MCID: BLP003
MIFTS: 45

Blepharospasm

Categories: Eye diseases, Genetic diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Blepharospasm

MalaCards integrated aliases for Blepharospasm:

Name: Blepharospasm 12 76 54 29 55 6 44 15 40 73

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:529
ICD10 33 G24.5
ICD9CM 35 333.81
MeSH 44 D001764
NCIt 50 C118723
SNOMED-CT 68 59026006
UMLS 73 C0005747

Summaries for Blepharospasm

NINDS : 54 Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and spasms of the eyelid muscles. It is a form of dystonia, a movement disorder in which muscle contractions cause sustained eyelid closure, twitching or repetitive movements. BEB begins gradually with increased frequency of eye blinking often associated with eye irritation. Other symptoms may include increasing difficulty in keeping the eyes open, and light sensitivity. Generally, the spasms occur during the day, disappear in sleep, and reappear after waking. As the condition progresses, the spasms may intensify, forcing the eyelids to remain closed for long periods of time, and thereby causing substantial visual disturbance or functional blindness. It is important to note that the blindness is caused solely by the uncontrollable closing of the eyelids and not by a dysfunction of the eyes. BEB occurs in both men and women, although it is especially common in middle-aged and elderly women.

MalaCards based summary : Blepharospasm is related to lymphedema, hereditary, ii and oromandibular dystonia, and has symptoms including myoclonus, oromandibular dystonia and torticollis. An important gene associated with Blepharospasm is DRD5 (Dopamine Receptor D5). The drugs Acetylcholine and Silicon have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, brain and cortex, and related phenotypes are mortality/aging and vision/eye

Disease Ontology : 12 A focal dystonia that is characterized by the involuntary, forcible contraction of the muscles controlling eye blinks.

Wikipedia : 76 Blepharospasm is any abnormal contraction or twitch of the eyelid. The condition should be distinguished... more...

Related Diseases for Blepharospasm

Diseases in the Blepharospasm family:

Blepharospasm, Benign Essential

Diseases related to Blepharospasm via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 97)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 lymphedema, hereditary, ii 32.5 CAMP DRD5 GCH1 THAP1 TOR1A
2 oromandibular dystonia 30.1 CAMP GCH1 THAP1 TOR1A
3 dystonia 30.1 DRD5 GCH1 GNAL THAP1 TIMM8A TOR1A
4 cervical dystonia 29.8 CAMP DRD5 GCH1 GNAL THAP1 TOR1A
5 movement disease 29.6 GCH1 TOR1A
6 focal dystonia 29.2 CAMP DRD5 GNAL THAP1 TIMM8A TOR1A
7 hemidystonia 29.1 CAMP GCH1 THAP1 TOR1A
8 blepharospasm, benign essential 12.7
9 vernal keratoconjunctivitis 11.1
10 x-linked dystonia-parkinsonism/lubag 11.1
11 hemifacial spasm 10.7
12 apraxia 10.4
13 torticollis 10.4
14 apraxia of eyelid opening 10.3
15 strabismus 10.2
16 ptosis 10.2
17 bell's palsy 10.1
18 spasmodic dysphonia 10.1 THAP1 TOR1A
19 dystonia 24 10.1 THAP1 TOR1A
20 schwartz-jampel syndrome, type 1 10.1
21 depression 10.1
22 headache 10.1
23 multifocal dystonia 10.1 CAMP TOR1A
24 myasthenia gravis 10.0
25 supranuclear palsy, progressive, 1 10.0
26 myasthenia gravis congenital 10.0
27 myoclonus 10.0
28 eyelid disease 10.0 DRD5 HSPG2
29 hemifacial spasm, familial 9.9
30 multiple system atrophy 1 9.9
31 schizophrenia 9.9
32 entropion 9.9
33 spasticity 9.9
34 tremor 9.9
35 dystonia 3, torsion, x-linked 9.9 GCH1 THAP1
36 thiamine metabolism dysfunction syndrome 2 9.9 GCH1 TOR1A
37 focal hand dystonia 9.8 CAMP DRD5 THAP1 TOR1A
38 leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 2 9.8 GCH1 TOR1A
39 early-onset generalized dystonia 9.8 GCH1 THAP1 TOR1A
40 dystonia, dopa-responsive 9.8 GCH1 THAP1 TOR1A
41 dystonia 1, torsion, autosomal dominant 9.8 CAMP GCH1 TOR1A
42 autoimmune disease 9.8
43 multiple sclerosis 9.8
44 corneal dystrophy, fuchs endothelial, 1 9.8
45 systemic lupus erythematosus 9.8
46 obsessive-compulsive disorder 9.8
47 cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis 9.8
48 tardive dyskinesia 9.8
49 mohr-tranebjaerg syndrome 9.8
50 xanthomatosis 9.8

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Blepharospasm:



Diseases related to Blepharospasm

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Blepharospasm

UMLS symptoms related to Blepharospasm:


myoclonus, oromandibular dystonia, torticollis, lingual dystonia, erythema of the eyelids, spasmodic torticollis

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Blepharospasm:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.5 CAMP DRD5 GCH1 GNAL HSPG2 THAP1
2 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.02 CAMP DRD5 HSPG2 THAP1 TOR1A

Drugs & Therapeutics for Blepharospasm

Drugs for Blepharospasm (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 50)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Acetylcholine Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable 51-84-3 187
2
Silicon Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7440-21-3 4082203
3 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
4 Botulinum Toxins Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
5 Neuromuscular Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
6 abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
7 onabotulinumtoxinA Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
8 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
9 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
10 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
11 Acetylcholine Release Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
12 incobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
13 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4,Phase 3
14
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 525-66-6 4946
15 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
16 Vasodilator Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
17 Adrenergic beta-Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
18 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
19 Adrenergic Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
20 Adrenergic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
21
Etanercept Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 185243-69-0
22
Mexiletine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 31828-71-4 4178
23 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
24 Analgesics Phase 1, Phase 2
25 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 1, Phase 2
26 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 1, Phase 2
27 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 1, Phase 2,Not Applicable
28 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
29 Immunologic Factors Phase 1, Phase 2
30 Autoantibodies Phase 1, Phase 2
31 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
32 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 2
33 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 2
34
Zinc Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 7440-66-6
35
Carbamazepine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 298-46-4 2554
36
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Not Applicable 2921-57-5
37
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 50-24-8 5755
38
Cortisone acetate Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 1950-04-4, 50-04-4 5745
39
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 83-43-2 6741
40
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 302-25-0
41
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Not Applicable 2920-86-7
42
Cortisone Experimental Not Applicable 53-06-5 222786
43 Micronutrients Not Applicable
44 Zinc Supplement Not Applicable
45 Trace Elements Not Applicable
46 Ophthalmic Solutions
47 Anticonvulsants Not Applicable
48 Dihydroxyphenylalanine
49 Prednisolone acetate Not Applicable
50 Methylprednisolone acetate Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 52)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Objective of This Study is to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Botulax® in Patients With Essential Blepharospasm. Completed NCT03641950 Phase 4 Botulinum toxin type A
2 Comparison of Two Botulinum Type A Products in the Treatment of Blepharospasm Completed NCT00761592 Phase 4
3 Efficacy and Safety Study of Meditoxin® to Treat Essential Blepharospasm Completed NCT01259557 Phase 4 Botulinum Toxin Type A
4 Functional Effects of Botox on the Brain Using MRS and fMRI Completed NCT03373162 Phase 4 onabotulinumtoxinA
5 Efficacy of Aurosling in Frontalis Sling Suspension Surgery Completed NCT00753831 Phase 4
6 Pretarsal Versus Preseptal Botulinum Toxin for Patients With Eyelid Spasm Active, not recruiting NCT03508882 Phase 4 Botulinum Toxin Type A 100Unit/Vial (Product);Saline Solution for Injection
7 Frontalis Botulinum Toxin Not yet recruiting NCT03186001 Phase 4 Abobotulinum toxin A
8 Safety and Efficacy of NABOTA in Treatment of Essential Blepharospasm Unknown status NCT02947815 Phase 2, Phase 3 Clostridium Botulinum Toxin Type A;Clostridium Botulinum Toxin Type A
9 Evaluation of Botulinum Toxin Injection Efficacy in the Treatment of Head Essential Tremor Unknown status NCT02555982 Phase 3 BOTOX ® 200 Unités;Placebo
10 Comparison of Korean Botulinum Toxin Type A Versus Botox in the Treatment of Essential Blepharospasm Completed NCT00682760 Phase 3 Korean Botulinum toxin type A (KbtxA) and Botox injection
11 Clinical Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Neuronox and Botox With Essential Blepharospasm Completed NCT03216473 Phase 3 Neuronox;Botox
12 IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) Versus Placebo in the Treatment of Blepharospasm Completed NCT00406367 Phase 3 incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin);Placebo
13 Therapeutic Confirmatory Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of "Hugeltox Inj." in Essential Blepharospasm Completed NCT01791881 Phase 3 Hugeltox;Botulinum Toxin Type A(Botox®)
14 Efficacy and Safety Study of Botulinum Toxin Type A Against Placebo to Treat Abnormal Contraction or Twitch of the Eyelid Completed NCT01896895 Phase 3 IncobulinumtoxinA (Xeomin), 25 Units;IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin), 12.5 Units;Placebo;IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin), 35 Units
15 Effects of Botulinum Toxin Injections in Patients With Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia Completed NCT02604186 Phase 2, Phase 3
16 Addressing Involuntary Movements in Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT02291861 Phase 3 SD-809;Placebo
17 Aim to Reduce Movements in Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT02195700 Phase 2, Phase 3 SD-809;Placebo
18 Safety and Efficacy of Propranolol in the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia Recruiting NCT03254186 Phase 2, Phase 3 Propranolol Hydrochloride;Placebo Oral Tablet
19 ASIS for Enbrel in Plaque Psoriasis Unknown status NCT02112097 Phase 1, Phase 2 Gadolinium;Gadolinium;Gadolinium;Efficacy of Enbrel subcutaneously at Week 12;Efficacy of Enbrel subcutaneously at Week 24;Efficacy of Enbrel subcutaneously at Week 36;Efficacy of Enbrel subdermally at Week 12;Efficacy of Enbrel subdermally at Week 24;Efficacy of Enbrel subdermally at Week 36;PASI 75 n(%) subcutaneously at Week 12;PASI 75 n(%) subcutaneously at Week 24;PASI 75 n(%) subcutaneously at Week 36;PASI 75 n(%) subdermally at Week 12;PASI 75 n(%) subdermally at Week 24;PASI 75 n(%) subdermally at Week 36;Adverse Reactions of Enbrel subcutaneously;Adverse Reactions of Enbrel subdermally at Week 36;Gadolinium;Gadolinium;Gadolinium
20 A Study of Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 (AH8) in Treatment of Blepharospasm Completed NCT00942851 Phase 1, Phase 2 Acetyl-Hexapeptide Topical Treatment;placebo
21 Study of a Single Administration of 3 Doses of Dysport® for the Treatment of Benign Essential Blepharospasm Completed NCT00234507 Phase 2 Botulinum toxin type A (Dysport®)
22 Brain Stimulation to Treat Blepharospasm or Meige Syndrome Completed NCT00411255 Phase 2
23 Mexiletine for the Treatment of Focal Dystonia Completed NCT00001784 Phase 2 Mexiletine
24 Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients With Dystonia Completed NCT00773604 Phase 1, Phase 2
25 Administration of Expanded Autologous Adult Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cells in Established Chronic Spinal Cord Injuries Completed NCT02570932 Phase 2
26 Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 for Blepharospasm Terminated NCT01750346 Phase 2 Topical acetyl hexapeptide-8;Placebo
27 Blepharospasm Short Interval Terminated NCT00507637 Phase 2 NT 201
28 Two Different Surgical Methods of Blepharospasm Unknown status NCT02765113 Early Phase 1
29 Comparison of Different Botulinum Toxin A Injection Patterns in the Treatment of Blepharospasm Unknown status NCT02327728 Not Applicable Botulinum toxin A 12.5U;Botulinum toxin A 10U
30 Influence of Gaze Shift and Emotions on Symptoms of Blepharospasm Unknown status NCT01759745
31 An RCT of a Patient-initiated Treatment Service for BEB and HFS Unknown status NCT02577224 Not Applicable
32 Testing the Effect of Zinc Supplementation to Improve the Treatment Effect of Botulinum Toxin for Oculofacial Spasm Unknown status NCT01546805 Not Applicable Zinc Supplement;Sugar pill
33 A Mechanical Device for Blepharospasm Completed NCT03269123 Not Applicable
34 Blepharospasm Patient Survey for Patients With Blepharospasm Completed NCT01686061
35 Trial Evaluating Xeomin® (incobotulinumtoxinA) for Cervical Dystonia or Blepharospasm in the United States Completed NCT01287247
36 rTMS and Botulinum Toxin in Benign Essential Blepharospasm Completed NCT02370875 Not Applicable
37 Brain Changes in Blepharospasm Completed NCT00500799
38 A Retrospective Chart Review of BOTOX® and Xeomin® for the Treatment of Cervical Dystonia and Blepharospasm Completed NCT01814774
39 A Retrospective Chart Review of BOTOX® and Xeomin® for the Management of Cervical Dystonia and Blepharospasm Completed NCT02245958
40 Movement Disorder Survey in East China Completed NCT01168388
41 MDs on Botox Utility (MOBILITY) Completed NCT00535938
42 Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Raynaud's Completed NCT01233999 Not Applicable botulinum toxin A
43 Cognitive Function and Emotional Possessing in Bilateral Facial Palsy Completed NCT02179450
44 Post Marketing Surveillance Study of Dysport Completed NCT00210431
45 Neurophysiological Markers in Patients With Craniofacial Dystonia and Their Relatives Completed NCT00082615
46 Blepharospasm Tools Recruiting NCT02780336
47 Photic Blink Reflex in People With Blepharospasm and Increased Blinking Recruiting NCT03263000
48 Effect of Lipid Based Eye Drops on Tear Film Lipid Layer Thickness Recruiting NCT03399292 Cationorm MD sine eye drops
49 HLA Screening in Reducing the Risk of Antiepileptic Drug-induced Cutaneous Adverse Reactions Recruiting NCT03184597 Not Applicable
50 The Dystonia Coalition Natural History and Biospecimen Repository for Isolated Dystonias Recruiting NCT01373424

Search NIH Clinical Center for Blepharospasm

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 73 / NDF-RT 51 :


Cochrane evidence based reviews: blepharospasm

Genetic Tests for Blepharospasm

Genetic tests related to Blepharospasm:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Blepharospasm 29 DRD5

Anatomical Context for Blepharospasm

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Blepharospasm:

41
Eye, Brain, Cortex, Cerebellum, Subthalamic Nucleus, Endothelial, T Cells

Publications for Blepharospasm

Articles related to Blepharospasm:

(show top 50) (show all 697)
# Title Authors Year
1
Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm. ( 29239872 )
2018
2
Surgical Myectomy for Essential Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm. ( 29239878 )
2018
3
Long-term Efficacy of Botulinum Neurotoxin-A Treatment for Essential Blepharospasm. ( 29376224 )
2018
4
Combined effects of rTMS and botulinum toxin therapy in benign essential blepharospasm. ( 29530449 )
2018
5
Effect of Botulinum Toxin A Treatment on Eyelid Pressure in Eyes with Blepharospasm. ( 29641935 )
2018
6
Benign Essential Blepharospasm: What We Know and What We Don't. ( 29239874 )
2018
7
The Facial Nerve and Selective Neurectomy for Treatment of Benign Essential Blepharospasm. ( 29239881 )
2018
8
Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 31 with Blepharospasm. ( 29434122 )
2018
9
Altered functional connectivity in blepharospasm/orofacial dystonia. ( 29568690 )
2018
10
The Benign Essential Blepharospasm Research Foundation. ( 29239875 )
2018
11
Whole-exome sequencing for variant discovery in blepharospasm. ( 29770609 )
2018
12
Botulinum Toxins for Treating Essential Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm. ( 29239877 )
2018
13
Secondary Blepharospasm Associated With Ocular Surface Disease. ( 29239879 )
2018
14
The History of Blepharospasm in Medicine. ( 29239873 )
2018
15
Oral Pharmacotherapy for Benign Essential Blepharospasm. ( 29239876 )
2018
16
Increase lipid tear thickness after botulinum neurotoxin A injection in patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. ( 29849166 )
2018
17
Developments in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm. ( 29916840 )
2018
18
Health-related quality of life outcomes from botulinumtoxin treatment in blepharospasm. ( 29990961 )
2018
19
Stroke-induced resolution of primary blepharospasm: evidence for the lenticular nucleus as a control candidate. ( 30049673 )
2018
20
Evaluation of Scheimpflug imaging parameters in blepharospasm and normal eyes. ( 30185154 )
2018
21
Injecting botulinum toxin into the treatment of blepharospasm. ( 30206561 )
2018
22
Blepharospasm with elevated anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody titer. ( 30231125 )
2018
23
Voxel-Mirrored Homotopic Connectivity of Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Blepharospasm. ( 30254593 )
2018
24
Protective Effect of Blepharospasm on the Anterior Segment of the Eye. ( 30256021 )
2018
25
Blepharospasm in Japan: A Clinical Observational Study From a Large Referral Hospital in Tokyo. ( 30258472 )
2018
26
Disease progression in blepharospasm: a 5-year longitudinal study. ( 30308706 )
2018
27
Clinical Features of Benign Essential Blepharospasm in Korean Patients. ( 30311455 )
2018
28
Effects of Repeated Eyelid Injections with Botulinum Toxin A on Innervation of Treated Muscles in Patients with Blepharospasm. ( 30380945 )
2018
29
Impact of botulinum toxin injections on quality of life and self-esteem in patients with blepharospasm. ( 30463432 )
2018
30
Sexual dysfunction in cervical dystonia and blepharospasm. ( 30464469 )
2018
31
BDNF rs6265 (Val66Met) Polymorphism as a Risk Factor for Blepharospasm. ( 30519954 )
2018
32
Treatment satisfaction with botulinum toxin: a comparison between blepharospasm and cervical dystonia. ( 29066869 )
2017
33
Nonmotor symptoms in primary adult-onset cervical dystonia and blepharospasm. ( 28239516 )
2017
34
An Aesthetic Orbicularis Oculi Myectomy Technique for Blepharospasm: Use of Topical 5-Fluorouracil and Fibrin Sealant. ( 28863116 )
2017
35
A comparative crossover study on the treatment of hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm: preseptal and pretarsal botulinum toxin injection techniques. ( 28884242 )
2017
36
Unilateral pallidotomy for blepharospasm refractory to botulinum toxin injections. ( 28643956 )
2017
37
Blepharospasm 40 years later. ( 28186662 )
2017
38
Treatment of blepharospasm with apraclonidine. ( 28017248 )
2017
39
(123)I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in blepharospasm. ( 28629634 )
2017
40
Intractable Blepharospasm Treated with Bilateral Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation. ( 28975046 )
2017
41
Management of Essential Blepharospasm. ( 28680527 )
2017
42
Treatment of Blepharospasm/Hemifacial Spasm. ( 28965229 )
2017
43
Depression in blepharospasm: a question of facial feedback? ( 28761348 )
2017
44
Sensory tricks in primary blepharospasm and idiopathic cervical dystonia. ( 28488615 )
2017
45
Surgical approach to limiting skin contracture following protractor myectomy for essential blepharospasm. ( 29403334 )
2017
46
Medical Cannabis, a Beneficial High in Treatment of Blepharospasm? An Early Observation. ( 29339959 )
2017
47
Correction: Grey Matter Microstructural Integrity Alterations in Blepharospasm Are Partially Reversed by Botulinum Neurotoxin Therapy. ( 28192485 )
2017
48
INCREASED BLINKING MAY BE A PRECURSOR OF BLEPHAROSPASM: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY. ( 29082270 )
2017
49
Resting state fMRI observations of baseline brain functional activities and connectivities in primary blepharospasm. ( 28893588 )
2017
50
Clinical heterogeneity in patients with idiopathic blepharospasm: A cluster analysis. ( 28476326 )
2017

Variations for Blepharospasm

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Blepharospasm:

6
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 DRD5 DRD5, (CT/GT/GA)n undetermined variant risk factor

Expression for Blepharospasm

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Blepharospasm.

Pathways for Blepharospasm

GO Terms for Blepharospasm

Biological processes related to Blepharospasm according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 negative regulation of blood pressure GO:0045776 8.96 DRD5 GCH1
2 chaperone-mediated protein transport GO:0072321 8.62 TIMM8A TOR1A

Sources for Blepharospasm

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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