MCID: BLD009
MIFTS: 40

Bladder Neck Obstruction

Categories: Nephrological diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Bladder Neck Obstruction

MalaCards integrated aliases for Bladder Neck Obstruction:

Name: Bladder Neck Obstruction 12 15 73
Obstruction of Bladder Neck or Vesicourethral Orifice 12
Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction 44

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13948
ICD10 33 N32.0
ICD9CM 35 596.0
MeSH 44 D001748
NCIt 50 C79541
UMLS 73 C0005694

Summaries for Bladder Neck Obstruction

MalaCards based summary : Bladder Neck Obstruction, also known as obstruction of bladder neck or vesicourethral orifice, is related to urethral stricture and heel spur. An important gene associated with Bladder Neck Obstruction is SIRPA (Signal Regulatory Protein Alpha), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Adhesion and FOXA2 and FOXA3 transcription factor networks. The drugs Tamsulosin and Fesoterodine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include prostate, kidney and testes, and related phenotype is behavior/neurological.

Wikipedia : 76 Bladder neck obstruction is a condition where the bladder neck does not open enough during... more...

Related Diseases for Bladder Neck Obstruction

Diseases related to Bladder Neck Obstruction via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 38)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 urethral stricture 10.7 KLK3 SIRPA
2 heel spur 10.6 HCCS SAMHD1
3 urethral syndrome 10.5 KLK3 SAMHD1
4 hemopneumothorax 10.5 HCCS SAMHD1
5 autonomic nervous system disease 10.4 TAC1 TTR
6 nephrogenic adenoma of the urethra 10.4 ACPP KLK3
7 hypertropia 10.3 SAMHD1 TTR
8 urethral diverticulum 10.3 F3 KLK3
9 bladder disease 10.3 KLK3 TAC1
10 tuberculous epididymitis 10.2 AFP KLK3
11 chilblain lupus 1 10.2 SAMHD1 TNFRSF1B
12 rete testis adenocarcinoma 10.2 AFP KLK3
13 seminal vesicle tumor 10.2 AFP KLK3
14 rete testis neoplasm 10.2 AFP KLK3
15 prostatitis 10.2
16 endodermal sinus tumor 10.2 AFP KLK3
17 analbuminemia 10.1 F3 TTR
18 urethritis 10.0
19 diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic, autosomal 9.9
20 ureterocele 9.9
21 hydronephrosis 9.9
22 neurogenic bladder 9.9
23 diabetes insipidus 9.9
24 posterior urethral valves 9.9
25 hepatic vascular disease 9.8 AFP F3
26 testicular yolk sac tumor 9.8 AFP TTR
27 vein disease 9.8 AFP F3
28 hepatitis a 9.7 AFP F3
29 vesicoureteral reflux 1 9.7
30 aging 9.7
31 prostatic hypertrophy 9.7
32 ehlers-danlos syndrome 9.7
33 cystitis 9.7
34 uremia 9.7
35 aneurysm 9.7
36 carpal tunnel syndrome 9.7 TAC1 TTR
37 placenta disease 9.6 AFP F3
38 placental insufficiency 9.5 AFP F3

Comorbidity relations with Bladder Neck Obstruction via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 30)


Acute Cystitis Acute Kidney Failure
Balanoposthitis Bladder Cancer
Bladder Disease Chronic Kidney Failure
Cystitis Cystitis Cystica
Epididymo-Orchitis Gout
Hydronephrosis Kidney Disease
Lipoma of Spermatic Cord Nephrolithiasis, X-Linked Recessive, with Renal Failure
Neurogenic Bladder Peyronie's Disease
Prostate Calculus Prostate Cancer
Prostate Carcinoma in Situ Prostatic Hypertrophy
Prostatitis Prostatocystitis
Radiation Cystitis Spermatocele
Ureterolithiasis Urethral Calculus
Urethral Stricture Urethritis
Urinary Tract Obstruction Vesicoureteral Reflux 1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Bladder Neck Obstruction:



Diseases related to Bladder Neck Obstruction

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Bladder Neck Obstruction

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Bladder Neck Obstruction:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.23 ACPP AFP CLN3 F3 PURA SIRPA

Drugs & Therapeutics for Bladder Neck Obstruction

Drugs for Bladder Neck Obstruction (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 64)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Tamsulosin Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 106133-20-4 129211
2
Fesoterodine Approved Phase 4 286930-03-8, 286930-02-7 6918558
3
Alfuzosin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 81403-80-7 2092
4
Doxazosin Approved Phase 4 74191-85-8 3157
5
Silodosin Approved Phase 4 160970-54-7
6
Dutasteride Approved, Investigational Phase 4 164656-23-9 152945 6918296
7
Baclofen Approved Phase 4 1134-47-0 2284
8
Ezogabine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 150812-12-7 121892
9 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
10 Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
11 Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
12 Adrenergic Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
13 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
14 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
15 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1
16 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1
17 Tolterodine tartrate Phase 4 124937-52-6
18 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4
19 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors Phase 4
20 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
21 Hormones Phase 4
22 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
23 Steroid Synthesis Inhibitors Phase 4
24 Coagulants Phase 4
25 Hemostatics Phase 4
26 Anticonvulsants Phase 4
27
Acetylcholine Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 51-84-3 187
28 abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 2, Phase 3
29 Botulinum Toxins Phase 2, Phase 3
30 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 2, Phase 3
31 Neuromuscular Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
32 onabotulinumtoxinA Phase 2, Phase 3
33 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
34 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2, Phase 3
35 Mirabegron Approved Phase 2 223673-61-8 9865528
36
Tadalafil Approved, Investigational Phase 2 171596-29-5 110635
37 Solifenacin succinate Phase 2,Phase 1 242478-38-2
38 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 2
39 Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Agonists Phase 2
40 Adrenergic beta-Agonists Phase 2
41 Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors Phase 2
42 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Phase 2
43 Vasodilator Agents Phase 2
44 Anesthetics Phase 1, Phase 2,Not Applicable
45
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
46
Budesonide Approved 51333-22-3 63006 5281004
47
Fluticasone Approved, Experimental, Investigational 90566-53-3 62924
48 Olodaterol Approved 868049-49-4
49
Menthol Approved Not Applicable 2216-51-5 16666
50 Central Nervous System Depressants ,Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 53)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Efficiency of Cold vs. Laser Internal Urethrotomy Treatment of Urethral Strictures Unknown status NCT01196572 Phase 4
2 Ejaculatory Sparing vs. Non-ejaculatory Sparing GreenLight Laser Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate Unknown status NCT02749604 Phase 4
3 Effect and Safety Of Detrol LA In Men With Overactive Bladder Symptoms With Or Without Bladder Outlet Obstruction Completed NCT00147654 Phase 4 Tolterodine ER 4 mg QD;Tamsulosin 0.4 mg QD
4 An Open Label Study to Measure Efficacy of Fesoterodine (Toviaz) Post Surgery for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Completed NCT00605319 Phase 4 Toviaz (Fesoterodine)
5 The Long Term Effects of Alfuzosin(Xatral XL) in Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms(LUTS)/BPH Patients Completed NCT00696761 Phase 4 alfuzosin;alfuzosin;alfuzosin;alfuzosin
6 Antimuscarinics as the First-line Treatment for Male With IPSS-V/S≤1 Completed NCT01661621 Phase 4 Detrusitol 4 mg QD;Doxazosin 4 mg QD
7 Evaluation of Symptom-specific Goal Achievement Completed NCT00836823 Phase 4 Alfuzosin
8 Efficacy and Safety of Silodosin on Voiding Dysfunction Associated With Neurogenic Bladder Completed NCT01228370 Phase 4 silodosin
9 Effect of Dutasteride on Bladder Wall Hypertrophy in Patients With Benign Prostatic Obstruction Completed NCT00827814 Phase 4 Dutasteride
10 Effect of TachoSil® on Incidence of Symptomatic and Radiographic Lymphoceles After Extended Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection in Prostate and Bladder Cancer. Completed NCT02001857 Phase 4 1 TachoSil hemostatic sponge (9,5 cm x 4,8 cm) placed on each side on the external iliac artery.
11 Dysfunctional Voiding and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms With Baclofen Terminated NCT01003249 Phase 4 Baclofen;Placebo
12 An Open Label Study to Evaluate the Effects of Ezogabine/Retigabine Added to Existing Anti-epileptic Drug(s) on Urinary Voiding Function in Subjects With Partial Onset Seizures Terminated NCT01607346 Phase 4 ezogabine/retigabine
13 Intraprostatic Botulinum Toxin Type "A" Injection in Patients With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Unsatisfactory Response to Medical Therapy Completed NCT01566292 Phase 2, Phase 3 BOTOX
14 Phase 3 Evaluation of Re-Injection of NX-1207 for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)(NX02-0022) Completed NCT01846793 Phase 3 NX-1207
15 Phase 3 Evaluation of Re-Injection of NX-1207 for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Completed NCT01438775 Phase 3 NX-1207
16 Solifenacin Succinate With Tamsulosin HCl in Males With Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Bladder Outlet Obstruction Completed NCT00507455 Phase 2 solifenacin succinate;tamsulosin hydrochloride;Placebo to solifenacin;Placebo to tamsulosin
17 Assessing Safety & Efficacy of MediTate Temporary Implant in Subjects With Benign Prostate Hyperplasia Completed NCT01436877 Phase 1, Phase 2
18 A Study of Mirabegron (YM178) in Men With Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) and Bladder Outlet Obstruction (BOO) Completed NCT00410514 Phase 2 Mirabegron;Placebo
19 Prophylactic Urethral Stenting With Memokath After Prostate Implantation for Prostate Adenocarcinoma Completed NCT00252941 Phase 1, Phase 2
20 Effects of Tadalafil Once a Day for 12 Weeks in Men With Signs and Symptoms of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Completed NCT00386009 Phase 2 Tadalafil;Placebo
21 Urodynamic Effects of UK-369,003 in Men With Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Completed NCT00408954 Phase 2 UK-369,003;UK-369,003
22 Use of Autologous Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cells (AD-cSVF) in Symptomatic Benign Prostate Hypertrophy Recruiting NCT02961114 Phase 1, Phase 2
23 Effectiveness and Safety of Adipose-derived Regenerative Cells for Reduction of Risk of Bladder Neck Contracture Enrolling by invitation NCT02869061 Phase 1, Phase 2
24 EC905 Pharmacokinetic Profile Study Completed NCT02634489 Phase 1 Tamsulosin HCl;Solifenacin Succinate;EC905
25 Diagnosis of Bladder Outlet Obstruction Using Dynamic Urine Vibration "Holter" in Comparison to Pressure Flow Study Unknown status NCT01388348 Not Applicable
26 Comparison Between Invasive Pressure Flow Study and Non-invasive Penile Cuff Test Unknown status NCT02031653
27 The Effect of Daily Tamsulosin 0.2mg Administration on Renal Function in Patients With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Unknown status NCT02033798 Not Applicable Tamsulosin
28 The Change of the Detrusor Thickness After Hypospadias Repair - Comparison With the Normal Control Group Unknown status NCT01762007
29 Functional Changes of Urogenital System After Holmium Laser Prostatectomy Unknown status NCT02033785
30 Non-Micturation Bladder Activity in Relation to Self-Consciousness During Filling Phase and Sensation Measurement During the Filling Phase Unknown status NCT00628615
31 The Role of microRNAs in Organ Remodeling in Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Completed NCT01482676
32 The Value of Multiple Urine Flow Rate Measurements in Male Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Subjects Completed NCT00710749 Not Applicable
33 Impact of 80 W KTP Laser Vaporization Prostatectomy on Severity of Obstruction in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Completed NCT00908427 Not Applicable
34 Sensitivity and Specificity of NGAL in an Emergency Room Population Completed NCT00786708
35 Anesthetic Management in Fetoscopic Surgery and Incidence of Complications Completed NCT02434926
36 Comparative Study Between Continuous Epidural Anesthesia And Continuous Spinal Anesthesia Using Wiley™ Spinal Catheter Completed NCT01845389 Not Applicable
37 Urinary Markers for Unilateral Kidney Obstruction Completed NCT01979042
38 A Drug Utilisation Post-authorisation Study of New Users of Aclidinium Bromide (Monotherapy or in Combination) Completed NCT03333018 Aclidinium bromide;Aclidinium bromide/formoterol;Other COPD medication
39 PVP Compared to TURP for the Treatment of Benign Hyperplasia of the Prostate Completed NCT00527371 Not Applicable
40 Prostatic Artery Embolization in Advanced Prostate Cancer Recruiting NCT03457805 Not Applicable
41 Bipolar Transurethral Enucleation (BipolEP) vs Bipolar Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Recruiting NCT03503721 Not Applicable
42 Urodynamics and Clinical Factors That Are Associated With Bladder Over-sensitivity Recruiting NCT03486639
43 Fetal Cystoscopy for Severe Lower Urinary Tract Obstruction (LUTO) Recruiting NCT03281798 Not Applicable
44 Primary Care Management of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men Recruiting NCT03520673 Not Applicable
45 Laser Enucleation of Prostate (LEP) Versus Transurethral Resection of Prostate (TURP) Recruiting NCT03062111 Not Applicable
46 A Study on Accuracy Improvement of Repeated Measure Uroflowmetry- Electromyography Recruiting NCT03399877 Not Applicable
47 Overactive Bladder (OAB) Voiding Diary and Urodynamics Correlation Study Recruiting NCT03473782
48 Local Treatment With RP for Newly-diagnosed mPCa Recruiting NCT02138721 Not Applicable
49 Urodynamics for Prostate Surgery Trial; Randomised Evaluation of Assessment Methods Active, not recruiting NCT02193451 Not Applicable
50 The Zenflow Spring System Feasibility and Safety Study Active, not recruiting NCT02786290 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Bladder Neck Obstruction

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 73 / NDF-RT 51 :


Cochrane evidence based reviews: urinary bladder neck obstruction

Genetic Tests for Bladder Neck Obstruction

Anatomical Context for Bladder Neck Obstruction

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Bladder Neck Obstruction:

41
Prostate, Kidney, Testes, Lymph Node

Publications for Bladder Neck Obstruction

Articles related to Bladder Neck Obstruction:

(show top 50) (show all 165)
# Title Authors Year
1
Urodynamic outcomes of tamsulosin in the treatment of primary bladder neck obstruction in men. ( 29343910 )
2018
2
The Long-term Effect of Superficial Bladder Neck Incision on Ejaculation and Incontinence in Boys with Primary and Secondary Bladder Neck Obstruction. ( 28752084 )
2017
3
Gait analysis of young male patients diagnosed with primary bladder neck obstruction. ( 28601565 )
2017
4
Female primary bladder neck obstruction: role of videourodynamics and treatment options in a rare clinical entity. ( 27886351 )
2016
5
Controlled transurethral resection and incision of the bladder neck to treat female primary bladder neck obstruction: Description of a novel surgical procedure. ( 27037830 )
2016
6
Primary bladder neck obstruction may be determined by postural imbalances. ( 27876119 )
2016
7
Application of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging for Diagnosis of Female Bladder Neck Obstruction. ( 27162282 )
2016
8
Use of transvaginal ultrasound in females with primary bladder neck obstruction. A preliminary study. ( 26150036 )
2015
9
Transurethral incision of the bladder neck in a woman with primary bladder neck obstruction after kidney transplantation. ( 25861513 )
2015
10
Transurethral bladder neck incision in women with primary bladder neck obstruction. ( 24496715 )
2014
11
Fetal therapy for the treatment of congenital bladder neck obstruction. ( 24934451 )
2014
12
Thulium laser resection for bladder neck obstruction in women. ( 24988202 )
2014
13
Bladder neck incision for female bladder neck obstruction: long-term outcomes. ( 24680443 )
2014
14
Video-urodynamics study on female patients with bladder neck obstruction. ( 22613647 )
2012
15
Modified transurethral incision for primary bladder neck obstruction in women: a method to improve voiding function without urinary incontinence. ( 22310746 )
2012
16
Giant Urinary Bladder and Bilateral Giant Hydronephrosis due to Bladder Neck Obstruction: One Case Report and Literature Review. ( 22606637 )
2012
17
Urodynamic differences between dysfunctional voiding and primary bladder neck obstruction in women. ( 22748864 )
2012
18
Long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of I+1-adrenergic blocker in young men with primary bladder neck obstruction: results from a single centre in China. ( 22130960 )
2012
19
Transurethral incision of the bladder neck using KTP in the treatment of bladder neck obstruction in women. ( 19172099 )
2009
20
Effect of alfuzosin on female primary bladder neck obstruction. ( 18982236 )
2009
21
Modified transurethral incision of the bladder neck treating primary bladder neck obstruction in young men: a method to improve voiding function and to preserve antegrade ejaculation. ( 18204229 )
2008
22
Primary bladder neck obstruction in men, women, and children. ( 17880837 )
2007
23
Primary bladder neck obstruction in men and women. ( 16985885 )
2005
24
Endoscopic incision for functional bladder neck obstruction in men: long-term outcome. ( 16040090 )
2005
25
Diagnosis and treatment of primary bladder neck obstruction in men. ( 15978226 )
2005
26
Myogenic bladder decompensation in boys with a history of posterior urethral valves is caused by secondary bladder neck obstruction? ( 15963137 )
2005
27
Use of alpha1-blockers in female functional bladder neck obstruction. ( 15812214 )
2005
28
Transurethral incision of bladder neck in treatment of bladder neck obstruction in women. ( 15708037 )
2005
29
Treatment of primary bladder neck obstruction in women with transurethral resection of the bladder neck. ( 14767294 )
2004
30
Effect of cyclohexenonic long-chain fatty alcohol on rat overactive bladder induced by bladder neck obstruction. ( 15464073 )
2004
31
Bladder neck obstruction due to bilharzial cystitis as a cause of renal failure in Aden City. ( 14612029 )
2003
32
Unilateral transurethral incision for primary bladder neck obstruction: symptom relief and fertility preservation. ( 12783172 )
2003
33
alpha1-Adrenergic blockers in young men with primary bladder neck obstruction. ( 12131312 )
2002
34
Is endoscopic decompression of the neonatal extravesical upper pole ureterocele necessary for prevention of urinary tract infections or bladder neck obstruction? ( 11832766 )
2002
35
Endoscopic treatment of complete bladder neck obstruction by transurethral Seldinger technique. ( 11555013 )
2001
36
Bladder neck obstruction in the female. ( 11998456 )
2001
37
The effectiveness of terazosin, an alpha1-blocker, on bladder neck obstruction as assessed by urodynamic hydraulic energy. ( 10671877 )
2000
38
Management of functional bladder neck obstruction in women: use of alpha-blockers and pediatric resectoscope for bladder neck incision. ( 10569570 )
1999
39
Primary bladder neck obstruction: urodynamic findings and treatment results in 36 men. ( 8808886 )
1996
40
Bladder neck obstruction caused by a large simple ureterocele in a young male. ( 7491202 )
1995
41
Laparoscopic cystomyotomy for bladder neck obstruction. ( 8845505 )
1995
42
Functional bladder neck obstruction: a rare cause of renal failure. ( 7776419 )
1995
43
Functional bladder neck obstruction in males: a progressive disorder? ( 1478227 )
1992
44
Functional bladder neck obstruction in females--a revisit. ( 1687802 )
1991
45
Effects of prazosin in men with symptoms of bladder neck obstruction and a non-hyperplastic prostate. ( 2480639 )
1989
46
Bladder neck obstruction secondary to Brunn's cyst. ( 3336077 )
1988
47
Bladder neck obstruction in women. ( 3820385 )
1987
48
Origin of carcinomas causing bladder neck obstruction demonstrated by immunoperoxidase localisation of specific antigens. ( 3521781 )
1986
49
Functional bladder neck obstruction. Results of endoscopic bladder neck incision in 131 consecutive patients. ( 3971106 )
1985
50
Bladder neck obstruction in women: a real entity. ( 6539828 )
1984

Variations for Bladder Neck Obstruction

Expression for Bladder Neck Obstruction

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Bladder Neck Obstruction.

Pathways for Bladder Neck Obstruction

Pathways related to Bladder Neck Obstruction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 10.89 F3 KLK3 SIRPA
2 10.6 AFP TTR

GO Terms for Bladder Neck Obstruction

Cellular components related to Bladder Neck Obstruction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.43 ACPP AFP F3 KLK3 TAC1 TTR
2 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.17 ACPP AFP F3 KLK3 TAC1 TNFRSF1B

Biological processes related to Bladder Neck Obstruction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular protein metabolic process GO:0044267 9.43 AFP KLK3 TTR
2 neutrophil degranulation GO:0043312 9.26 ACPP SIRPA TNFRSF1B TTR
3 associative learning GO:0008306 9.16 CLN3 TAC1
4 purine nucleobase metabolic process GO:0006144 8.62 ACPP TTR

Sources for Bladder Neck Obstruction

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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