272
40 A Randomized Double Blinded Pilot Study of Oral Thiamine in the Symptomatic Treatment of Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Withdrawn NCT00279266 Thiamine

Search NIH Clinical Center for Beriberi

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


Thiamine hydrochloride
Thiamine Mononitrate

Cochrane evidence based reviews: beriberi

Genetic Tests for Beriberi

Anatomical Context for Beriberi

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Beriberi:

40
Heart, Brain, Liver, Kidney, Thalamus, Cortex, Testes

Publications for Beriberi

Articles related to Beriberi:

(show top 50) (show all 2305)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Thiamine deficiency-related brain dysfunction in chronic liver failure. 54 61
19067139 2009
2
Outbreak of life-threatening thiamine deficiency in infants in Israel caused by a defective soy-based formula. 54 61
15687431 2005
3
Neuronal localization of the 25-kDa specific thiamine triphosphatase in rodent brain. 54 61
15120844 2004
4
Thiamine deficiency and malaria in adults from southeast Asia. 54 61
10028983 1999
5
Clinical relevance of thiamine status amongst hospitalized elderly patients. 54 61
9933732 1999
6
Thiamine deficiency decreases steady-state transketolase and pyruvate dehydrogenase but not alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase mRNA levels in three human cell types. 54 61
9521628 1998
7
Thiamine pyrophosphate effect and normalized erythrocyte transketolase activity ratio in Wernicke-Korsakoff patients and acute alcoholics undergoing detoxification. 54 61
8949966 1996
8
Thiamine pyrophosphate-requiring enzymes are altered during pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency in cultured human lymphoblasts. 54 61
8683340 1996
9
Brain thiamine, its phosphate esters, and its metabolizing enzymes in Alzheimer's disease. 54 61
8619543 1996
10
Molecular cloning of tissue-specific transcripts of a transketolase-related gene: implications for the evolution of new vertebrate genes. 54 61
8838793 1996
11
Reduced activities of thiamine-dependent enzymes in brains of alcoholics in the absence of Wernicke's encephalopathy. 54 61
7485819 1995
12
Thiamine deficiency in cultured neuroblastoma cells: effect on mitochondrial function and peripheral benzodiazepine receptors. 54 61
7722487 1995
13
Heterogeneous expression of transketolase in rat brain. 54 61
7861132 1995
14
The thiamine-dependent hysteretic behavior of human transketolase: implications for thiamine deficiency. 54 61
7861245 1995
15
Thiamine utilization in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced brain damage. 54 61
8974347 1994
16
Cloning of human transketolase cDNAs and comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the coding region in Wernicke-Korsakoff and non-Wernicke-Korsakoff individuals. 54 61
8419340 1993
17
Early recognition of thiamine deficiency: ocular motor deficits in a patient with nutritional deprivation due to persistent antibiotic-related nausea. 61
31606875 2020
18
Thiamine Deficiency in a Nondrinker and Secondary Pulmonary Edema after Thiamine Replenishment. 61
31534090 2020
19
Thiamine Deficiency Modulates p38MAPK and Heme Oxygenase-1 in Mouse Brain: Association with Early Tissue and Behavioral Changes. 61
31989470 2020
20
Severe thiamine deficiency in eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua). 61
31895939 2020
21
Understanding and Eliminating the Detrimental Effect of Thiamine Deficiency on the Oleaginous Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. 61
31704686 2020
22
Potential thiamine deficiency in elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer undergoing chemotherapy
. 61
31983387 2020
23
Thiamine deficiency and oxidative stress induced by prolonged metronidazole therapy can explain its side effects of neurotoxicity and infertility in experimental animals: Effect of grapefruit co-therapy. 61
31997653 2020
24
Prevalence and Improvement of Caine-Positive Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome in Psychiatric Inpatient Admissions. 61
31607504 2020
25
Drug-nutrient interactions: discovering prescription drug inhibitors of the thiamine transporter ThTR-2 (SLC19A3). 61
31764942 2020
26
Chapter 6: Vitamins and Oral Health. 61
31940621 2020
27
A Review of Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Properties of the Genus Saururus. 61
31964158 2020
28
Among-family variation in survival and gene expression uncovers adaptive genetic variation in a threatened fish. 61
31837181 2019
29
Gastrointestinal Beriberi Mimicking a Surgical Emergency in a Well-Nourished Patient: A Case Report. 61
31993570 2019
30
Thiamine deficiency in the bereaved after cancer-related spousal loss. 61
31104649 2019
31
Atypical presentation of a forgotten disease: refractory hypotension in beriberi. 61
31285553 2019
32
Effects of Chronic Voluntary Alcohol Drinking on Thiamine Concentrations, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, and Oxidative Stress in the Brain of Crossed High Alcohol Preferring Mice. 61
30972556 2019
33
Prevalent Low Thiamine Status Among Adults Living in Seoul Metropolitan Area (South Korea). 61
30982440 2019
34
Subtle object location perception deficits in Korsakoff's syndrome. 61
31304867 2019
35
Wernicke encephalopathy associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. 61
31784394 2019
36
Development and validation of a dried blood spot test for thiamine deficiency among infants by HPLC-fluorimetry. 61
31353499 2019
37
Thiamine transporter 2 is involved in high glucose-induced damage and altered thiamine availability in cell models of diabetic retinopathy. 61
31726874 2019
38
Micronutrient deficiencies and their public health implications for South-East Asia. 61
31567223 2019
39
Potential thiamine deficiency and neurological symptoms in patients receiving chemotherapy for gastrointestinal cancer. 61
31657715 2019
40
Thiamine deficiency observed in a cancer patient's caregiver. 61
30696506 2019
41
Wernicke encephalopathy following gastrojejunostomy: A case report and review of the literature. 61
31687617 2019
42
Subclinical thiamine deficiency identified by preoperative evaluation in an ovarian cancer patient: Diagnosis and the need for preoperative thiamine measurement. 61
30168403 2019
43
Functional neurological symptoms masquerading as Wernicke encephalopathy following bariatric surgery. 61
31656438 2019
44
A Case of Ascending Sensory Neuropathy Due to Acute Onset Thiamine Deficiency After Intragastric Balloon Placement. 61
31134479 2019
45
Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies for the Mycotoxin Citreoviridin. 61
31671523 2019
46
Vertical nystagmus in Wernicke's encephalopathy: pathogenesis and role of central processing of information from the otoliths. 61
31028542 2019
47
Matched Retrospective Cohort Study of Thiamine to Treat Persistent Hyperlactatemia in Pediatric Septic Shock. 61
31274776 2019
48
Thiamine deficiency affects glucose transport and β-oxidation in rats. 61
31259440 2019
49
Citreoviridin induces myocardial apoptosis through PPAR-γ-mTORC2-mediated autophagic pathway and the protective effect of thiamine and selenium. 61
31419397 2019
50
Thiamine deficiency in a patient with recurrent renal cell carcinoma who developed weight loss with normal appetite and loss of energy soon after nivolumab treatment. 61
31535612 2019

Variations for Beriberi

Expression for Beriberi

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Beriberi.

GO Terms for Beriberi

Biological processes related to Beriberi according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 generation of precursor metabolites and energy GO:0006091 9.4 THTPA OGDH
2 vitamin transport GO:0051180 9.37 SLC19A3 SLC19A2
3 vitamin transmembrane transport GO:0035461 9.32 SLC19A3 SLC19A2
4 thiamine metabolic process GO:0006772 9.26 TPK1 THTPA
5 thiamine transport GO:0015888 9.16 SLC19A3 SLC19A2
6 thiamine transmembrane transport GO:0071934 9.13 SLC25A19 SLC19A3 SLC19A2
7 thiamine-containing compound metabolic process GO:0042723 9.02 TPK1 THTPA SLC25A19 SLC19A3 SLC19A2

Molecular functions related to Beriberi according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cofactor binding GO:0048037 9.26 TKT HACL1
2 vitamin transmembrane transporter activity GO:0090482 9.16 SLC19A3 SLC19A2
3 thiamine pyrophosphate binding GO:0030976 8.96 OGDH HACL1
4 thiamine transmembrane transporter activity GO:0015234 8.8 SLC25A19 SLC19A3 SLC19A2

Sources for Beriberi

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....