MCID: BLD009
MIFTS: 38

Bladder Neck Obstruction

Categories: Nephrological diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Bladder Neck Obstruction

MalaCards integrated aliases for Bladder Neck Obstruction:

Name: Bladder Neck Obstruction 12 15 17 74
Obstruction of Bladder Neck or Vesicourethral Orifice 12
Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction 45

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13948
ICD9CM 36 596.0
MeSH 45 D001748
NCIt 51 C79541
SNOMED-CT 69 25220001
ICD10 34 N32.0
UMLS 74 C0005694

Summaries for Bladder Neck Obstruction

MalaCards based summary : Bladder Neck Obstruction, also known as obstruction of bladder neck or vesicourethral orifice, is related to urethral stricture and autonomic nervous system disease. An important gene associated with Bladder Neck Obstruction is SIRPA (Signal Regulatory Protein Alpha), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Adhesion. The drugs Tamsulosin and Fesoterodine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include prostate, kidney and testes, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and cardiovascular system

Related Diseases for Bladder Neck Obstruction

Diseases related to Bladder Neck Obstruction via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 32)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 urethral stricture 10.3 KLK3 SIRPA
2 autonomic nervous system disease 10.2 TAC1 TTR
3 zika fever 10.1 F3 PURA
4 nephrogenic adenoma of the urethra 10.1 ACPP KLK3
5 urethral diverticulum 10.1 F3 KLK3
6 vertebrobasilar insufficiency 10.1 F3 SIRPA
7 analbuminemia 10.0 F3 TTR
8 transient arthritis 10.0 F3 TNFRSF1B
9 skin sarcoidosis 10.0 ACE TNFRSF1B
10 sexual disorder 10.0 ACE KLK3
11 granulomatous dermatitis 10.0 ACE TNFRSF1B
12 diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic, autosomal 10.0
13 ureterocele 10.0
14 hydronephrosis 10.0
15 neurogenic bladder 10.0
16 diabetes insipidus 10.0
17 posterior urethral valves 10.0
18 carpal tunnel syndrome 9.9 TAC1 TTR
19 pure autonomic failure 9.9 ACE TTR
20 intermediate coronary syndrome 9.9 ACE F3
21 melkersson-rosenthal syndrome 9.9 ACE TNFRSF1B
22 hypersensitivity reaction type iv disease 9.9 ACE TNFRSF1B
23 heart conduction disease 9.9 ACE TTR
24 vesicoureteral reflux 1 9.8
25 prostatic hypertrophy 9.8
26 acute cystitis 9.8
27 ehlers-danlos syndrome 9.8
28 prostatitis 9.8
29 cystitis 9.8
30 uremia 9.8
31 respiratory failure 9.7 ACE F3 TTR
32 peripheral vascular disease 9.6 ACE F3

Comorbidity relations with Bladder Neck Obstruction via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 30)


Acute Cystitis Acute Kidney Failure
Balanoposthitis Bladder Cancer
Bladder Disease Chronic Kidney Failure
Cystitis Cystitis Cystica
Epididymo-Orchitis Gout
Hydronephrosis Kidney Disease
Lipoma of Spermatic Cord Nephrolithiasis, X-Linked Recessive, with Renal Failure
Neurogenic Bladder Peyronie's Disease
Prostate Calculus Prostate Cancer
Prostate Carcinoma in Situ Prostatic Hypertrophy
Prostatitis Prostatocystitis
Radiation Cystitis Spermatocele
Ureterolithiasis Urethral Calculus
Urethral Stricture Urethritis
Urinary Tract Obstruction Vesicoureteral Reflux 1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Bladder Neck Obstruction:



Diseases related to Bladder Neck Obstruction

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Bladder Neck Obstruction

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Bladder Neck Obstruction:

47
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.5 ACE ACPP F3 PURA SIRPA TAC1
2 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 9.1 ACE F3 HCCS TAC1 TNFRSF1B TTR

Drugs & Therapeutics for Bladder Neck Obstruction

Drugs for Bladder Neck Obstruction (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 64)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Tamsulosin Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 106133-20-4 129211
2
Fesoterodine Approved Phase 4 286930-03-8, 286930-02-7 6918558
3
Alfuzosin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 81403-80-7 2092
4
Doxazosin Approved Phase 4 74191-85-8 3157
5
Silodosin Approved Phase 4 160970-54-7
6
Dutasteride Approved, Investigational Phase 4 164656-23-9 6918296 152945
7
Baclofen Approved Phase 4 1134-47-0 2284
8
Ezogabine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 150812-12-7 121892
9 Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
10 Adrenergic Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
11 Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
12 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
13 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
14 Tolterodine tartrate Phase 4 124937-52-6
15 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1
16 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1
17 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
18 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4
19 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors Phase 4
20 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
21 Steroid Synthesis Inhibitors Phase 4
22 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
23 Hormones Phase 4,Phase 1
24 Coagulants Phase 4
25 Hemostatics Phase 4
26 Anticonvulsants Phase 4
27
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 51-84-3 187
28 Botulinum Toxins Phase 2, Phase 3
29 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
30 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
31 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 2, Phase 3
32 abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 2, Phase 3
33 Neuromuscular Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
34 Acetylcholine Release Inhibitors Phase 2, Phase 3
35
Mirabegron Approved Phase 2 223673-61-8 9865528
36
Tadalafil Approved, Investigational Phase 2 171596-29-5 110635
37 Anesthetics Phase 1, Phase 2,Not Applicable
38 Solifenacin succinate Phase 2,Phase 1 242478-38-2
39 Adrenergic beta-Agonists Phase 2
40 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 2
41 Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Agonists Phase 2
42 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Phase 2
43 Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors Phase 2
44 Vasodilator Agents Phase 2
45
Calcium Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 1 7440-70-2 271
46 Calcium, Dietary Phase 1
47
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 38396-39-3, 2180-92-9 2474
48
Fluticasone Approved, Experimental 90566-53-3 62924
49
Budesonide Approved 51333-22-3 5281004 63006
50
Olodaterol Approved 868049-49-4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 61)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Efficiency of Cold vs. Laser Internal Urethrotomy Treatment of Urethral Strictures Unknown status NCT01196572 Phase 4
2 Ejaculatory Sparing vs. Non-ejaculatory Sparing GreenLight Laser Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate Unknown status NCT02749604 Phase 4
3 Effect and Safety Of Detrol LA In Men With Overactive Bladder Symptoms With Or Without Bladder Outlet Obstruction Completed NCT00147654 Phase 4 Tolterodine ER 4 mg QD;Tamsulosin 0.4 mg QD
4 An Open Label Study to Measure Efficacy of Fesoterodine (Toviaz) Post Surgery for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Completed NCT00605319 Phase 4 Toviaz (Fesoterodine)
5 The Long Term Effects of Alfuzosin(Xatral XL) in Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms(LUTS)/BPH Patients Completed NCT00696761 Phase 4 alfuzosin;alfuzosin;alfuzosin;alfuzosin
6 Antimuscarinics as the First-line Treatment for Male With IPSS-V/S≤1 Completed NCT01661621 Phase 4 Detrusitol 4 mg QD;Doxazosin 4 mg QD
7 Evaluation of Symptom-specific Goal Achievement Completed NCT00836823 Phase 4 Alfuzosin
8 Efficacy and Safety of Silodosin on Voiding Dysfunction Associated With Neurogenic Bladder Completed NCT01228370 Phase 4 silodosin
9 Effect of Dutasteride on Bladder Wall Hypertrophy in Patients With Benign Prostatic Obstruction Completed NCT00827814 Phase 4 Dutasteride
10 Effect of TachoSil® on Incidence of Symptomatic and Radiographic Lymphoceles After Extended Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection in Prostate and Bladder Cancer. Completed NCT02001857 Phase 4 1 TachoSil hemostatic sponge (9,5 cm x 4,8 cm) placed on each side on the external iliac artery.
11 Dysfunctional Voiding and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms With Baclofen Terminated NCT01003249 Phase 4 Baclofen;Placebo
12 An Open Label Study to Evaluate the Effects of Ezogabine/Retigabine Added to Existing Anti-epileptic Drug(s) on Urinary Voiding Function in Subjects With Partial Onset Seizures Terminated NCT01607346 Phase 4 ezogabine/retigabine
13 Intraprostatic Botulinum Toxin Type "A" Injection in Patients With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Unsatisfactory Response to Medical Therapy Completed NCT01566292 Phase 2, Phase 3 BOTOX
14 Phase 3 Evaluation of Re-Injection of NX-1207 for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)(NX02-0022) Completed NCT01846793 Phase 3 NX-1207
15 Phase 3 Evaluation of Re-Injection of NX-1207 for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Completed NCT01438775 Phase 3 NX-1207
16 Effectiveness and Safety of Adipose-derived Regenerative Cells for Reduction of Risk of Bladder Neck Contracture Unknown status NCT02869061 Phase 1, Phase 2
17 Solifenacin Succinate With Tamsulosin HCl in Males With Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Bladder Outlet Obstruction Completed NCT00507455 Phase 2 solifenacin succinate;tamsulosin hydrochloride;Placebo to solifenacin;Placebo to tamsulosin
18 A Study of Mirabegron (YM178) in Men With Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) and Bladder Outlet Obstruction (BOO) Completed NCT00410514 Phase 2 Mirabegron;Placebo
19 Prophylactic Urethral Stenting With Memokath After Prostate Implantation for Prostate Adenocarcinoma Completed NCT00252941 Phase 1, Phase 2
20 Effects of Tadalafil Once a Day for 12 Weeks in Men With Signs and Symptoms of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Completed NCT00386009 Phase 2 Tadalafil;Placebo
21 Urodynamic Effects of UK-369,003 in Men With Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Completed NCT00408954 Phase 2 UK-369,003;UK-369,003
22 Use of Autologous Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cells (AD-cSVF) in Symptomatic Benign Prostate Hypertrophy Recruiting NCT02961114 Phase 1, Phase 2
23 Prostate Artery Embolization as a Treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Men With Prostates Larger Than 90 Grams Terminated NCT02396420 Phase 2
24 EC905 Pharmacokinetic Profile Study Completed NCT02634489 Phase 1 Tamsulosin HCl;Solifenacin Succinate;EC905
25 Serial Amnioinfusions as Regenerative Therapy for Pulmonary Hypoplasia Recruiting NCT03723564 Phase 1 Lactated Ringers Solution for Injection
26 Diagnosis of Bladder Outlet Obstruction Using Dynamic Urine Vibration "Holter" in Comparison to Pressure Flow Study Unknown status NCT01388348 Not Applicable
27 Comparison Between Invasive Pressure Flow Study and Non-invasive Penile Cuff Test Unknown status NCT02031653
28 The Effect of Daily Tamsulosin 0.2mg Administration on Renal Function in Patients With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Unknown status NCT02033798 Not Applicable Tamsulosin
29 The Change of the Detrusor Thickness After Hypospadias Repair - Comparison With the Normal Control Group Unknown status NCT01762007
30 Functional Changes of Urogenital System After Holmium Laser Prostatectomy Unknown status NCT02033785
31 Local Treatment With RP for Newly-diagnosed mPCa Unknown status NCT02138721 Not Applicable
32 Non-Micturation Bladder Activity in Relation to Self-Consciousness During Filling Phase and Sensation Measurement During the Filling Phase Unknown status NCT00628615
33 BOO and DU and Their Clinical and Urodynamic Findings in Women With ≥Stage II Cystocele Completed NCT03613324
34 Assessing Safety & Efficacy of MediTate Temporary Implant in Subjects With Benign Prostate Hyperplasia Completed NCT01436877 Not Applicable
35 Urodynamics for Prostate Surgery Trial; Randomised Evaluation of Assessment Methods Completed NCT02193451 Not Applicable
36 The Role of microRNAs in Organ Remodeling in Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Completed NCT01482676
37 The Value of Multiple Urine Flow Rate Measurements in Male Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Subjects Completed NCT00710749 Not Applicable
38 Impact of 80 W KTP Laser Vaporization Prostatectomy on Severity of Obstruction in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Completed NCT00908427 Not Applicable
39 Sensitivity and Specificity of NGAL in an Emergency Room Population Completed NCT00786708
40 Anesthetic Management in Fetoscopic Surgery and Incidence of Complications Completed NCT02434926
41 Comparative Study Between Continuous Epidural Anesthesia And Continuous Spinal Anesthesia Using Wiley™ Spinal Catheter Completed NCT01845389 Not Applicable
42 Urinary Markers for Unilateral Kidney Obstruction Completed NCT01979042
43 A Drug Utilisation Post-authorisation Study of New Users of Aclidinium Bromide (Monotherapy or in Combination) Completed NCT03333018 Aclidinium bromide;Aclidinium bromide/formoterol;Other COPD medication
44 PVP Compared to TURP for the Treatment of Benign Hyperplasia of the Prostate Completed NCT00527371 Not Applicable
45 Prostatic Artery Embolization in Advanced Prostate Cancer Recruiting NCT03457805 Not Applicable
46 Bipolar Transurethral Enucleation (BipolEP) vs Bipolar Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Recruiting NCT03503721 Not Applicable
47 Urodynamics and Clinical Factors That Are Associated With Bladder Over-sensitivity Recruiting NCT03486639
48 Fetal Cystoscopy for Severe Lower Urinary Tract Obstruction (LUTO) Recruiting NCT03281798 Not Applicable
49 Primary Care Management of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men Recruiting NCT03520673 Not Applicable
50 Laser Enucleation of Prostate (LEP) Versus Transurethral Resection of Prostate (TURP) Recruiting NCT03062111 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Bladder Neck Obstruction

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 74 / NDF-RT 52 :


Cochrane evidence based reviews: urinary bladder neck obstruction

Genetic Tests for Bladder Neck Obstruction

Anatomical Context for Bladder Neck Obstruction

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Bladder Neck Obstruction:

42
Prostate, Kidney, Testes, Lymph Node, Spinal Cord, Skin, Heart

Publications for Bladder Neck Obstruction

Articles related to Bladder Neck Obstruction:

(show top 50) (show all 169)
# Title Authors Year
1
Value of Real-Time Shear Wave Elastography Versus Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging in the Diagnosis of Female Bladder Neck Obstruction. ( 30680774 )
2019
2
Urodynamic outcomes of tamsulosin in the treatment of primary bladder neck obstruction in men. ( 29343910 )
2018
3
Female primary bladder neck obstruction: role of videourodynamics and treatment options in a rare clinical entity. ( 27886351 )
2017
4
Gait analysis of young male patients diagnosed with primary bladder neck obstruction. ( 28601565 )
2017
5
The Long-term Effect of Superficial Bladder Neck Incision on Ejaculation and Incontinence in Boys with Primary and Secondary Bladder Neck Obstruction. ( 28752084 )
2017
6
Controlled transurethral resection and incision of the bladder neck to treat female primary bladder neck obstruction: Description of a novel surgical procedure. ( 27037830 )
2016
7
Application of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging for Diagnosis of Female Bladder Neck Obstruction. ( 27162282 )
2016
8
Primary bladder neck obstruction may be determined by postural imbalances. ( 27876119 )
2016
9
Transurethral incision of the bladder neck in a woman with primary bladder neck obstruction after kidney transplantation. ( 25861513 )
2015
10
Use of transvaginal ultrasound in females with primary bladder neck obstruction. A preliminary study. ( 26150036 )
2015
11
Transurethral bladder neck incision in women with primary bladder neck obstruction. ( 24496715 )
2014
12
Bladder neck incision for female bladder neck obstruction: long-term outcomes. ( 24680443 )
2014
13
Fetal therapy for the treatment of congenital bladder neck obstruction. ( 24934451 )
2014
14
Thulium laser resection for bladder neck obstruction in women. ( 24988202 )
2014
15
Long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of α1-adrenergic blocker in young men with primary bladder neck obstruction: results from a single centre in China. ( 22130960 )
2012
16
Modified transurethral incision for primary bladder neck obstruction in women: a method to improve voiding function without urinary incontinence. ( 22310746 )
2012
17
Giant Urinary Bladder and Bilateral Giant Hydronephrosis due to Bladder Neck Obstruction: One Case Report and Literature Review. ( 22606637 )
2012
18
Video-urodynamics study on female patients with bladder neck obstruction. ( 22613647 )
2012
19
Urodynamic differences between dysfunctional voiding and primary bladder neck obstruction in women. ( 22748864 )
2012
20
Effect of alfuzosin on female primary bladder neck obstruction. ( 18982236 )
2009
21
Transurethral incision of the bladder neck using KTP in the treatment of bladder neck obstruction in women. ( 19172099 )
2009
22
Modified transurethral incision of the bladder neck treating primary bladder neck obstruction in young men: a method to improve voiding function and to preserve antegrade ejaculation. ( 18204229 )
2008
23
Primary bladder neck obstruction in men, women, and children. ( 17880837 )
2007
24
Primary bladder neck obstruction in men and women. ( 16985885 )
2005
25
Transurethral incision of bladder neck in treatment of bladder neck obstruction in women. ( 15708037 )
2005
26
Use of alpha1-blockers in female functional bladder neck obstruction. ( 15812214 )
2005
27
Myogenic bladder decompensation in boys with a history of posterior urethral valves is caused by secondary bladder neck obstruction? ( 15963137 )
2005
28
Diagnosis and treatment of primary bladder neck obstruction in men. ( 15978226 )
2005
29
Endoscopic incision for functional bladder neck obstruction in men: long-term outcome. ( 16040090 )
2005
30
Treatment of primary bladder neck obstruction in women with transurethral resection of the bladder neck. ( 14767294 )
2004
31
Effect of cyclohexenonic long-chain fatty alcohol on rat overactive bladder induced by bladder neck obstruction. ( 15464073 )
2004
32
Unilateral transurethral incision for primary bladder neck obstruction: symptom relief and fertility preservation. ( 12783172 )
2003
33
Bladder neck obstruction due to bilharzial cystitis as a cause of renal failure in Aden City. ( 14612029 )
2003
34
Is endoscopic decompression of the neonatal extravesical upper pole ureterocele necessary for prevention of urinary tract infections or bladder neck obstruction? ( 11832766 )
2002
35
alpha1-Adrenergic blockers in young men with primary bladder neck obstruction. ( 12131312 )
2002
36
Endoscopic treatment of complete bladder neck obstruction by transurethral Seldinger technique. ( 11555013 )
2001
37
Bladder neck obstruction in the female. ( 11998456 )
2001
38
The effectiveness of terazosin, an alpha1-blocker, on bladder neck obstruction as assessed by urodynamic hydraulic energy. ( 10671877 )
2000
39
Management of functional bladder neck obstruction in women: use of alpha-blockers and pediatric resectoscope for bladder neck incision. ( 10569570 )
1999
40
Primary bladder neck obstruction: urodynamic findings and treatment results in 36 men. ( 8808886 )
1996
41
Bladder neck obstruction caused by a large simple ureterocele in a young male. ( 7491202 )
1995
42
Functional bladder neck obstruction: a rare cause of renal failure. ( 7776419 )
1995
43
Laparoscopic cystomyotomy for bladder neck obstruction. ( 8845505 )
1995
44
Functional bladder neck obstruction in males: a progressive disorder? ( 1478227 )
1992
45
Functional bladder neck obstruction in females--a revisit. ( 1687802 )
1991
46
Effects of prazosin in men with symptoms of bladder neck obstruction and a non-hyperplastic prostate. ( 2480639 )
1989
47
Bladder neck obstruction secondary to Brunn's cyst. ( 3336077 )
1988
48
Bladder neck obstruction in women. ( 3820385 )
1987
49
Origin of carcinomas causing bladder neck obstruction demonstrated by immunoperoxidase localisation of specific antigens. ( 3521781 )
1986
50
Functional bladder neck obstruction. Results of endoscopic bladder neck incision in 131 consecutive patients. ( 3971106 )
1985

Variations for Bladder Neck Obstruction

Expression for Bladder Neck Obstruction

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Bladder Neck Obstruction.

Pathways for Bladder Neck Obstruction

Pathways related to Bladder Neck Obstruction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 10.89 F3 KLK3 SIRPA

GO Terms for Bladder Neck Obstruction

Cellular components related to Bladder Neck Obstruction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.43 ACE ACPP F3 KLK3 TAC1 TTR
2 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.17 ACE ACPP F3 KLK3 TAC1 TNFRSF1B

Biological processes related to Bladder Neck Obstruction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 regulation of blood pressure GO:0008217 8.96 ACE TAC1
2 neutrophil degranulation GO:0043312 8.92 ACPP SIRPA TNFRSF1B TTR

Sources for Bladder Neck Obstruction

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
20 FMA
29 GO
30 GTR
31 HGMD
32 HMDB
33 HPO
34 ICD10
35 ICD10 via Orphanet
36 ICD9CM
37 IUPHAR
38 KEGG
39 LifeMap
41 LOVD
43 MedGen
45 MeSH
46 MESH via Orphanet
47 MGI
50 NCI
51 NCIt
52 NDF-RT
55 NINDS
56 Novoseek
58 OMIM
59 OMIM via Orphanet
63 PubMed
65 QIAGEN
70 SNOMED-CT via HPO
71 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
72 TGDB
73 Tocris
74 UMLS
75 UMLS via Orphanet
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