MCID: BLD062
MIFTS: 59

Bile Duct Cancer

Categories: Cancer diseases, Gastrointestinal diseases, Liver diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Bile Duct Cancer

MalaCards integrated aliases for Bile Duct Cancer:

Name: Bile Duct Cancer 12 53 55 43 15
Bile Duct Carcinoma 12 15
Malignant Neoplasm of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct 12
Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer 53
Ca Extrahepatic Bile Ducts 12
Bile Duct Neoplasms 44
Bile Duct Tumor 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:4606 DOID:4897
ICD10 33 C24.0
ICD9CM 35 156.1
MeSH 44 D001650
SNOMED-CT 68 93790004 70179006

Summaries for Bile Duct Cancer

NIH Rare Diseases : 53 The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.Orpha Number: 70567Disease definitionCholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a biliary tract cancer (BTC, see this term) originating in the epithelium of the biliary tree, either intra or extra hepatic.EpidemiologyThe prevalence is unknown but it accounts for approximately 3% of gastrointestinal tumors and 10-15% of all hepatobiliary malignancies.Clinical descriptionCCA can occur in the intra or extra-hepatic biliary tract. A specific type of extra-hepatic CCA known as a Klatskin tumor (see this term) occurs at the junction where the left and right hepatic bile ducts meet the common bile duct (CBD). It is slightly more prevalent in males than females (1.3:1.0) and usually presents in the fifth to seventh decade of life. Clinical manifestations are not usually noted until an advanced disease stage. Extra-hepatic CCA manifests with signs of cholestasis (jaundice, pale stools, dark urine, pruritus), malaise, weight loss and/or progressive weakness. Intra-hepatic CCA may present with an abdominal mass or with non-specific symptoms of decreased appetite, weight loss, abdominal pain and malaise.EtiologyThe etiology is unknown and most cases of CCA occur sporadically. Risk factors include primary sclerosing cholangitis (see this term), secondary sclerosing cholangitis, chronic typhoid carriage, parasitic infections (Opisthochis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis), exposure to thorotrast (x-ray contrast medium) and choledochal cysts, all of which cause chronic biliary inflammation.Diagnostic methodsDiagnosis is suspected on clinical and laboratory findings. Serum carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 is the glycoprotein tumor marker most often used in the diagnosis of CCA. It is found to be elevated in 85% of patients. Increased CEA levels are also noted. Extra-hepatic tumors cause increased levels of alkaline phosphate (ALP), conjugated bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) while intra-hepatic have only slightly elevated ALP levels. Abdominal imaging, visualization of the biliary tree and biopsies of the lesion are necessary for diagnosis. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) provides information on intrahepatic metastases, biliary anatomy and tumor extension and is used in the staging of CCA. It has been advocated to replace endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), a more invasive method. Visualization of the biliary tree and samples through brush cytology or bile duct biopsies are obtained with ERCP. A needle biopsy is performed in those with a liver mass. Extra-hepatic CCA is further divided into anatomical subtypes according to the Bismuth classification and a disease stage is given. Ultrasound, and contrast enhanced helical computerized computed tomography (CT) can be used in visualizing the extent of disease.Differential diagnosisIntra-hepatic CCA is often mistaken for metastatic adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma of the gallbladder (see this term), benign strictures and Mirizzi syndrome should be excluded.Management and treatmentSurgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment for CCA but recurrences after surgery are frequent. Unfortunately CCA is often diagnosed as unresectable because of local extension and/or metastases. Distal CCA arising from the CBD is often treated by pancreatoduodenectomy. More proximal CCA needs hepatic resection. Palliative management involves biliary drainage by inserting metal stents in the biliary tree to release the blockage. Adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery or palliative chemotherapy for unresectable CCA is indicated. Gemcitabine combined with cisplatin therapy is the standard treatment for unresectable biliary tract cancers, including CCA.PrognosisAs proximal CCA is usually not diagnosed until a late stage of disease, prognosis is poor with 5-year survival rates of 20-50% after resection and almost 0% in unresectable tumors. Death is often due to biliary sepsis, cancer cachexia, malnutrition and liver failure.Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.

MalaCards based summary : Bile Duct Cancer, also known as bile duct carcinoma, is related to cholangiocarcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. An important gene associated with Bile Duct Cancer is NCAM1 (Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Cytokine Signaling in Immune system and Human cytomegalovirus infection. The drugs Celecoxib and Pancrelipase have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include liver, testes and small intestine, and related phenotypes are Decreased viability with paclitaxel and Decreased viability with paclitaxel

Disease Ontology : 12 A biliary tract cancer that is located in the bile duct.

MedlinePlus : 43 Your liver makes a digestive juice called bile. Your gallbladder stores it between meals. When you eat, your gallbladder pushes the bile into tubes called bile ducts. They carry the bile to your small intestine. The bile helps break down fat. It also helps the liver get rid of toxins and wastes. Bile duct cancer is rare. It can happen in the parts of the bile ducts that are outside or inside the liver. Cancer of the bile duct outside of the liver is much more common. Risk factors include having inflammation of the bile duct, ulcerative colitis, and some liver diseases. Symptoms can include Jaundice Itchy skin Fever Abdominal pain Tests to diagnose bile duct cancer may include a physical exam, imaging tests of the liver and bile ducts, blood tests, and a biopsy. Treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. NIH: National Cancer Institute

Wikipedia : 76 Cholangiocarcinoma, also known as bile duct cancer, is a form of cancer that is composed of mutated... more...

Related Diseases for Bile Duct Cancer

Diseases in the Bile Duct Cancer family:

Bile Duct Carcinoma in Situ Common Bile Duct Neoplasm

Diseases related to Bile Duct Cancer via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 162)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cholangiocarcinoma 32.8 ASPH CCND1 EGFR IL6 KRT19 MET
2 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma 32.4 EGFR KRT19 TP53
3 bile duct adenocarcinoma 31.3 ANXA8L1 KRT19 PPFIBP2 PRRT2 TCFL5 TP53
4 adenocarcinoma 30.6 CCND1 EGFR TP53 VEGFA
5 in situ carcinoma 30.1 ANXA8L1 EGFR TP53
6 hepatocellular carcinoma 30.0 CCND1 EGFR IL6 KRT19 MAPK3 MET
7 renal cell carcinoma, nonpapillary 29.9 EGFR KRT19 MET MMP2 VEGFA
8 kidney cancer 29.8 MET TP53 VEGFA
9 bladder cancer 29.8 CCND1 EGFR KRT19 MMP2 TP53 VEGFA
10 gastric cancer 29.8 CCND1 EGFR MAPK3 MET MMP2 TP53
11 pancreas adenocarcinoma 29.6 CCND1 EGFR KRT19 MAPK3 MET MSLN
12 pancreatic cancer 29.5 CCND1 EGFR KRT19 MAPK3 MET MSLN
13 adenosquamous bile duct carcinoma 12.5
14 bile duct carcinoma in situ 12.4
15 common bile duct neoplasm 12.4
16 squamous cell bile duct carcinoma 12.2
17 biliary tract neoplasm 12.0
18 distal biliary tract carcinoma 11.6
19 klatskin's tumor 11.2
20 extrahepatic bile duct small cell adenocarcinoma 11.2
21 liver sarcoma 11.2
22 extrahepatic bile duct adenocarcinoma 11.2
23 bile duct cystadenocarcinoma 10.4
24 cholangitis 10.4
25 sclerosing cholangitis 10.4
26 adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary tract 10.3
27 squamous cell carcinoma of gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary tract 10.3
28 cholangitis, primary sclerosing 10.3
29 gallbladder cancer 10.3
30 brain ependymoma 10.3 EGFR TP53
31 hidradenocarcinoma 10.3 CCND1 EGFR TP53
32 oropharynx cancer 10.3 CCND1 EGFR TP53
33 penile cancer 10.3 CCND1 EGFR TP53
34 lung benign neoplasm 10.3 EGFR NCAM1 TP53
35 soft tissue sarcoma 10.3 EGFR TP53 VEGFA
36 mature b-cell neoplasm 10.3 IL6 NCAM1 TP53
37 esophageal disease 10.2 CCND1 EGFR TP53
38 primary peritoneal carcinoma 10.2 EGFR TP53 VEGFA
39 small cell carcinoma 10.2 EGFR NCAM1 TP53
40 estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer 10.2 CCND1 EGFR TP53
41 nasopharyngeal disease 10.2 CCND1 TP53 VEGFA
42 ductal carcinoma in situ 10.2 CCND1 EGFR TP53
43 ovarian cancer 1 10.2 MMP2 TP53 VEGFA
44 bile duct cysts 10.2
45 serous cystadenocarcinoma 10.2 MMP2 TP53 VEGFA
46 central nervous system cancer 10.2 EGFR TP53 VEGFA
47 autonomic nervous system neoplasm 10.2 CYCS NCAM1 TP53
48 leukocyte disease 10.2 CCND1 IL6 NCAM1 TP53
49 laryngeal disease 10.2 CCND1 EGFR MMP2 TP53
50 plasma cell leukemia 10.2 CCND1 NCAM1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Bile Duct Cancer:



Diseases related to Bile Duct Cancer

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Bile Duct Cancer

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Bile Duct Cancer according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability with paclitaxel GR00179-A-1 8.92 EGFR MAPK3
2 Decreased viability with paclitaxel GR00179-A-3 8.92 EGFR MAPK3

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Bile Duct Cancer:

46 (show all 17)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular MP:0005384 10.37 ANXA8L1 CCND1 CLDN18 CYCS EGFR FSCN1
2 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.31 ASPH CCND1 CYCS EGFR IL6 KRT19
3 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.27 ASPH CCND1 CYCS EGFR FSCN1 IL6
4 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.24 ASPH CCND1 CLDN18 EGFR IL6 KRT19
5 immune system MP:0005387 10.23 ANXA8L1 CCND1 CLDN18 CYCS EGFR FSCN1
6 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.22 ABCC2 ANXA8L1 CCND1 CLDN18 CYCS EGFR
7 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.22 ASPH CCND1 CYCS EGFR FSCN1 IL6
8 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.21 CCND1 CLDN18 CYCS EGFR IL6 KRT19
9 craniofacial MP:0005382 10.2 ASPH CCND1 CYCS EGFR MAPK3 MET
10 embryo MP:0005380 10.13 CYCS EGFR FSCN1 KRT19 MAPK3 MET
11 nervous system MP:0003631 10.03 CCND1 CYCS EGFR IL6 KRT19 MAPK3
12 neoplasm MP:0002006 10.02 ASPH CCND1 EGFR IL6 KRT19 MAPK3
13 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.98 ABCC2 EGFR IL6 MAPK3 MET TP53
14 muscle MP:0005369 9.97 ASPH EGFR IL6 MAPK3 MET MMP2
15 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.81 CCND1 CLDN18 EGFR IL6 MAPK3 MET
16 skeleton MP:0005390 9.7 CCND1 CLDN18 CYCS EGFR IL6 KRT19
17 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.28 CCND1 EGFR IL6 MAPK3 MET MMP2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Bile Duct Cancer

Drugs for Bile Duct Cancer (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 313)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 169590-42-5 2662
2
Pancrelipase Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1 53608-75-6
3
Isoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Not Applicable 26675-46-7 3763
4
Sevoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 28523-86-6 5206
5
Desflurane Approved Phase 4,Not Applicable 57041-67-5 42113
6
Oxaliplatin Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 61825-94-3 43805 6857599 5310940 9887054
7
Meperidine Approved Phase 4 57-42-1 4058
8
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 59467-70-8 4192
9
Etomidate Approved Phase 4 33125-97-2 667484 36339
10
Bilirubin Phase 4,Not Applicable 635-65-4 5280352
11 Analgesics Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2,Not Applicable
12 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
13 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 4
14 Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors Phase 4
15 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
16 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2,Not Applicable
17 pancreatin Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1
18 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
19 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
20 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
21 arginine Phase 4
22 Omega 3 Fatty Acid Phase 4
23 Anesthetics, Inhalation Phase 4,Not Applicable
24 Anesthetics, General Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
25 Liver Extracts Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
26 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
27 Anesthetics Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
28 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 4
29 Cola Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2,Not Applicable
30
Bismuth Phase 4,Phase 3 7440-69-9 16682734 105143
31 GABA Modulators Phase 4,Not Applicable
32 GABA Agents Phase 4,Not Applicable
33 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
34 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 4,Not Applicable
35 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
36 Adjuvants, Anesthesia Phase 4,Phase 3
37 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
38 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
39 Narcotics Phase 4,Phase 3,Not Applicable
40 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
41 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4,Phase 3
42
Capecitabine Approved, Investigational Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 154361-50-9 60953
43
Gemcitabine Approved Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 95058-81-4 60750
44
Trioxsalen Approved Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3,Not Applicable 3902-71-4 5585
45
Fluorouracil Approved Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable 51-21-8 3385
46
Levoleucovorin Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3,Phase 1 68538-85-2
47
leucovorin Approved Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3,Phase 1 58-05-9 6006 143
48
Cisplatin Approved Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 15663-27-1 2767 441203 84093
49
Ursodeoxycholic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 128-13-2 31401
50
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 437-38-7 3345

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 506)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Quality of Life in Patients With Unresectable Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma on Palliative Metallic Stent Versus Plastic Stent Unknown status NCT00746538 Phase 4
2 Preoperative Biliary Drainage for Resectable Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma Unknown status NCT00797121 Phase 4
3 Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor for Adjuvant Anticancer Effect in Patients With Biliary-pancreas Cancer Unknown status NCT01111591 Phase 4 Cox2 inhibitor (Celecoxib)
4 Effects of Preoperative Immunonutrition in Patients Undergoing Hepatectomy Unknown status NCT01256047 Phase 4
5 Anesthetic Agents and Acute Kidney Injury After Liver Resection Surgery Unknown status NCT02174575 Phase 4 Sevoflurane;Desflurane
6 Relationship Between Platinum Levels in the Blood and Neurotoxicity in Patients Who Are Receiving Oxaliplatin for Gastrointestinal Cancer Unknown status NCT00274885 Phase 4 oxaliplatin
7 Uncovered Self-expandable Metal Stent Versus Double Layer Plastic Stent for Malignant Hilar Stricture Unknown status NCT01125865 Phase 4
8 Efficacy and Cost Analysis of Plastic Stent Compare to Metallic Stent in Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma Completed NCT00721175 Phase 4
9 Effects of Preoperative Immunonutrition in Patients Undergoing Pancreaticoduodenectomy Completed NCT01256034 Phase 4
10 Comparing Covered Self-expandable Metallic Stent (SEMS) Above/Across the Sphincter of Oddi Completed NCT01041612 Phase 4
11 Influence of an Oral Nutritional Supplement Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Functional State and Quality of Life in Malnourished Patients With Gastroenterological Tumors Completed NCT00168987 Phase 4 oral nutritional supplement rich in eicosapentanoic acid
12 Biliary Metal Stent Study: Metal Stents for Management of Distal Malignant Biliary Obstruction Completed NCT00280709 Phase 4
13 Etomidate vs. Midazolam for Sedation During ERCP Completed NCT02027311 Phase 4 Etomidate;Midazolam;Meperidine
14 Early Oral Versus Enteral Nutrition After Pancreatoduodenectomy Recruiting NCT01642875 Phase 4
15 Percutaneous Bilateral Versus Unilateral Metal Stent for Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma Unknown status NCT02108145 Phase 2, Phase 3
16 Oxaliplatin+Gemcitabine vs Capecitabine as Adjuvant Therapy for Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Unknown status NCT02548195 Phase 3 oxaliplatin and gemcitabine;capecitabine
17 Comparison of Endoscopic Radiofrequency Ablation Versus Photodynamic Therapy for Inoperable Cholangiocarcinoma Unknown status NCT01739465 Phase 2, Phase 3
18 Unilateral Versus Bilateral Stents for Bismuth Type II and III Malignant Hilar Strictures Unknown status NCT00653978 Phase 3
19 Early Enteral Feeding After Pylorus Preserving Pancreatoduodenectomy Unknown status NCT00809081 Phase 3
20 S-1 and Photodynamic Therapy in Cholangiocarcinoma Completed NCT00869635 Phase 3 S-1 Chemotherapy
21 Gemcitabine With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Unresectable Locally Advanced or Metastatic Cholangiocarcinoma or Other Biliary Tract Tumors Completed NCT00262769 Phase 3 cisplatin;gemcitabine hydrochloride
22 Biliary Stenting With or Without Photodynamic Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Cholangiocarcinoma or Other Biliary Tract Tumors That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery Completed NCT00513539 Phase 3 porfimer sodium
23 Gemcitabine Hydrochloride and Oxaliplatin or Observation in Treating Patients With Biliary Tract Cancer That Has Been Removed by Surgery Completed NCT01313377 Phase 3 gemcitabine hydrochloride;oxaliplatin
24 Fluorouracil, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy or Gemcitabine and Oxaliplatin in Treating Patients With Nonmetastatic Biliary Tract Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery Completed NCT00304135 Phase 2, Phase 3 cisplatin;gemcitabine hydrochloride;oxaliplatin
25 Capecitabine or Observation After Surgery in Treating Patients With Biliary Tract Cancer Completed NCT00363584 Phase 3 capecitabine
26 Trial of High-dose Urso in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Completed NCT00059202 Phase 2, Phase 3 Ursodeoxycholic Acid
27 Comprehensive Electronic Cancer Support System for the Treatment of Cancer Related Symptoms Completed NCT01640522 Phase 3
28 Fentanyl Sublingual Spray in Treating Patients With Breakthrough Cancer Pain Completed NCT00538850 Phase 3 Fentanyl sublingual spray;Placebo
29 Ondansetron With or Without Dexamethasone to Prevent Vomiting in Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy to the Upper Abdomen Completed NCT00016380 Phase 3 dexamethasone;ondansetron
30 Percutaneous Hepatic Perfusion vs. Cisplatin/Gemcitabine in Patients With Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Recruiting NCT03086993 Phase 2, Phase 3 Cisplatin and Gemcitabine
31 A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Pemigatinib Versus Chemotherapy in Unresectable or Metastatic Cholangiocarcinoma - (FIGHT-302) Recruiting NCT03656536 Phase 3 Pemigatinib;Gemcitabine;Cisplatin
32 Bortezomib in Intrahepatic Cholangiocellular Carcinoma Recruiting NCT03345303 Phase 3 Bortezomib
33 Chemo Alone or in Combination With Radiation in Unresectable Cholangiocarcinoma Recruiting NCT02773485 Phase 3 Systemic chemotherapy
34 Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for Palliation of Cholangiocarcinoma Recruiting NCT01755013 Phase 2, Phase 3
35 Study of AG-120 in Previously Treated Advanced Cholangiocarcinoma With IDH1 Mutations (ClarIDHy) Recruiting NCT02989857 Phase 3 AG-120;AG-120 matched placebo
36 SIRT Followed by CIS-GEM Chemotherapy Versus CIS-GEM Chemotherapy Alone as 1st Line Treatment of Patients With Unresectable Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Recruiting NCT02807181 Phase 2, Phase 3 Cisplatin-gemcitabine
37 A Study of Second-line Treatment With Apatinib in Patients With Advanced Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Recruiting NCT03251443 Phase 3 Apatinib
38 HAIC Versus Systemic Chemotherapy for Unresectable ICC Recruiting NCT03771846 Phase 3 gemcitabine, oxaliplatin , fluorouracil, and leucovorin;gemcitabine and oxaliplatin
39 Safety and Efficacy of Modified Folfirinox Versus Gemcis in Bile Duct Tumours Recruiting NCT02591030 Phase 2, Phase 3 GEMCIS;mFolfirinox
40 Adjuvant Chemotherapy With Gemcitabine and Cisplatin Compared to Standard of Care After Curative Intent Resection of Biliary Tract Cancer Recruiting NCT02170090 Phase 3 Gemcitabine;Cisplatin;Capecitabine
41 Clinical Trial of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Compared With Adjuvant Chemotherapy Alone in Patients With Gallbladder Carcinoma and Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Recruiting NCT02798510 Phase 3 capecitabine;gemcitabine
42 Study of GEMOX(Gemcitabine/Oxaliplatin) Versus XELOX(Xeloda/Oxaliplatin) in Advanced Biliary Tract Carcinoma Recruiting NCT01470443 Phase 3 Oxaliplatin;Oxaliplatin
43 Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Biliary Tract Cancer After Curative Resection Recruiting NCT03779035 Phase 3 Gemcitabine;Capecitabine
44 Gemcitabine Hydrochloride and Cisplatin With or Without Nab-Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Advanced Biliary Tract Cancers Recruiting NCT03768414 Phase 3 Cisplatin;Gemcitabine Hydrochloride;Nab-paclitaxel
45 Early Palliative Care in Patients With Metastatic Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers Treated With First-line Chemotherapy Recruiting NCT02853474 Phase 3
46 Liver Cancer Immunotherapy: Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial of Hepcortespenlisimut-L Recruiting NCT02232490 Phase 3
47 Radiofrquency Ablation Combined With Cytokine-induced Killer Cells for the Patients With Cholangiocarcinoma Active, not recruiting NCT02482454 Phase 2, Phase 3
48 Active Symptom Control Alone or With mFOLFOX Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced/ Metastatic Biliary Tract Cancers Active, not recruiting NCT01926236 Phase 3 L-folinic acid;5 FU;Oxaliplatin
49 Early Palliative Care With Standard Care or Standard Care Alone in Improving Quality of Life of Patients With Incurable Lung or Non-colorectal Gastrointestinal Cancer and Their Family Caregivers Active, not recruiting NCT02349412 Phase 3
50 Study of Oral Infigratinib in First Line Cholangiocarcinoma With FGFR2 Gene Fusions/Translocations Not yet recruiting NCT03773302 Phase 3 BGJ398;Gemcitabine;Cisplatin

Search NIH Clinical Center for Bile Duct Cancer

Cochrane evidence based reviews: bile duct neoplasms

Genetic Tests for Bile Duct Cancer

Anatomical Context for Bile Duct Cancer

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Bile Duct Cancer:

41
Liver, Testes, Small Intestine, Skin, T Cells, Nk Cells, Lymph Node

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology organs/tissues related to Bile Duct Cancer:

19
The Bile Duct

Publications for Bile Duct Cancer

Articles related to Bile Duct Cancer:

(show top 50) (show all 405)
# Title Authors Year
1
Prognostic predictability of the new American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th staging system for distal bile duct cancer: limited usefulness compared with the 7th staging system. ( 29239127 )
2018
2
Transparenchymal glissonean approach: a novel surgical technique for advanced perihilar bile duct cancer. ( 29063245 )
2018
3
Randomized clinical trial of adjuvant gemcitabine chemotherapy versus observation in resected bile duct cancer. ( 29405274 )
2018
4
High expression of MMP-9 is associated with better prognosis in extrahepatic bile duct cancer patients. ( 29422250 )
2018
5
Bile duct angulation and tumor vascularity are useful radiographic features for differentiating pancreatic head cancer and intrapancreatic bile duct cancer. ( 29460125 )
2018
6
Ultra-early occlusion of the normal bile duct after uncovered self-expandable metallic stent placement in unresectable perihilar bile duct cancer. ( 29499092 )
2018
7
Bile duct segmental resection versus pancreatoduodenectomy for middle and distal common bile duct cancer. ( 29732355 )
2018
8
Patterns of failure after resection of extrahepatic bile duct cancer: implications for adjuvant radiotherapy indication and treatment volumes. ( 29739420 )
2018
9
Smoking, alcohol consumption, and risks for biliary tract cancer and intrahepatic bile duct cancer. ( 29760302 )
2018
10
MicroRNA-31 reflects IL-6 expression in cancer tissue and is related with poor prognosis in bile duct cancer. ( 29860474 )
2018
11
Dual-organ invasion is associated with a lower survival rate than single-organ invasion distal bile duct cancer: A multicenter study. ( 30018404 )
2018
12
Massive hemobilia following plastic stent removal in common bile duct cancer associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis (with video). ( 30056613 )
2018
13
Pancreatic and bile duct cancer circulating tumor cells (CTC) form immune-resistant multi-cell type clusters in the portal venous circulation. ( 30067440 )
2018
14
Author Correction: Dual-organ invasion is associated with a lower survival rate than single-organ invasion in distal bile duct cancer: A multicenter study. ( 30097619 )
2018
15
Pattern of distant metastases in primary extrahepatic bile-duct cancer: A SEER-based study. ( 30277653 )
2018
16
Inverse Prognostic Relationships of 18F-FDG PET/CT Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Distal Bile Duct Cancer Undergoing Curative Surgery. ( 30344781 )
2018
17
Cytoplasmic CD133 expression correlates with histologic differentiation and is a significant prognostic factor in extrahepatic bile duct cancer and gallbladder cancer. ( 30405779 )
2018
18
Discovering proteins for chemoprevention and chemotherapy by curcumin in liver fluke infection-induced bile duct cancer. ( 30440021 )
2018
19
miR-122-5p Inhibits the Proliferation, Invasion and Growth of Bile Duct Carcinoma Cells by Targeting ALDOA. ( 30121648 )
2018
20
Prognostic Impact of CD163+ Macrophages in Tumor Stroma and CD8+ T-Cells in Cancer Cell Nests in Invasive Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer. ( 28011489 )
2017
21
One case that developed bile duct cancer all over the progress of repeated cholangitis. ( 28070100 )
2017
22
Claudin-18 coupled with EGFR/ERK signaling contributes to the malignant potentials of bile duct cancer. ( 28624624 )
2017
23
Ceruloplasmin as a prognostic marker in patients with bile duct cancer. ( 28423673 )
2017
24
Adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy with low-dose daily cisplatin for extrahepatic bile duct cancer. ( 28447209 )
2017
25
Phosphorylated Akt Expression as a Favorable Prognostic Factor for Patients Undergoing Curative Resection and Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Proximal Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer. ( 25171299 )
2017
26
Reproductive factors and gallbladder/bile duct cancer: a population-based cohort study in Japan. ( 27164185 )
2017
27
Relationship between the surgical margin status, prognosis, and recurrence in extrahepatic bile duct cancer patients. ( 27491729 )
2017
28
Invasion Depth Measured in Millimeters is a Predictor of Survival in Patients with Distal Bile Duct Cancer: Decision Tree Approach. ( 27549598 )
2017
29
The relationship between vegetable/fruit consumption and gallbladder/bile duct cancer: A population-based cohort study in Japan. ( 27798952 )
2017
30
Over 700 Whipples for Pancreaticobiliary Malignancies: Postoperative Morbidity Is an Additional Negative Prognostic Factor for Distal Bile Duct Cancer. ( 27882511 )
2017
31
CD8+ T Cells That Coexpress RORγt and T-bet Are Functionally Impaired and Expand in Patients with Distal Bile Duct Cancer. ( 28053236 )
2017
32
Outcomes After Radio(chemo)therapy for Non-Metastatic Bile Duct Cancer. ( 28064229 )
2017
33
Clinical Implications of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen-4 Expression on Tumor Cells and Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Patients Undergoing Surgery Plus Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy. ( 28084572 )
2017
34
Role of adjuvant radiotherapy for localized extrahepatic bile duct cancer. ( 28118028 )
2017
35
Karnofsky Performance Score Is Predictive of Survival After Palliative Irradiation of Metastatic Bile Duct Cancer. ( 28179357 )
2017
36
Preoperative Cholangitis Affects Survival Outcome in Patients with Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer. ( 28290140 )
2017
37
Brachytherapy in the treatment of bile duct cancer - a tough challenge. ( 28533809 )
2017
38
Synchronous Gall Bladder and Bile Duct Cancer: A Short Series of Seven Cases and a Brief Review of Literature. ( 28663675 )
2017
39
Portal vein stenting for portal vein stenosis caused by bile duct cancer. ( 28676419 )
2017
40
Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic: Portal vein stent for local recurrence of bile duct cancer. ( 28752686 )
2017
41
Validation of Feasibility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Measurement of Depth of Tumor Invasion in Distal Bile Duct Cancer According to the New American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging System. ( 28780173 )
2017
42
Prognostic Impact of Extracapsular Lymph Node Invasion and Myofibroblastic Activity in Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer. ( 28912637 )
2017
43
Salvage radiotherapy for locoregionally recurrent extrahepatic bile duct cancer after radical surgery. ( 28937265 )
2017
44
Impact of radiation dose in postoperative radiotherapy after R1 resection for extrahepatic bile duct cancer: long term results from a single institution. ( 29100449 )
2017
45
Characterization of Prognostic Factors and the Efficacy of Adjuvant S-1 Chemotherapy in Patients with Post-surgery Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer. ( 29187494 )
2017
46
Surgery Alone Versus Surgery Followed by Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Resected Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer: Treatment Outcome Analysis of 336 Patients. ( 26323644 )
2016
47
Imaging hamster model of bile duct cancer in vivo using fluorescent L-glucose derivatives. ( 26842558 )
2016
48
Is c-Met oncoprotein expression an adverse prognosticator in extrahepatic bile duct cancer treated with curative resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy? ( 26459257 )
2016
49
Long-term use of aspirin linked to reduced risk of developing bile duct cancer. ( 27191426 )
2016
50
Simvastatin Induces Apoptosis and Suppresses Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor in Bile Duct Cancer Cells. ( 26470769 )
2016

Variations for Bile Duct Cancer

Cosmic variations for Bile Duct Cancer:

9 (show top 50) (show all 2850)
# Cosmic Mut ID Gene Symbol COSMIC Disease Classification
(Primary site, Site subtype, Primary histology, Histology subtype)
Mutation CDS Mutation AA GRCh38 Location Conf
1 COSM6974042 ZFHX3 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.6964C>T p.R2322* 16:72795718-72795718 18
2 COSM6957143 ZFHX3 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.3529+1G>A p.? 16:72829778-72829778 18
3 COSM6928728 YAP1 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.434C>G p.T145S 11:102114256-102114256 18
4 COSM6986174 XPO1 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.273G>T p.W91C 2:61522639-61522639 18
5 COSM6975271 XPO1 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.729G>T p.E243D 2:61498703-61498703 18
6 COSM6985358 XPO1 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.338C>T p.T113M 2:61502274-61502274 18
7 COSM6923580 TSC1 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.2551C>T p.Q851* 9:132900789-132900789 18
8 COSM4172016 TSC1 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.737+1G>A p.? 9:132921362-132921362 18
9 COSM308173 TRIM28 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.1475G>T p.R492L 19:58549053-58549053 18
10 COSM44463 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.848G>T p.R283L 17:7673772-7673772 18
11 COSM43687 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.641A>G p.H214R 17:7674890-7674890 18
12 COSM10687 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.527G>A p.C176Y 17:7675085-7675085 18
13 COSM10731 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.707A>G p.Y236C 17:7674256-7674256 18
14 COSM10662 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.743G>A p.R248Q 17:7674220-7674220 18
15 COSM11073 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.1024C>T p.R342* 17:7670685-7670685 18
16 COSM43751 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.673-1G>A p.? 17:7674291-7674291 18
17 COSM44918 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.844C>A p.R282R 17:7673776-7673776 18
18 COSM44240 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.514G>T p.V172F 17:7675098-7675098 18
19 COSM22908 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.376-1G>T p.? 17:7675237-7675237 18
20 COSM44143 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.919+1G>A p.? 17:7673700-7673700 18
21 COSM43836 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.475G>C p.A159P 17:7675137-7675137 18
22 COSM10742 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.578A>G p.H193R 17:7674953-7674953 18
23 COSM1522202 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.1051A>T p.K351* 17:7670658-7670658 18
24 COSM10727 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.438G>A p.W146* 17:7675174-7675174 18
25 COSM44786 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.694A>C p.I232L 17:7674269-7674269 18
26 COSM10660 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.818G>A p.R273H 17:7673802-7673802 18
27 COSM43596 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.841G>A p.D281N 17:7673779-7673779 18
28 COSM43909 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.817C>A p.R273S 17:7673803-7673803 18
29 COSM6917440 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.736A>C p.M246L 17:7674227-7674227 18
30 COSM6081949 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.1060C>T p.Q354* 17:7670649-7670649 18
31 COSM10690 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.473G>A p.R158H 17:7675139-7675139 18
32 COSM10645 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.527G>T p.C176F 17:7675085-7675085 18
33 COSM11071 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.1009C>T p.R337C 17:7670700-7670700 18
34 COSM10749 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.830G>T p.C277F 17:7673790-7673790 18
35 COSM44151 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.535C>A p.H179N 17:7675077-7675077 18
36 COSM44262 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.808T>C p.F270L 17:7673812-7673812 18
37 COSM11078 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.1027G>T p.E343* 17:7670682-7670682 18
38 COSM10883 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.731G>A p.G244D 17:7674232-7674232 18
39 COSM44523 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.863A>G p.N288S 17:7673757-7673757 18
40 COSM10672 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.577C>T p.H193Y 17:7674954-7674954 18
41 COSM11355 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.737T>C p.M246T 17:7674226-7674226 18
42 COSM44226 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.380C>T p.S127F 17:7675232-7675232 18
43 COSM10725 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.701A>G p.Y234C 17:7674262-7674262 18
44 COSM43850 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.659A>C p.Y220S 17:7674872-7674872 18
45 COSM10771 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.749C>T p.P250L 17:7674214-7674214 18
46 COSM10893 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.824G>A p.C275Y 17:7673796-7673796 18
47 COSM7325564 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.916C>A p.R306R 17:7673704-7673704 18
48 COSM45025 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.488A>C p.Y163S 17:7675124-7675124 18
49 COSM10834 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.711G>A p.M237I 17:7674252-7674252 18
50 COSM10779 TP53 biliary tract,bile duct,carcinoma,adenocarcinoma c.818G>T p.R273L 17:7673802-7673802 18

Expression for Bile Duct Cancer

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Bile Duct Cancer.

Pathways for Bile Duct Cancer

Pathways related to Bile Duct Cancer according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 57)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.29 CCND1 EGFR FSCN1 IL6 MAPK3 MET
2
Show member pathways
13.05 CCND1 CYCS EGFR IL6 MAPK3 TP53
3
Show member pathways
12.98 CCND1 EGFR IL6 MAPK3 MET TP53
4
Show member pathways
12.97 CYCS EGFR IL6 MAPK3 TP53 VEGFA
5
Show member pathways
12.88 CCND1 CYCS EGFR MAPK3 TP53 VEGFA
6
Show member pathways
12.8 CCND1 CYCS IL6 MAPK3 TP53
7 12.78 EGFR MAPK3 MET TP53 VEGFA
8
Show member pathways
12.77 CCND1 EGFR MAPK3 MET TP53
9
Show member pathways
12.71 CCND1 EGFR IL6 MAPK3 MET MMP2
10
Show member pathways
12.66 CCND1 CYCS EGFR MAPK3 MMP2 VEGFA
11
Show member pathways
12.62 EGFR IL6 MAPK3 MMP2 TP53
12
Show member pathways
12.56 CCND1 EGFR MAPK3 MMP2 TP53
13 12.53 CCND1 CYCS EGFR IL6 MAPK3 MET
14 12.5 CCND1 EGFR FSCN1 MET TP53 VEGFA
15
Show member pathways
12.46 CCND1 EGFR MAPK3 MET TP53 VEGFA
16
Show member pathways
12.4 CCND1 MAPK3 MET TP53
17 12.3 CCND1 CYCS IL6 TP53
18
Show member pathways
12.21 CCND1 EGFR MAPK3 MET TP53
19 12.2 CCND1 IL6 MAPK3 TP53
20 12.18 CCND1 EGFR TP53 VEGFA
21 12.15 CCND1 EGFR MET TP53
22
Show member pathways
12.14 CCND1 EGFR IL6 MMP2
23
Show member pathways
12.11 CCND1 EGFR IL6 MAPK3
24 12.1 CCND1 EGFR MAPK3 MET MMP2 TP53
25 12.08 EGFR MET MMP2 TP53
26 12.08 CLDN18 EGFR MAPK3 TP53
27
Show member pathways
12.07 CYCS EGFR MAPK3 TP53
28 12.05 IL6 KRT19 MET NCAM1 VEGFA
29 11.99 CCND1 EGFR IL6 MAPK3 TP53
30 11.98 CCND1 EGFR MAPK3 TP53
31 11.92 EGFR IL6 MAPK3 VEGFA
32 11.89 CCND1 IL6 MAPK3 MMP2 VEGFA
33 11.87 CCND1 CYCS TP53
34 11.86 CCND1 FSCN1 IL6 MMP2 TP53 VEGFA
35 11.81 IL6 MAPK3 TP53
36 11.75 EGFR MAPK3 MET
37 11.75 ABCC2 CYCS MAPK3 TP53
38
Show member pathways
11.73 CCND1 EGFR VEGFA
39 11.72 CCND1 EGFR IL6 MAPK3 MMP2 TP53
40 11.7 CCND1 EGFR MAPK3
41 11.7 CYCS EGFR MAPK3 MMP2
42 11.69 EGFR IL6 MMP2
43 11.68 EGFR MAPK3 MET TP53
44
Show member pathways
11.65 CCND1 IL6 MAPK3 MMP2 VEGFA
45
Show member pathways
11.63 CCND1 EGFR MAPK3 MMP2
46 11.6 CCND1 IL6 MAPK3 MMP2
47 11.54 MAPK3 MET NCAM1
48 11.51 CCND1 IL6 MAPK3 TP53 VEGFA
49
Show member pathways
11.48 EGFR MET VEGFA
50 11.48 EGFR MAPK3 VEGFA

GO Terms for Bile Duct Cancer

Cellular components related to Bile Duct Cancer according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cell surface GO:0009986 9.1 ABCC2 EGFR MET MSLN NCAM1 VEGFA

Biological processes related to Bile Duct Cancer according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 12)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 MAPK cascade GO:0000165 9.71 EGFR MAPK3 MET NCAM1
2 positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation GO:0050731 9.67 IL6 TP53 VEGFA
3 positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation GO:0033138 9.63 EGFR IL6 VEGFA
4 liver development GO:0001889 9.61 CCND1 EGFR MET
5 negative regulation of bone resorption GO:0045779 9.51 CLDN18 IL6
6 response to estrogen GO:0043627 9.5 ABCC2 CCND1 KRT19
7 commissural neuron axon guidance GO:0071679 9.48 NCAM1 VEGFA
8 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0001934 9.46 CCND1 EGFR MAPK3 VEGFA
9 positive regulation of production of miRNAs involved in gene silencing by miRNA GO:1903800 9.37 EGFR TP53
10 mitotic G1 DNA damage checkpoint GO:0031571 9.26 CCND1 TP53
11 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.1 CCND1 FSCN1 IL6 MMP2 TP53 VEGFA
12 response to UV-A GO:0070141 8.96 CCND1 EGFR

Molecular functions related to Bile Duct Cancer according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 identical protein binding GO:0042802 9.17 CLDN18 EGFR MAPK3 MET PPFIBP2 TP53
2 protein phosphatase binding GO:0019903 9.13 EGFR MET TP53

Sources for Bile Duct Cancer

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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