MCID: BLP003
MIFTS: 44

Blepharospasm

Categories: Eye diseases, Genetic diseases, Neuronal diseases, Oral diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Blepharospasm

MalaCards integrated aliases for Blepharospasm:

Name: Blepharospasm 12 74 53 29 54 6 15 39 71 32

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:529
ICD9CM 34 333.81
NCIt 49 C118723
SNOMED-CT 67 59026006
ICD10 32 G24.5
UMLS 71 C0005747

Summaries for Blepharospasm

NINDS : 53 Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and spasms of the eyelid muscles. It is a form of dystonia, a movement disorder in which muscle contractions cause sustained eyelid closure, twitching or repetitive movements. BEB begins gradually with increased frequency of eye blinking often associated with eye irritation. Other symptoms may include increasing difficulty in keeping the eyes open, and light sensitivity. Generally, the spasms occur during the day, disappear in sleep, and reappear after waking. As the condition progresses, the spasms may intensify, forcing the eyelids to remain closed for long periods of time, and thereby causing substantial visual disturbance or functional blindness. It is important to note that the blindness is caused solely by the uncontrollable closing of the eyelids and not by a dysfunction of the eyes. BEB occurs in both men and women, although it is especially common in middle-aged and elderly women.

MalaCards based summary : Blepharospasm is related to lymphatic malformation 5 and dystonia 3, torsion, x-linked, and has symptoms including myoclonus, torticollis and oromandibular dystonia. An important gene associated with Blepharospasm is DRD5 (Dopamine Receptor D5). The drugs Acetylcholine and Silicon have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, brain and cortex, and related phenotype is behavior/neurological.

Disease Ontology : 12 A focal dystonia that is characterized by the involuntary, forcible contraction of the muscles controlling eye blinks.

Wikipedia : 74 Blepharospasm is any abnormal contraction or twitch of the eyelid. The condition should be distinguished... more...

Related Diseases for Blepharospasm

Diseases in the Blepharospasm family:

Blepharospasm, Benign Essential

Diseases related to Blepharospasm via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(showing 213, show less)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 lymphatic malformation 5 33.3 TOR1A THAP1 SGCE OMD GCH1
2 dystonia 3, torsion, x-linked 31.1 TOR1A THAP1 SGCE GCH1 ATP1A3
3 torticollis 31.1 TOR1A CIZ1
4 spasmodic dysphonia 30.4 TOR1A THAP1
5 dystonia 24 30.1 THAP1 GNAL ANO3
6 bruxism 30.0 OMD KANTR DRD5
7 basal ganglia disease 30.0 TOR1A THAP1 GCH1
8 lingual-facial-buccal dyskinesia 29.9 OMD JRK DRD5
9 isolated dystonia 29.8 TOR1A THAP1 GNAL GCH1 ANO3
10 choreatic disease 29.7 SGCE JRK GCH1 DRD5
11 oromandibular dystonia 29.4 TOR1A THAP1 SGCE OMD GCH1 CIZ1
12 migraine with or without aura 1 29.4 SNAP25 NSF DRD5 ATP1A3
13 cranio-facial dystonia 29.1 TOR1A THAP1 SGCE GCH1 CDIP1
14 dystonia 28.9 TOR2A TOR1A TIMM8A THAP1 SGCE GNAL
15 dystonia 1, torsion, autosomal dominant 28.9 TOR2A TOR1A THAP1 SGCE GNAL GCH1
16 segmental dystonia 28.3 TOR1A THAP1 SGCE GNAL GCH1 CIZ1
17 movement disease 28.2 TOR1A THAP1 SGCE SERPINA3 OMD JRK
18 hemidystonia 28.1 TOR1A THAP1 SGCE JRK GNAL GCH1
19 dystonia 12 28.0 TOR1A THAP1 SGCE GNAL GCH1 CIZ1
20 multifocal dystonia 27.7 TOR1A THAP1 SGCE JRK GNAL GCH1
21 cervical dystonia 27.2 TOR1A THAP1 SNAP25 SGCE OMD JRK
22 focal dystonia 26.8 TOR1A TIMM8A THAP1 SNAP25 SGCE OMD
23 blepharospasm, benign essential 12.9
24 schwartz-jampel syndrome, type 1 11.5
25 aceruloplasminemia 11.5
26 spinocerebellar ataxia 31 11.5
27 dyt-thap1 11.5
28 corneal dystrophy, meesmann, 1 11.2
29 glaucoma 3, primary congenital, a 11.2
30 vernal keratoconjunctivitis 11.2
31 hemifacial spasm, familial 10.9
32 hemifacial spasm 10.9
33 ptosis 10.8
34 apraxia 10.6
35 apraxia of eyelid opening 10.5
36 yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome 10.5
37 tremor 10.4
38 cerebellopontine angle tumor 10.3 OMD KANTR
39 strabismus 10.3
40 mechanical strabismus 10.3
41 dystonia, focal, task-specific 10.3
42 supranuclear palsy, progressive, 1 10.3
43 bell's palsy 10.3
44 myasthenia gravis 10.3
45 lagophthalmos 10.3
46 eye disease 10.3
47 keratitis, hereditary 10.2
48 ataxia and polyneuropathy, adult-onset 10.2
49 facial paralysis 10.2
50 dystonia 6, torsion 10.2 THAP1 CIZ1
51 dystonia 23 10.2 CIZ1 ANO3
52 tardive dyskinesia 10.2
53 headache 10.2
54 myoclonus 10.2
55 spastic monoplegia 10.2 TOR1A JRK
56 torsion dystonia 4 10.2 GNAL CIZ1 ANO3
57 dystonia 27 10.1 GNAL CIZ1 ANO3
58 alternating esotropia 10.1 KANTR JRK
59 facial spasm 10.1
60 multiple system atrophy 1 10.1
61 obsessive-compulsive disorder 10.1
62 dry eye syndrome 10.1
63 ectropion 10.1
64 tic disorder 10.1
65 leber optic atrophy and dystonia 10.1 THAP1 SGCE GCH1
66 parkinson disease, late-onset 10.1
67 intraocular pressure quantitative trait locus 10.1
68 paranoid schizophrenia 10.1
69 entropion 10.1
70 keratoconjunctivitis 10.1
71 exposure keratitis 10.1
72 dysphagia 10.1
73 encephalopathy 10.1
74 spasticity 10.1
75 purine-pyrimidine metabolic disorder 10.0 THAP1 GCH1
76 autoimmune disease 10.0
77 systemic lupus erythematosus 10.0
78 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type iii 10.0
79 thymoma, familial 10.0
80 astigmatism 10.0
81 chorea, childhood-onset, with psychomotor retardation 10.0
82 sexual disorder 10.0
83 scoliosis 10.0
84 blepharophimosis 10.0
85 hydrocephalus 10.0
86 generalized anxiety disorder 10.0
87 autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia 10.0
88 keratopathy 10.0
89 kernicterus 10.0
90 thymoma 10.0
91 mood disorder 10.0
92 essential tremor 10.0
93 sleep disorder 10.0
94 encephalitis 10.0
95 pathologic nystagmus 10.0
96 cluster headache 10.0
97 depression 10.0
98 myotonia 10.0
99 wound botulism 10.0 SNAP25 NSF
100 infant botulism 10.0 SNAP25 NSF
101 specific developmental disorder 9.9 SNAP25 SERPINA3 DRD5
102 oculogyric crisis 9.9 GCH1 DRD5 ATP1A3
103 torsion dystonia 2 9.9 TOR1A THAP1 GNAL CIZ1 ANO3
104 dystonia 25 9.9 TOR1A THAP1 GNAL CIZ1 ANO3
105 hereditary dystonia 9.9 GCH1 ATP1A3 ANO3
106 hereditary lymphedema ii 9.9 TOR1A THAP1 SGCE OMD GCH1
107 breast cancer 9.8
108 glaucoma, primary open angle 9.8
109 hand skill, relative 9.8
110 neurofibromatosis, type i 9.8
111 polykaryocytosis inducer 9.8
112 trigeminal neuralgia 9.8
113 zinc finger protein 1 9.8
114 cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis 9.8
115 parkinson disease 15, autosomal recessive early-onset 9.8
116 wilson disease 9.8
117 mohr-tranebjaerg syndrome 9.8
118 kearns-sayre syndrome 9.8
119 chromosome 18q deletion syndrome 9.8
120 dystonia 7, torsion 9.8
121 xanthomatosis 9.8
122 branchiootic syndrome 1 9.8
123 meningioma, radiation-induced 9.8
124 meningioma, familial 9.8
125 dystonia 13, torsion, autosomal dominant 9.8
126 anxiety 9.8
127 major depressive disorder 9.8
128 dystonia 16 9.8
129 striatal degeneration, autosomal dominant 2 9.8
130 angiosarcoma 9.8
131 vitamin b12 deficiency 9.8
132 autosomal recessive disease 9.8
133 aphasia 9.8
134 stuttering 9.8
135 cardiac arrest 9.8
136 cysticercosis 9.8
137 suppression amblyopia 9.8
138 amblyopia 9.8
139 open-angle glaucoma 9.8
140 paralytic squint 9.8
141 hemiplegia 9.8
142 prostatic hypertrophy 9.8
143 enophthalmos 9.8
144 schizophreniform disorder 9.8
145 tetanus 9.8
146 lens subluxation 9.8
147 spinal meningioma 9.8
148 fuchs' endothelial dystrophy 9.8
149 mononeuropathy 9.8
150 dysthymic disorder 9.8
151 spastic entropion 9.8
152 telangiectasis 9.8
153 hypochondriasis 9.8
154 keratoconjunctivitis sicca 9.8
155 acute closed-angle glaucoma 9.8
156 olivopontocerebellar atrophy 9.8
157 communicating hydrocephalus 9.8
158 mental depression 9.8
159 optic nerve disease 9.8
160 hyperuricemia 9.8
161 bardet-biedl syndrome 9.8
162 papillary carcinoma 9.8
163 complex regional pain syndrome 9.8
164 pseudohypoparathyroidism 9.8
165 brain stem glioma 9.8
166 secretory meningioma 9.8
167 lymphoplasmacyte-rich meningioma 9.8
168 benign ependymoma 9.8
169 ganglioglioma 9.8
170 eyelid disease 9.8
171 schizoaffective disorder 9.8
172 cellular ependymoma 9.8
173 conjunctivitis 9.8
174 severe combined immunodeficiency 9.8
175 cerebellopontine angle meningioma 9.8
176 adenoma 9.8
177 parathyroid adenoma 9.8
178 cataract 9.8
179 retinal degeneration 9.8
180 herpes zoster 9.8
181 neurofibromatosis 9.8
182 lupus erythematosus 9.8
183 rosacea 9.8
184 narcolepsy 9.8
185 speech disorder 9.8
186 blepharitis 9.8
187 episodic ataxia 9.8
188 48,xyyy 9.8
189 corticobasal degeneration 9.8
190 glioma 9.8
191 orbital varix 9.8
192 tuberculous meningitis 9.8
193 weber syndrome 9.8
194 anoxia 9.8
195 chronic pain 9.8
196 hypertonia 9.8
197 postherpetic neuralgia 9.8
198 psychogenic movement 9.8
199 swallowing disorders 9.8
200 posttransplant acute limbic encephalitis 9.8
201 glial tumor 9.8
202 bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis 9.8
203 multiple system atrophy, parkinsonian type 9.8
204 thyroid carcinoma 9.8
205 infancy electroclinical syndrome 9.8 SNAP25 KANTR
206 neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 9.7 TOR1A THAP1 GCH1 ATP1A3
207 dystonia, dopa-responsive 9.6 TOR1A THAP1 SGCE GCH1 ATP1A3
208 leber plus disease 9.5 SGCE SERPINA3 JRK GCH1
209 focal hand dystonia 9.4 TOR1A THAP1 SGCE JRK GNAL GCH1
210 benign familial infantile epilepsy 9.3 THAP1 SNAP25 GNAL CIZ1 ATP1A3 ANO3
211 alternating hemiplegia of childhood 9.1 THAP1 SGCE GNAL GCH1 CIZ1 ATP1A3
212 dystonia 11, myoclonic 8.9 TOR1A THAP1 SGCE JRK GNAL GCH1
213 spasmodic dystonia 8.5 TOR1A THAP1 SGCE OMD JRK GNAL

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Blepharospasm:



Diseases related to Blepharospasm

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Blepharospasm

UMLS symptoms related to Blepharospasm:


myoclonus, torticollis, oromandibular dystonia, lingual dystonia, erythema of the eyelids, spasmodic torticollis

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Blepharospasm:

45 (showing 1, show less)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.47 ARSG ATP1A3 CDIP1 CIZ1 DRD5 GNAL

Drugs & Therapeutics for Blepharospasm

Drugs for Blepharospasm (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(showing 42, show less)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-84-3 187
2
Silicon Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7440-21-3 4082203
3 incobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4
4 abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4
5 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 4
6 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
7 Botulinum Toxins Phase 4
8 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
9 rimabotulinumtoxinB Phase 4
10 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 3
11 Anticonvulsants Phase 2, Phase 3
12 Epidiolex Phase 2, Phase 3
13
Etanercept Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 185243-69-0
14
Mexiletine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 31828-71-4 4178
15 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
16 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 1, Phase 2
17 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
18 Immunologic Factors Phase 1, Phase 2
19 Analgesics Phase 1, Phase 2
20 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
21 Autoantibodies Phase 1, Phase 2
22 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
23 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 1, Phase 2
24 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 2
25 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 2
26 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 2
27
Zinc Approved, Investigational 7440-66-6 32051
28
Carbamazepine Approved, Investigational 298-46-4 2554
29
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved 83-43-2 6741
30
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved 2921-57-5
31
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved 302-25-0
32
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved 50-24-8 5755
33 Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved 52-21-1
34
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental 2920-86-7
35
Cortisone Experimental 53-06-5 222786
36 Zinc Supplement
37 Ophthalmic Solutions
38 Dihydroxyphenylalanine
39 Methylprednisolone Acetate
40 Anesthetics
41 Anesthetics, Local
42 Lidocaine, Prilocaine Drug Combination

Interventional clinical trials:

(showing 63, show less)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 DOUBLE BLIND, PLACEBO CONTROLLED, RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL OF THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF BOTULINUM TOXIN TYPE A (BOTOX) IN BRUXISM Unknown status NCT00908050 Phase 4 Botulinum toxin type A
2 An Open-Label Pilot Study to Compare the Efficacy of Escalating Doses of IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin®) in the Treatment of Glabellar Rhytids Unknown status NCT01583478 Phase 4
3 The Impact of Botulinum Toxin Injection in the Frontalis on Brow Height and Morphology: A Randomized Trial Unknown status NCT03186001 Phase 4 Abobotulinum toxin A
4 Multi-center, Phase Ⅳ, Single Arm, Open-label Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Meditoxin® in Subjects With Essential Blepharospasm Completed NCT01259557 Phase 4 Botulinum Toxin Type A
5 Comparison of Two Botulinum Type A Products in the Treatment of Blepharospasm Completed NCT00761592 Phase 4
6 Multi-center, Single Arm, Open-label, Phase IV Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Botulax® in Patients With Essential Blepharospasm Completed NCT03641950 Phase 4 Botulinum toxin type A
7 Randomized, Double Blind, Active Controlled Study of the Efficacy, Surgical Outcome and Complications of Silicone Rod Sling in Frontalis Sling Suspension Surgery Completed NCT00753831 Phase 4
8 Pretarsal Versus Preseptal Botulinum Toxin for Patients With Eyelid Spasm: a Randomized, Triple-blind, Placebo-controlled, Cross-over Clinical Trial Completed NCT03508882 Phase 4 Botulinum Toxin Type A 100Unit/Vial (Product);Saline Solution for Injection
9 Measuring the Functional Effects of Botox on the Brain Using MR Spectroscopy and fMRI Completed NCT03373162 Phase 4 onabotulinumtoxinA
10 An Open Label Evaluation of MIDI to Quantify Performance Change in Subjects With Musician's Dystonia After Treatment With Botulinum Toxin Type B (Myobloc ®). Completed NCT00208091 Phase 4 Botulinum toxin, type B
11 A Double Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare the Efficacy, Time to Onset, and Duration of Two Botulinum Type A Exotoxins (Onabotulinum Toxin A and Abobotulinum Toxin A) in the Treatment of "Crow's Feet." Completed NCT01529788 Phase 4 Right lateral orbital injection of Botox Cosmetic or Dysport;Left lateral orbital injection of Botox Cosmetic or Dysport
12 Comparison of Efficacy of 250 Units Versus 500 Units of Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Refractory Vaginismus Unknown status NCT00638066 Phase 3 botulinum toxin;botulinum toxin A
13 A Randomized, Double Blind, Multi-center, Active Drug Controlled, Phase II/III Clinical Trial to Compare the Safety and Efficacy of NABOTA Versus BOTOX in Treatment of Essential Blepharospasm Completed NCT02947815 Phase 2, Phase 3 Clostridium Botulinum Toxin Type A;Clostridium Botulinum Toxin Type A
14 A Multicenter, Double-blind, Randomized, Parallel, Active-controlled, Phase III Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of NEURONOX® vs. BOTOX® in Patients With Essential Blepharospasm Completed NCT03216473 Phase 3 Neuronox;Botox
15 Double-blinded, Randomized, Active Control Comparative, Parallel-designed, Phase III Clinical Trial: Therapeutic Confirmatory Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of "Hugeltox Inj." In Essential Blepharospasm Running Parallel With Phase I Study Completed NCT01791881 Phase 3 Hugeltox;Botulinum Toxin Type A(Botox®)
16 Prospective, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Randomized, Multi-center Trial With an Open-label Extension Period to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) in the Treatment of Blepharospasm Completed NCT00406367 Phase 3 incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin);Placebo
17 Prospective, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Randomized, Parallel-group, Multi-center Study With an Open-label Extension Period to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of Two Different Doses of NT 201 in Botulinum Toxin Treatment-naïve Subjects With Blepharospasm Completed NCT01896895 Phase 3 IncobulinumtoxinA (Xeomin), 25 Units;IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin), 12.5 Units;Placebo;IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin), 35 Units
18 Double-Blind, Randomized, Phase 3, Comparative Study of a New Botulinum Toxin Type A Versus Botox in the Treatment of Essential Blepharospasm Completed NCT00682760 Phase 3 Korean Botulinum toxin type A (KbtxA) and Botox injection
19 Efficacy and Safety of Xeomin for the Treatment of Notalgia Paresthetica Completed NCT01098019 Phase 3 Xeomin;Placebo / Xeomin
20 Botulinum Toxin in Patients With Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia: a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Crossover Study Completed NCT02604186 Phase 2, Phase 3
21 Evaluation of Botulinum Toxin Injection Efficacy in the Treatment of Head Essential Tremor by a Multi-center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-group, Placebo-controlled Study Recruiting NCT02555982 Phase 3 BOTOX ® 200 Unités;Placebo
22 Use of Botulinum Toxin (BTX) for the Treatment of Peripheral Painful Traumatic Trigeminal Neuropathy (PPTTN) Recruiting NCT03555916 Phase 3 BOTOX®, Allergan;Placebo
23 Effect of Non-psychoactive Cannabidiol as an Adjunct to Botulinum Toxin in Blepharospasm - a Prospective Double-masked Cross-over Study Enrolling by invitation NCT04423341 Phase 2, Phase 3 Cannabidiol Oral Solution [Epidiolex]
24 A 48-Week Prospective, Double-Blinded, Randomized, Cross-over Design in Multicenter Study of 250 Unit of Dysport Versus 50 Unit of Neuronox Injection For Cervical Dystonia in Thai Patients Enrolling by invitation NCT03805152 Phase 3 Neuronox(R);Dysport (R)
25 ASIS for Enbrel in Plaque Psoriasis Unknown status NCT02112097 Phase 1, Phase 2 Gadolinium;Gadolinium;Gadolinium;Efficacy of Enbrel subcutaneously at Week 12;Efficacy of Enbrel subcutaneously at Week 24;Efficacy of Enbrel subcutaneously at Week 36;Efficacy of Enbrel subdermally at Week 12;Efficacy of Enbrel subdermally at Week 24;Efficacy of Enbrel subdermally at Week 36;PASI 75 n(%) subcutaneously at Week 12;PASI 75 n(%) subcutaneously at Week 24;PASI 75 n(%) subcutaneously at Week 36;PASI 75 n(%) subdermally at Week 12;PASI 75 n(%) subdermally at Week 24;PASI 75 n(%) subdermally at Week 36;Adverse Reactions of Enbrel subcutaneously;Adverse Reactions of Enbrel subdermally at Week 36;Gadolinium;Gadolinium;Gadolinium
26 Phase II, Multi-centre, Randomised, Double-blind, Parallel Group, Placebo-controlled Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of a Single Administration, by Subcutaneous Injection, of Three Doses of Dysport (40 Units/Eye, 80 Units/Eye, and 120 Units/Eye) for the Treatment of Benign Essential Blepharospasm Completed NCT00234507 Phase 2
27 A Study of Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 (AH8) in Treatment of Blepharospasm Completed NCT00942851 Phase 1, Phase 2 Acetyl-Hexapeptide Topical Treatment;placebo
28 Blepharospasm and the Experimental Modulation of Cortical Excitability in Primary and Secondary Motor Areas. A Pilot Study. Completed NCT00411255 Phase 2
29 Mexiletine for the Treatment of Focal Dystonia Completed NCT00001784 Phase 2 Mexiletine
30 Prospective, Open-label, Single-arm, Single-center Trial to Investigate the Tolerability of NT 201 and Quality of Life of Patients in the Treatment of Blepharospasm With Shortened Injection Intervals Terminated NCT00507637 Phase 2 NT 201
31 Placebo Controlled Double Blind Study of Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 in Treatment of Blepharospasm Terminated NCT01750346 Phase 2 Topical acetyl hexapeptide-8;Placebo
32 Effect of Two Different Surgical Methods on the Prognosis of Patients With Blepharospasm Unknown status NCT02765113 Early Phase 1
33 Comparison of Different Botulinum Toxin A Injection Patterns in the Treatment of Blepharospasm Unknown status NCT02327728 Botulinum toxin A 12.5U;Botulinum toxin A 10U
34 The Effect of Zinc Supplementation on the Efficacy and Duration of Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Oculofacial Spasm Disorders Unknown status NCT01546805 Zinc Supplement;Sugar pill
35 A Randomised Controlled Trial to Explore the Effectiveness and Cost-effectiveness of a Patient-initiated Botulinum Toxin Treatment Model for Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm Compared to Treatment as Usual Unknown status NCT02577224
36 The Influence of Gaze Shift and Emotions on Symptoms of Blepharospasm- a Pilot Study. Unknown status NCT01759745
37 Blepharospasm Patient Survey: A Structured Interview Evaluating Previous and Current incobotulinumtoxinA, abobotulinumtoxinA and onabotulinumtoxinA Treatment for Patients With Blepharospasm Completed NCT01686061
38 A Retrospective Chart Review of BOTOX® and Xeomin® for the Management of Cervical Dystonia and Blepharospasm Completed NCT02245958
39 A Retrospective Chart Review of BOTOX® and Xeomin® for the Treatment of Cervical Dystonia and Blepharospasm Completed NCT01814774
40 MDs on Botox Utility (MOBILITY) Completed NCT00535938
41 A Post Marketing Surveillance Study of Dysport Formulated With a Batch of Bulk Active Substance From a New Primary Manufacturing Facility at the Centre for Applied Microbiology & Research (CAMR) Completed NCT00210431
42 Diagnostic and Rating Tools for Blepharospasm Completed NCT02780336
43 Movement Disorder Survey in East China Completed NCT01168388
44 Combined Effects of rTMS and Botulinum Toxin in Benign Essential Blepharospasm: A Novel Approach Completed NCT02370875
45 Prospective, Observational Trial Evaluating Xeomin®(incobotulinumtoxinA) for Cervical Dystonia or Blepharospasm in the United States Completed NCT01287247
46 Role of the Cortical Medial Frontal Areas in Blepharospasm Completed NCT00500799
47 Clinical Trial of a Mechanical Device for the Treatment of Blepharospasm Completed NCT03269123
48 Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in Patients With Dystonia Completed NCT00773604
49 Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Raynaud's Completed NCT01233999 botulinum toxin A
50 Functional Connectivity of the Basal Ganglia in Primary Focal Dystonia Completed NCT01761903
51 Neurophysiological Markers in Patients With Craniofacial Dystonia and Their Relatives Completed NCT00082615
52 Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin A Intradetrusor Injections for the Treatment of Non-neurogenic Urinary Urge Incontinence- A Randomized Double-Blind Control Trial Completed NCT01226706 Botulinum Toxins, Type A;Placebos
53 The Role of the Upper Colliculus in the Idiopathic Blepharospasm : a Pilot Study in Functional MRI Recruiting NCT03903341
54 Effect of Lipid Based Eye Drops on Tear Film Lipid Layer Thickness in Subjects With Dry Eye Disease, Meibomian Gland Dysfunction, Blepharospasm and Healthy Subjects - a Pilot Study Recruiting NCT03399292 Cationorm MD sine eye drops
55 Natural History and Biospecimen Repository for Dystonia; Comprehensive Rating Tools for Cervical Dystonia; Validity & Reliability of Diagnostic Methods & Measures of Spasmodic Dysphonia Recruiting NCT01373424
56 Analyse de la Marche de Patients Atteints de Dystonie Focale Avant et après Traitement Par Toxine Botulique Recruiting NCT03938363 Botulinum Toxin injection
57 HLA Screening in Reducing the Risk of Antiepileptic Drug-induced Cutaneous Adverse Reactions: a Multicenter Clinical Study Recruiting NCT03184597
58 Botulinum Toxin A Versus Steroids for the Treatment of Chronic Plantar Fasciitis: a Randomized Controlled Study Recruiting NCT02196155 Botulinum toxin A;cortisone;Saline
59 Jitter's Recording in a Spastic Muscle Treated by Botulinum Toxin Recruiting NCT04002843
60 Biomarker for Cystinosis Disease AN INTERNATIONAL, MULTICENTER, EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROTOCOL Active, not recruiting NCT02837523
61 Suppression and Facilitation of the Motor Cortex by Stimulation of the Cerebellum in Patients With Dystonia and Healthy Controls Terminated NCT00487383
62 Study of the Photic Blink Reflex in Patients With Blepharospasm and Increased Blinking Terminated NCT03263000
63 Natural History and Biospecimen Repository for Dystonia; Comprehensive Rating Tools for Cervical Dystonia; Validity & Reliability of Diagnostic Methods & Measures of Spasmodic Dysphonia Terminated NCT04156022

Search NIH Clinical Center for Blepharospasm

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


Botulinum Toxin Type A
Cyproheptadine
Cyproheptadine hydrochloride
CYPROHEPTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE MONOHYDRATE

Genetic Tests for Blepharospasm

Genetic tests related to Blepharospasm:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Blepharospasm 29 DRD5

Anatomical Context for Blepharospasm

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Blepharospasm:

40
Eye, Brain, Cortex, Skin, Cerebellum, Testes, Subthalamic Nucleus

Publications for Blepharospasm

Articles related to Blepharospasm:

(showing 1817, show less)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
The TOR1A polymorphism rs1182 and the risk of spread in primary blepharospasm. 54 61
19202559 2009
2
Assessing the role of DRD5 and DYT1 in two different case-control series with primary blepharospasm. 61 54
17133500 2007
3
A polymorphism in the dopamine receptor DRD5 is associated with blepharospasm. 61 54
11781417 2002
4
The first UK national blepharospasm patient and public involvement day; identifying priorities. 61
31466502 2020
5
Does EMG provide essential information for the diagnosis and treatment of blepharospasm? 61
32387048 2020
6
Pretarsal blepharospasm: Clinical and electromyographic characteristics. 61
32280019 2020
7
Use of free oral mucosal graft for treatment of feline eyelid agenesis in seven patients. 61
32524714 2020
8
Blepharospasm, dry eye and extractable nuclear antigen antibodies. 61
32532571 2020
9
Serum calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamin D in benign essential blepharospasm. 61
32236706 2020
10
CYP1A2 rs762551 and ADORA2A rs5760423 Polymorphisms in Patients with Blepharospasm. 61
32424513 2020
11
The good toxin: 10 years of experience with botulinum toxin A in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm. 61
32544987 2020
12
Patient-reported responses to medical treatment in primary dystonia. 61
32249176 2020
13
Blepharospasm With Photophobia Secondary to Midbrain Tuberculoma and Thalamic Infarct. 61
32358466 2020
14
FDA Approvals and Consensus Guidelines for Botulinum Toxins in the Treatment of Dystonia. 61
32429600 2020
15
Frequency and risk factors of antibody-induced secondary failure of botulinum neurotoxin therapy. 61
32332130 2020
16
Evaluation of partial tarsal plate excision using a transconjunctival approach for the treatment of distichiasis in dogs. 61
32083378 2020
17
Clinical Rating Scales and Quantitative Assessments of Movement Disorders. 61
32279708 2020
18
Comment on: A trial of a mechanical device for the treatment of blepharospasm. 61
31586170 2020
19
Psychiatric disorders in blepharospasm: A 10-year follow-up study. 61
32505028 2020
20
Analgesic effect of topical and subconjunctival morphine in dogs after phacoemulsification: A pilot study. 61
32369267 2020
21
An objective tool to measure the effect of botulinum toxin in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. 61
32294304 2020
22
Ophthalmology. 61
32270340 2020
23
Treatment of Blepharospasm and Oromandibular Dystonia with Botulinum Toxins. 61
32331272 2020
24
Botulinum Toxin Effects on Sensorimotor Integration in Focal Dystonias. 61
32344856 2020
25
Apraxia of eyelid opening secondary to possible progressive supranuclear palsy: a case report. 61
32299276 2020
26
Abnormal Neural Responses During Reflexive Blinking in Blepharospasm: An Event-Related Functional MRI Study. 61
32250472 2020
27
Personality traits associated with blepharospasm: A comparison with healthy subjects, patients with facial hemispasm and patients with hyperhidrosis. 61
32067829 2020
28
Chorea and Parkinsonism with Elevated Striational Antibody. 61
32189867 2020
29
Risk of spread in adult-onset isolated focal dystonia: a prospective international cohort study. 61
31848221 2020
30
Polytetrafluoroethylene frontalis suspension in blepharospasm with eyelid apraxia: an effective and well-tolerated adjunct to botulinum toxin therapy. 61
32172614 2020
31
Which factors impact on quality of life for adults with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm? 61
32116098 2020
32
Surgical management of bilateral, upper and lower eyelid entropion in 27 Shar Pei dogs, using the Stades forced granulation procedure of the upper eyelid only. 61
31738860 2020
33
Long-term treatment of blepharospasm with botulinum toxin A: a service-based study over a 16-year follow-up in southern China. 61
31745757 2020
34
Personality profile of the primary blepharospasm (BSP): An investigation using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. 61
32035164 2020
35
Does the network model fits neurophysiological abnormalities in blepharospasm? 61
32215851 2020
36
Association between cannabis and the eyelids: A comprehensive review. 61
31747112 2020
37
Flanker Task Performance in Isolated Dystonia (Blepharospasm): A Focus on Sequential Effects. 61
32024200 2020
38
Blepharospasm as the presenting feature of papillary thyroid cancer and parathyroid adenoma. 61
31889644 2020
39
Sex, blinking, and dry eye. 61
31940243 2020
40
Soft Nanomembrane Sensors and Flexible Hybrid Bioelectronics for Wireless Quantification of Blepharospasm. 61
32091988 2020
41
Characteristics of tear abnormalities associated with benign essential blepharospasm and amelioration by means of botulinum toxin type A treatment. 61
31823132 2020
42
Myotomy In Situ for Essential Blepharospasm Refractory to Botulinum Toxin. 61
31833891 2020
43
Blepharospasm and periorbital edema after imatinib mesylate: improvement with botulinum toxin. 61
31967203 2020
44
Blepharospasm and periorbital edema after imatinib mesylate: improvement with botulinum toxin. 61
32074181 2020
45
Treatment of blepharospasm and Meige's syndrome with abo- and onabotulinumtoxinA: long-term safety and efficacy in daily clinical practice. 61
31630241 2020
46
Clinical, ultrasonographic, and histopathologic findings in seven horses with Descemet's membrane detachment: A case series. 61
31544302 2020
47
Quality of life in idiopathic dystonia: a systematic review. 61
30460447 2019
48
Dry eye syndrome in benign essential blepharospasm. 61
31733914 2019
49
Ophthalmic Outcome in a Belgian Cohort of Cystinosis Patients Treated with a Compounded Preparation of Cysteamine Eye Drops: Retrospective Analysis. 61
31560113 2019
50
Meibomian gland inversion: under-recognized entity. 61
31184427 2019
51
Dystonia and Parkinson's disease: What is the relationship? 61
31078682 2019
52
Sensory Tricks in Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration: Video-Analysis of 43 Patients. 61
31745482 2019
53
Efficacy and Safety of Long-Term Therapy with Type A Botulinum Toxin in Patients with Blepharospasm. 61
31741669 2019
54
A trial of a mechanical device for the treatment of blepharospasm. 61
31267089 2019
55
The use of autologous serum eye drops for the treatment of ocular surface disorders. 61
31798853 2019
56
Deep brain stimulation for Meige syndrome: a meta-analysis with individual patient data. 61
31302747 2019
57
Long-term Safety and Dosing of OnabotulinumtoxinA: A Prospective, Observational Study. 61
31256770 2019
58
Ocular motor manifestations of movement disorders. 61
31449085 2019
59
Motor and non-motor symptoms in blepharospasm: clinical and pathophysiological implications. 61
31359200 2019
60
Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Botox and Neuronox in the Management of Benign Essential Blepharospasm: A Split-face Study. 61
31612653 2019
61
Effect of light on blinking in patients with idiopathic isolated blepharospasm. 61
31621610 2019
62
Latrodectus Facies After Latrodectus Hesperus Envenomation in a Pediatric Patient. 61
31492593 2019
63
Remission in dystonia - Systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. 61
30898428 2019
64
Comparison of techniques of botulinum toxin injections for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. 61
31251420 2019
65
A neural network-based software to recognise blepharospasm symptoms and to measure eye closure time. 61
31386970 2019
66
Cognitive correlates of prospective memory in dystonia. 61
31279634 2019
67
What is the evidence for cannabis use in otolaryngology?: A narrative review. 61
31174932 2019
68
Paroxysmal Dysarthria Ataxia-Tremor-Blepharospasm Syndrome in Bickerstaff Brainstem Encephalitis: A Variant of Paroxysmal Dysarthria Ataxia Syndrome. 61
31744988 2019
69
Unravelling mechanisms of altered modulation of trigemino-facial circuits in blepharospasm. 61
31326645 2019
70
Mini-incisional entropion repair for correcting involutional entropion: Full description and surgical outcome. 61
31415368 2019
71
Pain in cervical dystonia: Evidence of abnormal inhibitory control. 61
31227336 2019
72
The History of Botulinum Toxins in Medicine: A Thousand Year Journey. 61
31451970 2019
73
Known and novel ocular toxicities of biologics, targeted agents, and traditional chemotherapeutics. 61
31098752 2019
74
Abnormal spontaneous neural activity of brain regions in patients with primary blepharospasm at rest. 61
31220741 2019
75
Blepharospasm: A genetic screening study in 132 patients. 61
30956059 2019
76
[Therapy of Benign Essential Blepharospasm with Botulinum Toxin]. 61
30970386 2019
77
Follicular choristoma in the third eyelid of an eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus). 61
31194665 2019
78
A hexanucleotide repeat modifies expressivity of X-linked dystonia parkinsonism. 61
30973967 2019
79
Bilateral Anterior Uveitis in a Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus) With a Metastatic Pectoral Malignant Mesenchymoma. 61
31251505 2019
80
[Botulinumtoxin in Ophthalmology]. 61
30999362 2019
81
Treatment Effects of Botulinum Toxin Injection and Acupuncture on Blepharospasm Assessed by the Change in Lower Eyelid Tension. 61
30724635 2019
82
Impact of botulinum toxin injections on quality of life and self-esteem in patients with blepharospasm. 61
30463432 2019
83
Writing, reading, and speaking in blepharospasm. 61
30783748 2019
84
An 8-Year-Old Girl with Blepharospasm and Left Thalamic Tumor. 61
31016833 2019
85
Predictive factors for long-term clinical outcomes of deep brain stimulation in the treatment of primary Meige syndrome. 61
30952124 2019
86
Advanced spheroidal degeneration. 61
32076391 2019
87
Long-term outcome of flexible onabotulinum toxin A treatment in facial dystonia. 61
30202071 2019
88
Primary angle-closure glaucoma with goniodysgenesis in a Beagle dog. 61
30832652 2019
89
Effects of Repeated Eyelid Injections with Botulinum Toxin A on Innervation of Treated Muscles in Patients with Blepharospasm. 61
30380945 2019
90
Lack of Association of the rs11655081 ARSG Gene with Blepharospasm. 61
30656493 2019
91
BDNF rs6265 (Val66Met) Polymorphism as a Risk Factor for Blepharospasm. 61
30519954 2019
92
Trans-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene (HFO-1336mzz-E) (2018). 61
30862300 2019
93
The use of hyaluronic acid subdermal filler for entropion in canines and felines: 40 cases. 61
29520917 2019
94
Use of botulinum toxin in Parkinson's disease. 61
30579818 2019
95
Disease progression in blepharospasm: a 5-year longitudinal study. 61
30308706 2019
96
High prevalence of neutralizing antibodies after long-term botulinum neurotoxin therapy. 61
30464031 2019
97
Expert recommendations for diagnosing cervical, oromandibular, and limb dystonia. 61
30269178 2019
98
The Prevalence and Correlation of Non-motor Symptoms in Adult Patients with Idiopathic Focal or Segmental Dystonia. 61
30783550 2019
99
Sensory Trick Frames: A New Device for Blepharospasm Patients. 61
30642155 2019
100
Increased pupillary constriction velocity in benign essential blepharospasm associated with photophobia. 61
31163059 2019
101
Screening Gene Mutations in Chinese Patients With Benign Essential Blepharospasm. 61
32038460 2019
102
Orbital varix: rare cause of blepharospasm. 61
31303918 2019
103
How to spot ocular abnormalities in progressive supranuclear palsy? A practical review. 61
31333840 2019
104
Treatment of psychiatric disturbances in common hyperkinetic movement disorders. 61
30501439 2019
105
Adult-Onset Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: Psychogenic or Organic? The Challenge of Abnormal Neurophysiological Findings. 61
31130912 2019
106
Dystonic tics in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. 61
31621889 2019
107
Schwartz Jampel syndrome responding positively to carbamazepine therapy: a case report and a novel mutation. 61
32134596 2019
108
Botulinum toxin relieves anxiety and depression in patients with hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm. 61
30587995 2019
109
Structural brain network fingerprints of focal dystonia. 61
31798688 2019
110
Comparison Therapeutic Effects of Ciprofloxacin, Silver Nanoparticles and Their Combination in the Treatment of Pseudomonas keratitis in Rabbit: An Experimental Study. 61
31089366 2019
111
Effect of Botulinum toxin A application in neuro-ophtalmologic indications on Schirmers test and tears osmolarity. 61
31537075 2019
112
Clinical experience with patients with spasmodic dysphonia and primary Meige syndrome. 61
29716720 2019
113
Rare Complication of Botox Injection: A Case Report. 61
30873373 2019
114
Blepharospasm as a Manifestation of Peak of Dose Dyskinesia in Parkinson Disease. 61
30649026 2019
115
Traumatic phacocele in an American Miniature Horse. 61
29517148 2019
116
Glucose hypometabolism in the visual cortex proportional to disease severity in patients with essential blepharospasm. 61
31487599 2019
117
Orbital Rosai-Dorfman Disease: A Case Report and Literature Review. 61
31008056 2019
118
Use of equine amniotic membrane free-island grafts for treatment of a midstromal corneal ulcer and descemetocele in a snow leopard (Panthera uncia). 61
30668260 2018
119
Abnormal sensory gating in patients with different types of focal dystonias. 61
30403835 2018
120
Epidemiological and clinical aspects of a sample of Brazilian patients with primary dystonia and the impact of the new classification on their clinical evaluation. 61
30698205 2018
121
[Cost-utility analysis of two formulations of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of blepharospasm and cervical dystonia in Spain]. 61
30536360 2018
122
Acute intensive care unit management of mustard gas victims: the Turkish experience. 61
29648477 2018
123
Spread of dystonia in patients with idiopathic adult-onset laryngeal dystonia. 61
29935029 2018
124
Morphological and functional findings in Alström syndrome: a study of two families. 61
30328943 2018
125
Technique, postoperative complications, and visual outcomes of phacoemulsification cataract surgery in 21 penguins (27 eyes): 2011-2015. 61
29411487 2018
126
Recurrent epibulbar dermoid cyst treated with amniotic membrane implant a case report. 61
30428870 2018
127
Blepharospasm in Japan: A Clinical Observational Study From a Large Referral Hospital in Tokyo. 61
30258472 2018
128
Clinical Features of Benign Essential Blepharospasm in Korean Patients. 61
30311455 2018
129
Developments in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm. 61
29916840 2018
130
Neuro-Ophthalmology at a Tertiary Eye Care Centre in India. 61
29135814 2018
131
Botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of movement disorders. 61
30244558 2018
132
Botulinum toxin injection and tear production. 61
29994851 2018
133
Chemodenervation for the Treatment of Facial Dystonia: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. 61
29653859 2018
134
Health-related quality of life outcomes from botulinumtoxin treatment in blepharospasm. 61
29990961 2018
135
Evaluation of Scheimpflug imaging parameters in blepharospasm and normal eyes. 61
30185154 2018
136
[The patterns analysis of clinical application of acupuncture for ophthalmopathy]. 61
30141305 2018
137
The impact of deep brain stimulation on health related quality of life and disease-specific disability in Meige Syndrome (MS). 61
29807200 2018
138
Blepharospasm with elevated anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody titer. 61
30231125 2018
139
The Ex vivo Eye Irritation Test (EVEIT) model as a mean of improving venom ophthalmia understanding. 61
29890230 2018
140
Stroke-induced resolution of primary blepharospasm: evidence for the lenticular nucleus as a control candidate. 61
30049673 2018
141
Effect of Botulinum Toxin A Treatment on Eyelid Pressure in Eyes with Blepharospasm. 61
29641935 2018
142
An unusual case of feline acute corneal hydrops: atypical disease presentation and possible in vivo detection of Descemet's membrane detachment in the cat's unaffected eye. 61
29111586 2018
143
An Aesthetic Orbicularis Oculi Myectomy Technique for Blepharospasm: Use of Topical 5-Fluorouracil and Fibrin Sealant. 61
28863116 2018
144
Towards flexible and tailored botulinum neurotoxin dosing regimens for focal dystonia and spasticity - Insights from recent studies. 61
29407165 2018
145
Evidence on botulinum toxin in selected disorders. 61
29408357 2018
146
[Botulinum Toxin - New Developments in Ophthalmology]. 61
28114700 2018
147
Recent developments in clinical trials of botulinum neurotoxins. 61
28818530 2018
148
Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 31 with Blepharospasm. 61
29434122 2018
149
An update on new and unique uses of botulinum toxin in movement disorders. 61
28888928 2018
150
Keratitis due to microfilariae in dogs: a newly recognized disease. 61
28508467 2018
151
Diagnosis of primary hemifacial spasm. 61
29673578 2018
152
Increase lipid tear thickness after botulinum neurotoxin A injection in patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. 61
29849166 2018
153
Combined effects of rTMS and botulinum toxin therapy in benign essential blepharospasm. 61
29530449 2018
154
Whole-exome sequencing for variant discovery in blepharospasm. 61
29770609 2018
155
Clinical management of Candida albicans keratomycosis in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). 61
28074638 2018
156
Effect of Botulinum Toxin A on Muscle Healing and its Implications in Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery. 61
29145580 2018
157
Injecting botulinum toxin into the treatment of blepharospasm. 61
30206561 2018
158
[Myths and evidence on the use of botulinum toxin: neuropharmacology and dystonia]. 61
29480513 2018
159
Botulinum toxin in movement disorders. 61
29503330 2018
160
Modified brow suspension technique for the treatment of pseudoptosis due to redundant frontal skin in the dog: a retrospective study of 25 cases. 61
28444838 2018
161
Protective Effect of Blepharospasm on the Anterior Segment of the Eye. 61
30256021 2018
162
Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Movement Disorders. 61
29478149 2018
163
Botulinum toxin therapy in patients with oral anticoagulation: is it safe? 61
29116410 2018
164
Long-term Efficacy of Botulinum Neurotoxin-A Treatment for Essential Blepharospasm. 61
29376224 2018
165
Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm. 61
29239872 2018
166
Botulinum Toxins for Treating Essential Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm. 61
29239877 2018
167
Surgical Myectomy for Essential Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm. 61
29239878 2018
168
Unusual Clinical Presentations Challenging the Early Clinical Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. 61
30010123 2018
169
Dystonia in Patients with Spinocerebellar Ataxia 3 - Machado-Joseph disease: An Underestimated Diagnosis? 61
30008965 2018
170
[Tarsal Kink: Pathognomonic Presentation and Therapy of a Rare Congenital Upper Eyelid Malformation]. 61
29373869 2018
171
Epidemiology of benign essential blepharospasm: A nationwide population-based retrospective study in Taiwan. 61
30586395 2018
172
Brueghel Syndrome or Meige Syndrome? Two Sides of a Same Disease. 61
29145188 2018
173
Long-term outcome of pallidal stimulation for Meige syndrome. 61
29350600 2018
174
Isolated focal dystonia phenotypes are associated with distinct patterns of altered microstructure. 61
30013924 2018
175
Sexual dysfunction in cervical dystonia and blepharospasm. 61
30464469 2018
176
[Non-motor disorders in patients with muscular dystonia]. 61
30335080 2018
177
The Facial Nerve and Selective Neurectomy for Treatment of Benign Essential Blepharospasm. 61
29239881 2018
178
Benign Essential Blepharospasm: What We Know and What We Don't. 61
29239874 2018
179
The Benign Essential Blepharospasm Research Foundation. 61
29239875 2018
180
Oral Pharmacotherapy for Benign Essential Blepharospasm. 61
29239876 2018
181
Dystonia. 61
30482316 2018
182
Voxel-Mirrored Homotopic Connectivity of Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Blepharospasm. 61
30254593 2018
183
Botulinum toxin in Meige's syndrome: A video-based case series. 61
29322963 2018
184
Altered functional connectivity in blepharospasm/orofacial dystonia. 61
29568690 2018
185
The History of Blepharospasm in Medicine. 61
29239873 2018
186
Secondary Blepharospasm Associated With Ocular Surface Disease. 61
29239879 2018
187
Changes in interleukin-6 tear concentration and clinical outcome in moderate-to-severe bacterial corneal ulcers after corneal collagen cross-linking. 61
30140651 2018
188
123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in blepharospasm. 61
28629634 2017
189
Muscle Selection for Focal Limb Dystonia. 61
29286305 2017
190
Long-term clinical outcome of bilateral pallidal stimulation for intractable craniocervical dystonia (Meige syndrome). Report of 6 patients. 61
29246604 2017
191
[Modern non-cosmetic treatment with botulinum toxins]. 61
29030680 2017
192
Plasmatic coagulation and fibrinolysis in healthy and Otostrongylus-affected Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). 61
28902964 2017
193
Temporal horizontal H-figure sliding skin flap for central eyelid reconstructive surgery in dogs: a retrospective study. 61
28944479 2017
194
A comparative crossover study on the treatment of hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm: preseptal and pretarsal botulinum toxin injection techniques. 61
28884242 2017
195
Resting state fMRI observations of baseline brain functional activities and connectivities in primary blepharospasm. 61
28893588 2017
196
Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard and Therapeutic Approaches. 61
28106291 2017
197
Medical Cannabis, a Beneficial High in Treatment of Blepharospasm? An Early Observation. 61
29339959 2017
198
Treatment of Blepharospasm/Hemifacial Spasm. 61
28965229 2017
199
Corneal anesthetic effect and ocular tolerance of 3.5% lidocaine gel in comparison with 0.5% aqueous proparacaine and 0.5% viscous tetracaine in normal canines. 61
27981712 2017
200
Effect of topical ophthalmic latanoprost 0.005% solution alone and in combination with diclofenac 0.1% solution in healthy horses: a pilot study. 61
27791324 2017
201
Sensitivity of Diagnostic Tests for Dry Eye in Patients with Blepharospasm. 61
29479902 2017
202
INCREASED BLINKING MAY BE A PRECURSOR OF BLEPHAROSPASM: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY. 61
29082270 2017
203
Photophobia in primary headaches, in essential blepharospasm and in major depression. 61
27580344 2017
204
Bilateral pallidotomy for Meige syndrome. 61
28424916 2017
205
Canine ocular onchocerciasis: a retrospective review of the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of 16 cases in New Mexico (2011-2015). 61
27624855 2017
206
Role of the "other Babinski sign" in hyperkinetic facial disorders. 61
28566174 2017
207
Unilateral pallidotomy for blepharospasm refractory to botulinum toxin injections. 61
28643956 2017
208
Clinical heterogeneity in patients with idiopathic blepharospasm: A cluster analysis. 61
28476326 2017
209
Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Botox and Neuronox in the Management of Benign Essential Blepharospasm: A Split-face Study. 61
29022290 2017
210
A 72-year-old with eyelid opening apraxia in Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome. 61
28588873 2017
211
Blepharospasm as a masquerade of glaucomatous visual field defects. 61
28576231 2017
212
Treatment of Blepharospasm in Schwartz-Jampel Syndrome: Botulinum Toxin A Injection or Surgery. 61
26020714 2017
213
Sensory tricks in primary blepharospasm and idiopathic cervical dystonia. 61
28488615 2017
214
The Italian Dystonia Registry: rationale, design and preliminary findings. 61
28215037 2017
215
Ophthalmic Manifestations of Congenital Zika Syndrome in Colombia and Venezuela. 61
28418539 2017
216
Botulinum Toxin Therapy for Parkinson's Disease. 61
28511260 2017
217
Blepharospasm 40 years later. 61
28186662 2017
218
Acute angle closure following periorbital botulinum toxin injection in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa. 61
29018766 2017
219
Botulinum toxin in the management of head and neck disorders. 61
28159584 2017
220
Cluster Headache Associated with Secondary Unilateral Blepharospasm: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. 61
28540017 2017
221
Pontine Tegmental Cap Dysplasia in an Extremely Preterm Infant and Review of the Literature. 61
28193110 2017
222
Nonmotor symptoms in primary adult-onset cervical dystonia and blepharospasm. 61
28239516 2017
223
Dystonia treatment: Patterns of medication use in an international cohort. 61
28077492 2017
224
Frontalis suspension surgery to treat patients with blepharospasm and eyelid opening apraxia: long-term results. 61
27816991 2017
225
Eyelid Dysfunction in Neurodegenerative, Neurogenetic, and Neurometabolic Disease. 61
28769865 2017
226
Genetic screening of THAP1 in primary dystonia patients of India. 61
27913194 2017
227
Does the Somatosensory Temporal Discrimination Threshold Change over Time in Focal Dystonia? 61
29062576 2017
228
Meige's syndrome: History, epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenesis and treatment. 61
28017205 2017
229
Treatment of blepharospasm with apraclonidine. 61
28017248 2017
230
Multiple Neural Networks Malfunction in Primary Blepharospasm: An Independent Components Analysis. 61
28539879 2017
231
Temporal Discrimination: Mechanisms and Relevance to Adult-Onset Dystonia. 61
29234300 2017
232
Treatment satisfaction with botulinum toxin: a comparison between blepharospasm and cervical dystonia. 61
29066869 2017
233
Acute Dystonic Reaction Following General Anesthetic Agent Use. 61
29204316 2017
234
How Many Dystonias? Clinical Evidence. 61
28217105 2017
235
Photophobia in neurologic disorders. 61
28932391 2017
236
Exploratory structural assessment in craniocervical dystonia: Global and differential analyses. 61
28829782 2017
237
Epidemiological, clinical and genetic aspects of adult onset isolated focal dystonia in Ireland. 61
27647704 2017
238
A Dynamic Circuit Hypothesis for the Pathogenesis of Blepharospasm. 61
28326032 2017
239
Blepharospasm: an uncommon adverse effect caused by long-term administration of olanzapine. 61
27658142 2017
240
Surgical approach to limiting skin contracture following protractor myectomy for essential blepharospasm. 61
29403334 2017
241
Transcranial direct current stimulation for patients with benign essential blepharospasm: a case report. 61
27672032 2017
242
Five-Year Retrospective Review of Cases with Benign Essential Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm Presenting in a Tertiary Eye Care Center in North India. 61
27078720 2017
243
The therapeutic usage of botulinum toxin (Botox) in non-cosmetic head and neck conditions - An evidence based review. 61
28223858 2017
244
Episcleral cyclosporine A implants for the management of unilateral keratoconjunctivitis sicca in an 8-year-old mare. 61
26945681 2017
245
Management of Essential Blepharospasm. 61
28680527 2017
246
Depression in blepharospasm: a question of facial feedback? 61
28761348 2017
247
Intractable Blepharospasm Treated with Bilateral Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation. 61
28975046 2017
248
Correction: Grey Matter Microstructural Integrity Alterations in Blepharospasm Are Partially Reversed by Botulinum Neurotoxin Therapy. 61
28192485 2017
249
Improvement of Orbitofrontal Cortex Function Associated with Blephrospasm Symptom Remission. 61
28391280 2017
250
Use of Botulinum Neurotoxin in Ophthalmology. 61
28050326 2016
251
The comparison between intradermal injection of abobotulinumtoxinA and normal saline for face-lifting: a split-face randomized controlled trial. 61
27647769 2016
252
A novel ANO3 variant identified in a 53-year-old woman presenting with hyperkinetic dysarthria, blepharospasm, hyperkinesias, and complex motor tics. 61
27919237 2016
253
Chewing-induced blepharospasm in Parkinson's disease. 61
27871438 2016
254
Psychogenic Blepharospasm: A Diagnostic Dilemma. 61
28638211 2016
255
Alleviating Maneuvers for Benign Essential Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm. 61
27607413 2016
256
Use of Alleviating Maneuvers for Periocular Facial Dystonias. 61
27606483 2016
257
Changes in ocular higher-order aberrations following botulinum toxin treatment in patients with blepharospasm : BTX improves dry eye in patients with BEB. 61
27503401 2016
258
Objective, computerized video-based rating of blepharospasm severity. 61
27770067 2016
259
Effect of topical administration of tramadol on corneal wound healing in rats. 61
26820482 2016
260
Progressive Supranuclear Palsy and Corticobasal Degeneration: Pathophysiology and Treatment Options. 61
27526039 2016
261
Meta-analytical and electrophysiological evidence for executive dysfunction in primary dystonia. 61
27376933 2016
262
IncobotulinumtoxinA: A Review in Upper Limb Spasticity. 61
27530616 2016
263
Marked Improvement of Meige Syndrome in a Japanese Male Patient with Schizophrenia After Switching from Risperidone to Paliperidone: A Case Report. 61
27627971 2016
264
Real-World, Long-Term Quality of Life Following Therapeutic OnabotulinumtoxinA Treatment. 61
27430524 2016
265
Role of GABAergic System in Blepharospasm. 61
27533531 2016
266
Role of GABAergic System in Blepharospasm: Response. 61
27533532 2016
267
A cross-sectional structured survey of patients receiving botulinum toxin type A treatment for blepharospasm. 61
27423565 2016
268
Aesthetic and Non-aesthetic Indications for Orbicularis Oculi Myectomy. 61
27178568 2016
269
The wrong end of the telescope: neuromuscular mimics of movement disorders (and vice versa). 61
26965497 2016
270
Cognitive Flexibility in Primary Dystonia. 61
27333537 2016
271
Diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of photophobia. 61
26875996 2016
272
Erratum to: 'Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a patient-initiated botulinum toxin treatment model for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm compared to standard care: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial'. 61
27439615 2016
273
Meige's syndrome. 61
28659707 2016
274
Orbicularis Oculi Myectomy as a Treatment for Blepharospasm in a Case of Schwartz Jampel Syndrome. 61
27621795 2016
275
Successful Treatment of Blepharospasm by Pallidal Neurostimulation. 61
30713932 2016
276
Botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, adult spasticity, and headache: Payment policy perspectives. 61
29443136 2016
277
In vivo confocal microscopy of meibomian glands in primary blepharospasm: A prospective case-control study in a Chinese population. 61
27281086 2016
278
INTRAOCULAR SILICONE BALL IMPLANTATION AFTER EVISCERATION IN A SLOW LORIS (NYCTICEBUS COUCANG). 61
27468037 2016
279
Strategies for the Management of Congenital Iris Cysts. 61
27376231 2016
280
Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesion in the Basal Ganglia Circuit. 61
27240808 2016
281
Language modulation of benign essential blepharospasm. 61
26990543 2016
282
Practice guideline update summary: Botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, adult spasticity, and headache: Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. 61
27164716 2016
283
Botulinum toxin therapy: reduction of injection site pain by pH normalisation. 61
27002815 2016
284
Movement disorders induced by deep brain stimulation. 61
26806438 2016
285
Sonographic Alteration of Basal Ganglia in Different Forms of Primary Focal Dystonia: A Cross-sectional Study. 61
27064039 2016
286
Sleep in patients with primary dystonia: A systematic review on the state of research and perspectives. 61
26164369 2016
287
Sun exposure is an environmental factor for the development of blepharospasm. 61
25904812 2016
288
Blepharospasm in a multiplex African-American pedigree. 61
26944167 2016
289
Cost-Effectiveness of Incobotulinumtoxin-A with Flexible Treatment Intervals Compared to Onabotulinumtoxin-A in the Management of Blepharospasm and Cervical Dystonia. 61
27021747 2016
290
Pallidal stimulation for medically intractable blepharospasm. 61
27033410 2016
291
Behavioural interventions for people living with adult-onset primary dystonia: a systematic review. 61
27000094 2016
292
Conversion Ratio between Botox®, Dysport®, and Xeomin® in Clinical Practice. 61
26959061 2016
293
Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a patient-initiated botulinum toxin treatment model for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm compared to standard care: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. 61
26961367 2016
294
DEVELOPMENT OF RETROBULBAR AND AURICULOPALPEBRAL NERVE BLOCKS IN CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS). 61
27010283 2016
295
Ophthalmic abnormalities secondary to periocular or ocular snakebite (pit vipers) in dogs--11 cases (2012-2014). 61
25912317 2016
296
Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Blepharospasm, Orofacial/Oromandibular Dystonia, and Hemifacial Spasm. 61
26866500 2016
297
[Sandifer's syndrome in a 5-month-old child with suspicion of infantile spasms]. 61
26697813 2016
298
Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Tremor and Tics. 61
26866497 2016
299
Blepharospasm in children and adolescents. 61
26510653 2016
300
Comparison of Two Botulinum Neurotoxin A Injection Patterns with or without the Medial Lower Eyelid in the Treatment of Blepharospasm. 61
26885381 2016
301
A Survey of Current Blepharospasm Treatment Patterns Among Oculoplastic Surgeons. 61
25811162 2016
302
High prevalence of primary focal dystonia in the Faroe Islands. 61
26041438 2016
303
Non-motor symptoms in patients with adult-onset focal dystonia: Sensory and psychiatric disturbances. 61
26360238 2016
304
Psychogenic Ophthalmologic Movement Disorders. 61
26792096 2016
305
Late-onset primary dystonia in Zhejiang province of China: a service-based epidemiological study. 61
26306696 2016
306
Blepharospasm: Update on Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects, and Pathophysiology. 61
27064462 2016
307
Considerations on patient-related outcomes with the use of botulinum toxins: is switching products safe? 61
26917963 2016
308
Grey Matter Microstructural Integrity Alterations in Blepharospasm Are Partially Reversed by Botulinum Neurotoxin Therapy. 61
27992533 2016
309
Functional facial and tongue movement disorders. 61
27719855 2016
310
Sexual Well-Being in Patients with Blepharospasm, Spasmodic Torticollis, and Hemifacial Spasm: A Pilot Study. 61
27761118 2016
311
Bleb incarceration following Ahmed valve surgery. 61
27799829 2016
312
Edrophonium Challenge Test for Blepharospasm. 61
27375406 2016
313
Dorsally located corneal dermoid in a cat. 61
28491417 2016
314
Prefrontal Hemodynamic Functions during a Verbal Fluency Task in Blepharospasm Using Multi-Channel NIRS. 61
26942579 2016
315
Screening for Cognitive Impairments in Primary Blepharospasm. 61
27526026 2016
316
Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease presenting as brainstem encephalitis with secondary blepharospasm. 61
26933369 2016
317
Clinical differences between botulinum neurotoxin type A and B. 61
26260691 2015
318
Malassezia pachydermatis keratomycosis in a dog. 61
26909245 2015
319
Ultraviolet Keratitis: From the Pathophysiological Basis to Prevention and Clinical Management. 61
26680683 2015
320
Botulinum neurotoxins for the treatment of focal dystonias: Review of rating tools used in clinical trials. 61
26365917 2015
321
Is it time for flexibility in botulinum inter-injection intervals? 61
26440738 2015
322
Efficacy of botulinum toxin type A in treatment of different forms of focal dystonias in the Serbian population: experience of the Botulinum Toxin Outpatients Department. 61
26898029 2015
323
Patients with ocular symptoms referred for electrodiagnosis: how many of them suffer from myasthenia gravis? 61
25822064 2015
324
Benign Essential Blepharospasm is a Disorder of Neuroplasticity: Lessons From Animal Models. 61
26576017 2015
325
Benign Essential Blepharospasm--There Is More to It Than Just Blinking. 61
26576018 2015
326
How Do I Examine Blepharospasm? 61
30838249 2015
327
Clinicopathological effects of pepper (oleoresin capsicum) spray. 61
26554271 2015
328
Changes in corneal aesthesiometry and the sub-basal nerve plexus in benign essential blepharospasm. 61
25904123 2015
329
The Mayo Clinic Arizona Spasmodic Dysphonia Experience: A Demographic Analysis of 718 Patients. 61
26024910 2015
330
Clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of a novel equine ocular disorder: heterochromic iridocyclitis with secondary keratitis in adult horses. 61
25399915 2015
331
Regional diffusion of botulinum toxin in facial muscles: a randomised double-blind study and a consideration for clinical studies with split-face design. 61
25766591 2015
332
Effects of morphine on the expression of cytokines and inflammatory mediators in a rabbit model of endotoxin-induced experimental uveitis. 61
26677041 2015
333
Autoimmune post-herpes simplex encephalitis of adults and teenagers. 61
26491084 2015
334
Functional Vision Disorder. 61
26444401 2015
335
Combined Excimer Laser Photoablation and Amniotic Membrane Overlay for Relief of Symptomatic Discomfort in Gelatinous Drop-like Corneal Dystrophy. 61
26203750 2015
336
A case of thrombosis of subcutaneous anterior chest veins (Mondor's disease) as an unusual complication of botulinum type A injection. 61
26126167 2015
337
Eyelid myokymia in patients with migraine taking topiramate. 61
25828425 2015
338
Corneal and Tear Film Changes After Botulinum Toxin-A in Blepharospasm or Hemifacial Spasm. 61
26075455 2015
339
Use of bandage contact lenses for treatment of spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defects in dogs. 61
25882569 2015
340
Tardive Blepharospasm and Meige Syndrome during Treatment with Quetiapine and Olanzapine. 61
28360708 2015
341
Riot control agents: the tear gases CN, CS and OC-a medical review. 61
24379300 2015
342
Oral methylphenidate for the treatment of refractory facial dystonias. 61
25951177 2015
343
The role of neurotoxins in the periorbital and midfacial areas. 61
25921574 2015
344
Use of Clostridium botulinum toxin in gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. 61
25992183 2015
345
The spread of primary late-onset focal dystonia in a long-term follow up study. 61
25764999 2015
346
Effect of upper eyelid myectomy on subsequent chemodenervation in the management of benign essential blepharospasm. 61
25192329 2015
347
Efficacy of high dose methylprednisolone in a patient with cervical dystonia and blepharospasm and Sjögren's syndrome. 61
25060651 2015
348
Histiocytic Sarcoma and Bilateral Facial Vein Thrombosis in a Siberian Hamster (Phodopus sungorus). 61
25926398 2015
349
Development and validation of a clinical scale for rating the severity of blepharospasm. 61
25847472 2015
350
Clinical outcomes of individualized botulinum neurotoxin type A injection techniques in patients with essential blepharospasm. 61
25829828 2015
351
Botulinum toxin and blink rate in patients with blepharospasm and increased blinking. 61
24963123 2015
352
Diagnostic delay in adult-onset dystonia: data from an Italian movement disorder center. 61
25577433 2015
353
Botulinum toxin in the management of blepharospasm: current evidence and recent developments. 61
25922620 2015
354
Blepharospasm: long-term treatment with either Botox®, Xeomin® or Dysport®. 61
25059456 2015
355
Ocular alkaline injury in four dogs - presentation, treatment, and follow-up - a case series. 61
24836701 2015
356
Safety, potential efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of specific polyclonal immunoglobulin F(ab')₂ fragments against avian influenza A (H5N1) in healthy volunteers: a single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 study. 61
25662592 2015
357
Clinical categorization of psychogenic blepharospasm. 61
25558013 2015
358
Absence of bacterial or fungal growth in vials of reconstituted botulinum toxin type A after storage. 61
25717119 2015
359
Switch from abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport®) to incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin®) botulinum toxin formulation: a review of 257 cases. 61
25325305 2015
360
[Unilateral loss of eyebrows and repeated botulinum toxin injections: questionable correlation in essential blepharospasm]. 61
25566735 2015
361
Topical delivery of acetyl hexapeptide-8 from different emulsions: influence of emulsion composition and internal structure. 61
25497319 2015
362
Recognizing uncommon presentations of psychogenic (functional) movement disorders. 61
25667816 2015
363
Clinical Analysis of Patients with Primary Blepharospasm: A Report of 100 Cases in China. 61
25997849 2015
364
Systematic Literature Review of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Clinical Trials for Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm. 61
26566457 2015
365
Primary congenital glaucoma. 61
26518078 2015
366
Functional Aspects of Gait in Essential Tremor: A Comparison with Age-Matched Parkinson's Disease Cases, Dystonia Cases, and Controls. 61
26056611 2015
367
Aripiprazole Can Improve Apraxia of Eyelid Opening in Parkinson's Disease. 61
26631893 2015
368
White Matter Microstructure in Idiopathic Craniocervical Dystonia. 61
26056610 2015
369
An update on the use of botulinum toxin therapy in Parkinson's disease. 61
25407133 2015
370
Clinical and pharmacological properties of incobotulinumtoxinA and its use in neurological disorders. 61
25897202 2015
371
Bilateral ptosis: Lesion in the oculomotor nuclei or supranuclear lesion? 61
26409335 2015
372
Postanaesthetic tear production and ocular irritation in cats. 61
25599242 2015
373
Use of botulinum toxin injections to treat peripheral stimulator induced facial muscle twitching: a case report. 61
26558174 2015
374
[Meige's syndrome or segmental craniocervical dystonia: terminology, history and contemporary view]. 61
26978507 2015
375
Globe penetration in a cat following maxillary nerve block for dental surgery. 61
25527494 2015
376
Immune-mediated keratoconjunctivitis sicca in dogs: current perspectives on management. 61
30101119 2015
377
A gait paradigm reveals different patterns of abnormal cerebellar motor learning in primary focal dystonias. 61
25182695 2014
378
Mycotic Keratitis in a Khaki Campbell Duck ( Anas platyrhynchos domesticus). 61
25843471 2014
379
Long-term therapy of benign essential blepharospasm and facial hemispasm with botulinum toxin A: retrospective assessment of the clinical and quality of life impact in patients treated for more than 15 years. 61
24604684 2014
380
BOTOX: Broadening the Horizon of Dentistry. 61
25654058 2014
381
Blink reflex studies in postparalytic facial syndrome and blepharospasm: trigeminal and extratrigeminal somatosensory stimulation. 61
25462139 2014
382
Blepharospasm in familial AD secondary to an APP mutation (V715M). 61
24677022 2014
383
Visual signs and symptoms of multiple system atrophy. 61
25256122 2014
384
IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin®) injected for blepharospasm or cervical dystonia according to patient needs is well tolerated. 61
25186131 2014
385
Ophthalmomyiasis interna anterior in a dog: keratotomy and extraction of a Cuterebra sp. larva. 61
25186977 2014
386
Long-term efficacy, safety, and side effect profile of botulinum toxin in dystonia: a 20-year follow-up. 61
25130293 2014
387
Ocular surface alterations in blepharospasm patients treated with botulinum toxin A injection. 61
24803156 2014
388
Surgical correction of congenital entropion in related Boer goat kids using a combination Hotz-Celsus and lateral eyelid wedge resection procedure. 61
25338664 2014
389
Frontalis suspension surgery to treat patients with essential blepharospasm and apraxia of eyelid opening-technique and results. 61
25338619 2014
390
Scientific skepticism and new discoveries: an analysis of a report of zinc/phytase supplementation and the efficacy of botulinum toxins in treating cosmetic facial rhytides, hemifacial spasm and benign essential blepharospasm. 61
25105993 2014
391
Induction of corneal collagen cross-linking in experimental corneal alkali burns in rabbits. 61
25494378 2014
392
Safety of onabotulinum toxin a injection to the central upper eyelid and eyebrow regions. 61
24777259 2014
393
Transient blepharospasm, apraxia of eyelid opening, and hemidyskinesia following a right parietotemporal infarct. 61
24954061 2014
394
A direct comparison of onabotulinumtoxina (Botox) and IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm: a split-face technique. 61
24739994 2014
395
Bilateral and Simultaneous Intraocular Lens Subluxation in Essential Blepharospasm. 61
30363886 2014
396
Botulinum toxin therapy in congenital blepharospasm. 61
25606035 2014
397
What's special about task in dystonia? A voxel-based morphometry and diffusion weighted imaging study. 61
24925463 2014
398
Facial dystonias and rosacea: is there an association? 61
24831933 2014
399
Adverse events associated with botulinum toxin injection: a multidepartment, retrospective study of 5310 treatments administered to 1819 patients. 61
23537074 2014
400
Distichiasis in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo). 61
24118780 2014
401
Diffusion tensor imaging in blepharospasm and blepharospasm-oromandibular dystonia. 61
24792726 2014
402
BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in primary adult-onset dystonia: a case-control study and meta-analysis. 61
24925604 2014
403
Treatment of six cases of equine corneal stromal abscessation with intracorneal injection of 5% voriconazole solution. 61
24387183 2014
404
Pain control in horses: what do we really know? 61
24645799 2014
405
Blepharospasm with non-satisfactory response to treatment: our experience with IncobotulinumtoxinA. 61
24685658 2014
406
[Cost analysis of the use of botulinum toxin type A in Spain]. 61
24951903 2014
407
The clinical spectrum of laryngeal dystonia includes dystonic cough: observations of a large series. 61
24753288 2014
408
A rare sequence variant in intron 1 of THAP1 is associated with primary dystonia. 61
24936516 2014
409
Keratoconjunctivitis caused by an unusual retained conjunctival foreign body: a frequently unrecognized entity. 61
24881616 2014
410
The setting of a botulinum toxin treatment service. 61
24867836 2014
411
Intraerythrocytic iridovirus in central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). 61
24855223 2014
412
Current uses of botulinum toxin A as an adjunct to hand therapy interventions of hand conditions. 61
24524884 2014
413
Long-term efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin A injections to treat blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. 61
23844601 2014
414
Motor vehicle accidents and injuries in patients with idiopathic blepharospasm. 61
24507853 2014
415
A golden retriever with bilateral blepharospasm and ocular discharge. 61
24651787 2014
416
Usefulness of FEES and responsiveness to tetrabenazine in a case of blepharospasm associated with dystonic-tremorous dsyphagia. 61
24495710 2014
417
The influence of benign essential blepharospasm on dry eye disease and ocular inflammation. 61
24269849 2014
418
The combined treatment with orbital and pretarsal botulinum toxin injections in the management of poorly responsive blepharospasm. 61
23949734 2014
419
[Changes in dose and injection pattern in the botulinum toxin long-term therapy of facial dyskinesis]. 61
24323508 2014
420
Successful medical treatment for globe penetration following tooth extraction in a dog. 61
23869648 2014
421
Glucose hypermetabolism in the thalamus of patients with drug-induced blepharospasm. 61
24462606 2014
422
Mosapride (5HT4 agonist) in the treatment of blepharospasm. 61
24682196 2014
423
[Blepharospasm as the presenting symptom of a brain stem glioma]. 61
24570363 2014
424
Evaluating approaches to measuring ocular pain in bovine calves with corneal scarification and infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis-associated corneal ulcerations. 61
24504043 2014
425
Trigeminal high-frequency stimulation produces short- and long-term modification of reflex blink gain. 61
24285868 2014
426
Use of hydropulsion for the treatment of superficial corneal foreign bodies: 15 cases (1999-2013). 61
24479463 2014
427
Re: "Comparison of preferences between onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) and incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm". 61
24398499 2014
428
Reply Re: "Comparison of preferences between onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) and incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm". 61
24398500 2014
429
Observational Study of IncobotulinumtoxinA for Cervical Dystonia or Blepharospasm (XCiDaBLE): Interim Results for the First 170 Subjects with Blepharospasm. 61
25120942 2014
430
Treatment of corneal cystine crystal accumulation in patients with cystinosis. 61
25336909 2014
431
Pallidal deep brain stimulation in the treatment of Meige syndrome. 61
24981184 2014
432
A novel mutation in CLCN1 associated with feline myotonia congenita. 61
25356766 2014
433
Optic nerve injury in a patient with chronic allergic conjunctivitis. 61
25317346 2014
434
Comparable Botulinum Toxin Outcomes between Primary and Secondary Blepharospasm: A Retrospective Analysis. 61
25562037 2014
435
Desensitization of the Mechanoreceptors in Müller's Muscle Reduces the Increased Reflex Contraction of the Orbicularis Oculi Slow-Twitch Fibers in Blepharospasm. 61
25328566 2014
436
Trigeminal Proprioception Evoked by Strong Stretching of the Mechanoreceptors in Müller's Muscle Induces Reflex Contraction of the Orbital Orbicularis Oculi Slow-Twitch Muscle Fibers. 61
25210572 2014
437
[Efficacy observation of acupuncture method of tonifying-qi and dredging-meridian for blepharospasm]. 61
24673052 2014
438
Corneal sequestrum in a dog with chronic unilateral keratoconjunctivitis sicca. 61
24299547 2013
439
Ulcerative fungal keratitis in a Brown Swiss cow. 61
23437914 2013
440
Association of the Val66Met polymorphism of the BDNF gene with primary cranial-cervical dystonia patients from South-west China. 61
23816543 2013
441
Efficacy of botulinum toxin in benign essential Blepharospasm: Desirable & undesirable effects. 61
24550960 2013
442
Altered regional spontaneous neuronal activity in blepharospasm: a resting state fMRI study. 61
23900755 2013
443
Preliminary investigations into the analgesic effects of topical ocular 1% morphine solution in dogs and cats. 61
23829875 2013
444
A resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study of patients with benign essential blepharospasm. 61
23636105 2013
445
Myectomy for blepharospasm 2013. 61
23925062 2013
446
The rat Digit Abduction Score (DAS) assay: a physiological model for assessing botulinum neurotoxin-induced skeletal muscle paralysis. 61
23707612 2013
447
Actinomyces bowdenii ulcerative keratitis in a dog. 61
23121462 2013
448
Feline thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda in Portugal. 61
23611041 2013
449
Sustained efficacy and safety of repeated incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin(®)) injections in blepharospasm. 61
23435927 2013
450
The Babinski-2 sign in hemifacial spasm. 61
23637014 2013
451
Secondary blepharospasm associated with structural lesions of the brain. 61
23747003 2013
452
Blepharospasm as a new feature of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. 61
23623195 2013
453
Meige's Syndrome: Rare Neurological Disorder Presenting as Conversion Disorder. 61
24249940 2013
454
Long-term botulinum toxin treatment of benign essential blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, and Meige syndrome. 61
23541393 2013
455
Dysport (botulinum toxin type A) in routine therapeutic usage: a telephone needs assessment survey of European physicians to evaluate current awareness and adherence to product labeling changes. 61
23783005 2013
456
Conversion ratio between Dysport and Botox in clinical practice: an overview of available evidence. 61
23576131 2013
457
Bilateral parotid duct transposition for keratoconjunctivitis sicca in a Connemara stallion. 61
23067239 2013
458
Development and validation of a clinical guideline for diagnosing blepharospasm. 61
23771487 2013
459
Evidence-based review and assessment of botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of movement disorders. 61
23380701 2013
460
Dystonia rating scales: critique and recommendations. 61
23893443 2013
461
Is increased blinking a form of blepharospasm? 61
23751916 2013
462
Kinematic analysis of grasping in focal dystonia of the face and neck. 61
23395859 2013
463
Tardive and spontaneous dyskinesia incidence in the general population. 61
23714238 2013
464
Comparison of preferences between onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) and incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm. 61
23552607 2013
465
Genetic, Biochemical and Clinical Insights into Primary Congenital Glaucoma. 61
26997785 2013
466
Alleviation of abnormal synaptic neurotransmitter release by cell-permeable form of the truncated SNAP-25 upon transcutaneous delivery. 61
23562512 2013
467
Patient-reported benefit from botulinum toxin treatment for essential blepharospasm: using 2 assessment scales. 61
23446304 2013
468
Skin contracture following upper eyelid orbiculectomy: is primary skin excision advisable? 61
23565764 2013
469
The spectrum of movement disorders in children with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. 61
23400857 2013
470
Tremor in primary adult-onset dystonia: prevalence and associated clinical features. 61
23142961 2013
471
Blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm: long-term treatment with botulinum toxin. 61
22652139 2013
472
Sensory tricks in focal dystonia and hemifacial spasm. 61
23216586 2013
473
Variability in the duration of the onset of idiopathic Parkinson's disease after essential blepharospasm. 61
23605608 2013
474
Long-term depression-like plasticity of the blink reflex for the treatment of blepharospasm. 61
23401198 2013
475
[Contribution of botulinum toxin to maxillo-facial surgery]. 61
23838244 2013
476
Aristotle's illusion reveals interdigit functional somatosensory alterations in focal hand dystonia. 61
23404333 2013
477
Tear production and drainage after botulinum toxin A injection in patients with essential blepharospasm. 61
23425111 2013
478
Pilot study of topical acetyl hexapeptide-8 in the treatment for blepharospasm in patients receiving botulinum toxin therapy. 61
23146065 2013
479
THAP1 mutations in a Greek primary blepharospasm series. 61
23036512 2013
480
Successful integrative medicine case management of blepharospasm. 61
23046295 2013
481
Quality of life in patients with blepharospasm. 61
23697247 2013
482
Schwartz Jampel syndrome in children. 61
23219824 2013
483
An evidence-based review of botulinum toxin (Botox) applications in non-cosmetic head and neck conditions. 61
23476731 2013
484
Immunogenicity of botulinum toxins. 61
23008029 2013
485
A case of Bell's palsy associated with blepharospasm. 61
22494605 2013
486
[Diplopia following subcutaneous injections of botulinum toxin for cosmetic or medical use]. 61
23513501 2013
487
The environmental epidemiology of primary dystonia. 61
23724359 2013
488
Late onset atypical pantothenate-kinase-associated neurodegeneration. 61
23634310 2013
489
Animal models for investigating benign essential blepharospasm. 61
23814538 2013
490
Molecular Diagnostics and Genetic Counseling in Primary Congenital Glaucoma. 61
26997777 2013
491
Prospective Study Evaluating IncobotulinumtoxinA for Cervical Dystonia or Blepharospasm: Interim Results from the First 145 Subjects with Cervical Dystonia. 61
23724362 2013
492
Effect of topical administration of 0.8% nalbuphine on the cornea in dogs after phacoemulsification. 61
23708961 2013
493
Clinical and ultrasonographic findings of some ocular conditions in sheep and goats. 61
26623306 2013
494
Dystonia. 61
24112917 2013
495
Blink reflex in patients with postparalytic facial syndrome and blepharospasm: trigeminal and auditory stimulation. 61
22854209 2013
496
Phenotypic expression of Bardet-Biedl syndrome in patients homozygous for the common M390R mutation in the BBS1 gene. 61
22940089 2012
497
Efficacy of carbamazepine combined with botulinum toxin a in the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. 61
23225838 2012
498
Botulinum toxins for facial lines: a concise review. 61
23205336 2012
499
A comparison of facial muscle squeezing versus non-facial muscle squeezing on the efficacy of botulinumtoxin-A injections for the treatment of facial dystonia. 61
23061606 2012
500
[Value of simultaneous electromyographic recording of the levator palpebrae and the orbicularis oculi muscles as an early diagnostic marker for blepharospasm]. 61
23172092 2012
501
Minimally invasive endoscopic endonasal management of skull base cholesterol granulomas. 61
22120552 2012
502
Asymmetric blepharospasm with bilateral curtain sign. 61
23157244 2012
503
Scedosporium apiospermum keratomycosis in a dog. 61
22432768 2012
504
Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles. 61
23715138 2012
505
Partial ligation of the transposed parotid duct at the level of the parotid gland for excessive salivary secretions. 61
22385479 2012
506
Efficacy and safety of long-term botulinum toxin treatment in craniocervical dystonia: a systematic review. 61
22359151 2012
507
Systemic mycosis in three dogs from nonendemic regions. 61
23033460 2012
508
[The application of Dysport® - the possibilities of the side effect on the eyelids position (a clinical - histological study)]. 61
23461374 2012
509
Phenotypic overlap in familial and sporadic primary adult-onset extracranial dystonia. 61
22573394 2012
510
Blepharospasm cause and treatment: YouTube as a reflection of current popular thought. 61
23138220 2012
511
Psychogenic facial movement disorders: clinical features and associated conditions. 61
23033125 2012
512
Age at onset and symptom spread in primary adult-onset blepharospasm and cervical dystonia. 61
22890501 2012
513
Uveodermatologic lymphoma in two young related Portuguese water dogs. 61
22239173 2012
514
Demographic and clinical features of patients with blepharospasm in southern Taiwan: a university hospital-based study. 61
23196730 2012
515
Clinical features and treatment with botulinum toxin in blepharospasm: a 17-year experience. 61
22990720 2012
516
Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma: report of a unique periocular case. 61
22366669 2012
517
Botulinum toxin for the treatment of movement disorders. 61
22661378 2012
518
Botulinum toxin in hemifacial spasm: the challenge to assess the effect of treatment. 61
22231846 2012
519
Isolated frontalis, corrugator and procerus dystonia: a blepharospasm variant. 61
22899039 2012
520
Dementia with lewy bodies in meige syndrome. 61
22984651 2012
521
Application of botulinum toxin to clinical therapy: advances and cautions. 61
22481607 2012
522
Current and future medical treatment in primary dystonia. 61
22783371 2012
523
Blepharospasm in a patient with pontine capillary telangiectasia. 61
22082598 2012
524
A guide to dosing in the treatment of cervical dystonia and blepharospasm with Xeomin®: a new botulinum neurotoxin A. 61
22405829 2012
525
Anatomical correlates of blepharospasm. 61
23210426 2012
526
Treatment of focal dystonia. 61
22415705 2012
527
Genotype-phenotype correlations in THAP1 dystonia: molecular foundations and description of new cases. 61
22377579 2012
528
[Treatment of blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm and facial synkinesis with botulinum toxin]. 61
22669435 2012
529
Botulinum toxins in the treatment of primary focal dystonias. 61
22336699 2012
530
Botulinum toxin clinic-based epidemiologic survey of adults with primary dystonia in East china. 61
24868406 2012
531
Gender differences in benign essential blepharospasm. 61
22460669 2012
532
Blepharospasm and apraxia of eyelid opening associated with anti-Hu paraneoplastic antibodies: a case report. 61
22264884 2012
533
Retrospective evaluation of the dose equivalence of Botox(®) and Dysport (®) in the management of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm: a novel paradigm for a never ending story. 61
21710123 2012
534
Effect of dietary zinc and phytase supplementation on botulinum toxin treatments. 61
22453589 2012
535
Direct detection of Ehrlichia canis by PCR in the conjunctiva of a dog with bilateral anterior uveitis. 61
22563611 2012
536
Conjunctivitis and ulcerative keratitis secondary to conjunctival plant foreign bodies in a herd of alpacas (Lama Pacos). 61
22050866 2012
537
Acute primary canine herpesvirus-1 dendritic ulcerative keratitis in an adult dog. 61
22051326 2012
538
Five-year experience with incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin(®) ): the first botulinum toxin drug free of complexing proteins. 61
22035051 2012
539
Combination of blepharospasm and apraxia of eyelid opening: a condition resistant to treatment. 61
22427299 2012
540
[Neurotaping: new therapeutic approach in essential blepharospasm]. 61
22423659 2012
541
Resolution of blepharospasm after chronic subdural haematoma evacuation: A case report. 61
22327937 2012
542
Effects of an unfixed combination of latanoprost and pilocarpine on the intraocular pressure and pupil size of normal dogs. 61
22050700 2012
543
Eye symptoms in relatives of patients with primary adult-onset dystonia. 61
22173654 2012
544
Quantification of macular carotenoids using autofluorescence imaging in patients with photosensitive migraine and benign essential blepharospasm. 61
22332230 2012
545
Efficacy of zolpidem for dystonia: a study among different subtypes. 61
22529836 2012
546
Prevalence of blepharospasm and apraxia of eyelid opening in patients with parkinsonism, cervical dystonia and essential tremor. 61
23075668 2012
547
Temporal discrimination thresholds in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia: an analysis by task type and by dystonia phenotype. 61
21656045 2012
548
Dystonia: phenomenology. 61
22166421 2012
549
A new treatment for focal dystonias: incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin®), a botulinum neurotoxin type A free from complexing proteins. 61
22275842 2012
550
[Dystonia as a common status against a common belief]. 61
23196518 2012
551
Pathophysiology of brainstem lesions due to overdrainage. 61
22116447 2012
552
Botulinum toxin injections for blepharospasm prior to ocular surgeries. 61
22654489 2012
553
[Essential blepharospasm : Practice-oriented therapy with botulinum toxin employing reduced treatment intervals]. 61
22130729 2012
554
The use of punctal plugs in children. 61
22021004 2012
555
Environmental risk factors and clinical phenotype in familial and sporadic primary blepharospasm. 61
22170944 2011
556
Mixed results for GPi-DBS in the treatment of cranio-facial and cranio-cervical dystonia symptoms. 61
21553081 2011
557
[Ocular wavefront aberrations in patients with facial dystonia treated with botulinum toxin]. 61
22331113 2011
558
Factors associated with quality of life in hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm during long-term treatment with botulinum toxin. 61
21431990 2011
559
Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in primary focal dystonia: a controlled study. 61
21830232 2011
560
Impaired sleep quality and restless legs syndrome in idiopathic focal dystonia: a controlled study. 61
21499724 2011
561
Can subcortical infarction cause apraxia of eyelid opening? 61
21778059 2011
562
Chronic (neuropathic) corneal pain and blepharospasm: five case reports. 61
21752546 2011
563
Ocular myasthenia gravis in an academic neuro-ophthalmology clinic: clinical features and therapeutic response. 61
22361625 2011
564
Botulinum toxin treatment in neurological practice: how much does it really cost? A prospective cost-effectiveness study. 61
21424611 2011
565
Successful treatment of distichiasis in a cat using transconjunctival electrocautery. 61
21923836 2011
566
Obsessive-compulsive symptoms among patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. 61
21762995 2011
567
Causes for treatment delays in dystonia and hemifacial spasm: a Canadian survey. 61
21856572 2011
568
Acremonium keratomycosis in a cat. 61
21923833 2011
569
Corneal ulceration in a dog following exposure to the defensive spray of a walkingstick insect (Anisomorpha spp.). 61
21827597 2011
570
Cortical gray matter changes in primary blepharospasm: a voxel-based morphometry study. 61
21717508 2011
571
Environmental risk factors and clinical phenotype in familial and sporadic primary blepharospasm. 61
21775731 2011
572
Motor symptoms of schizophrenia: is tardive dyskinesia a symptom or side effect? A modern treatment. 61
21519907 2011
573
Blepharospasm plus Cervical Dystonia with Predominant Anterocollis: A Distinctive Subphenotype of Segmental Craniocervical Dystonia? 61
22229127 2011
574
Molecular analysis of Italian patients with congenital glaucoma. 61
21815720 2011
575
In the wink of an eye: nature and nurture in blepharospasm. 61
21775742 2011
576
Successful intravenous thrombolysis in a stroke patient with hemiballism. 61
21712665 2011
577
Botulinum toxin modulates basal ganglia but not deficient somatosensory activation in orofacial dystonia. 61
21604301 2011
578
[Use of botulinum neurotoxin therapy]. 61
21747148 2011
579
Uveodermatologic syndrome in a rat terrier. 61
21730094 2011
580
[Clinical application of botulinum toxin]. 61
21747149 2011
581
[Guideline of clinical practice for blepharospasm]. 61
21815492 2011
582
Efficacy and safety of incobotulinumtoxinA (NT 201, Xeomin) in the treatment of blepharospasm-a randomized trial. 61
21520284 2011
583
Use of collagen shields for treatment of chronic bilateral corneal ulcers in a pet rabbit. 61
21726230 2011
584
Difficulties with differentiating botulinum toxin treatment effects in essential blepharospasm. 61
21221669 2011
585
Tardive dyskinesia. 61
21365202 2011
586
[Sources of error in Goldmann applanation tonometry]. 61
21533609 2011
587
The left parietal lobe plays a role in the pathogenesis of blepharospasm? 61
21244581 2011
588
Impairment of the rubber hand illusion in focal hand dystonia. 61
21378099 2011
589
Loss of topographic specificity of LTD-like plasticity is a trait marker in focal dystonia. 61
21126584 2011
590
The effect of UV-blocking contact lenses as a therapy for canine chronic superficial keratitis. 61
21521443 2011
591
Botulinum toxin A (Dysport®): in dystonias and focal spasticity. 61
21668041 2011
592
Gray matter density increase in the primary sensorimotor cortex in long-term essential blepharospasm. 61
21310245 2011
593
A case with improvement of blepharospasm by zolpidem. 61
24868394 2011
594
Tardive Meige's syndrome associated with olanzapine. 61
21808480 2011
595
A 14-year-old girl who regained normal vision after bilateral visual impairment following hot water injury to the eyes. 61
23960925 2011
596
Diagnosis of intraocular lymphosarcoma in a dog by use of a polymerase chain reaction assay for antigen receptor rearrangement. 61
21355805 2011
597
Clinical features of patients with blepharospasm: a report of 240 patients. 61
20649903 2011
598
Visual signs and symptoms of progressive supranuclear palsy. 61
20629667 2011
599
Long-term clinical outcome in meige syndrome treated with internal pallidum deep brain stimulation. 61
21312284 2011
600
Effect of topical 0.03% flurbiprofen and 0.005% latanoprost, alone and in combination, on normal canine eyes. 61
21366821 2011
601
Modulating neuromuscular junction density changes in botulinum toxin-treated orbicularis oculi muscle. 61
21087967 2011
602
The blink reflex recovery cycle differs between essential and presumed psychogenic blepharospasm. 61
21321334 2011
603
Double-blind, randomised, parallel group pilot study comparing two botulinum toxin type A products for the treatment of blepharospasm. 61
21161715 2011
604
[Electronistagmographic characteristics of vestibular function and eyelids dystonia in patients with facial dyskinesias]. 61
21350413 2011
605
Adult-onset dystonia. 61
21496604 2011
606
Normal and abnormal lid function. 61
21601075 2011
607
Botulinum toxin treatment of secondary headaches and cranial neuralgias: a review of evidence. 61
21711257 2011
608
Profile of Xeomin® (incobotulinumtoxinA) for the treatment of blepharospasm. 61
21691580 2011
609
Effectiveness of unilateral pallidotomy for meige syndrome confirmed by motion analysis. 61
21494067 2011
610
[Neurologic indications of botulin in adults]. 61
22238918 2011
611
[Applications of botulin]. 61
22238921 2011
612
Review and update of involuntary facial movement disorders presenting in the ophthalmological setting. 61
21093885 2011
613
Comparison of two different formulations of botulinum toxin A for the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. 61
22194126 2011
614
Twelve cases of drug-induced blepharospasm improved within 2 months of psychotropic cessation. 61
21753898 2011
615
Blepharospasm as an obsessive-compulsive phenomenon. 61
21677211 2011
616
Positive Correlation between Severity of Blepharospasm and Thalamic Glucose Metabolism. 61
22110436 2011
617
Risk and protective factors for spasmodic dysphonia: a case-control investigation. 61
20171836 2011
618
An unusual cause of dementia: essential diagnostic elements of corticobasal degeneration-a case report and review of the literature. 61
21785700 2011
619
Botulinum toxin in facial rejuvenation: an update. 61
21093750 2010
620
Risk of glaucoma among patients with benign essential blepharospasm. 61
20724866 2010
621
A new botulinum toxin (Xeomin) for cervical dystonia and blepharospasm. 61
21068703 2010
622
Ophthaproblem. Can you identify this condition? Benign essential blepharospasm. 61
21075996 2010
623
Treatments for neuro-ophthalmologic conditions. 61
20816275 2010
624
An unusual cause of blepharospasm. 61
24148636 2010
625
Associative stimulation of the supraorbital nerve fails to induce timing-specific plasticity in the human blink reflex. 61
21049057 2010
626
Transcranial magnetic brain stimulation modulates blepharospasm: a randomized controlled study. 61
20956792 2010
627
Difference in response to botulinum toxin type A treatment between patients with benign essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. 61
20456439 2010
628
Frequency of psychiatric disorders in blepharospasm does not differ from hemifacial spasm. 61
26952832 2010
629
Evaluating the effects of ice application on patient comfort before and after botulinum toxin type A injections. 61
20973324 2010
630
Eye pain in preschool children: diagnostic and prognostic significance. 61
21035061 2010
631
Long-term efficacy of botulinum a toxin for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. 61
21059510 2010
632
[Botulinum toxin type A influence on the lacrimal function of patients with facial dystonia]. 61
21225122 2010
633
Can methylphenidate objectively provide relief in patients with uncontrolled blepharospasm? A pilot study using surface electromyography. 61
20683274 2010
634
Venom ophthalmia caused by venoms of spitting elapid and other snakes: Report of ten cases with review of epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiology and management. 61
20331993 2010
635
[Essential blepharospasm: literature review]. 61
21225137 2010
636
Botulinum toxin type A: Exploring new indications. 61
20967299 2010
637
Topical anesthesia in phacoemulsification. 61
21120050 2010
638
Long-term follow-up of deep brain stimulation for Meige syndrome. 61
20672922 2010
639
Outcome of pallidal deep brain stimulation in meige syndrome. 61
20856662 2010
640
Treatment of benign essential blepharospasm with finasteride: a case report. 61
20386102 2010
641
The role of the injection botulinum toxin A in cases of blepharospasm syndrome, hemifacial spasm and Meige's syndrome. 61
22610735 2010
642
Craniocervical dystonia: clinical and pathophysiological features. 61
20590803 2010
643
Pyridostigmine-induced dystonic blepharospasm in a patient with ocular myasthenia gravis. 61
20629121 2010
644
Essential blepharospasm. 61
20590421 2010
645
Meige's syndrome: A cranial dystonia treated with bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation. 61
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646
Iatrogenic botulism after botulinum toxin type A injections. 61
20150804 2010
647
Orbicularis oculi myo-osseous fixation: a new treatment for benign essential blepharospasm and blepharospasm associated with diffuse facial dystonia (meige syndrome). 61
20507022 2010
648
Acute blepharospasm and torticollis associated with an ependymoma of the lateral ventricle. 61
20201058 2010
649
Long-term efficacy of botulinum toxin A for treatment of blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, and spastic entropion: a multicentre study using two drug-dose escalation indexes. 61
19648904 2010
650
Quality of sleep in primary focal dystonia: a case-control study. 61
20039936 2010
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Blepharospasm and vitamin B12 deficiency. 61
20508362 2010
652
The phenomenology of the geste antagoniste in primary blepharospasm and cervical dystonia. 61
20108367 2010
653
Topical botulinum toxin. 61
20725542 2010
654
Psychiatric disorders in adult-onset focal dystonia: a case-control study. 61
20108377 2010
655
Curvularia keratomycosis in a dog. 61
20447033 2010
656
Photophobia in essential blepharospasm--a positron emission tomographic study. 61
20014062 2010
657
Electrical activation of the orbicularis oculi muscle does not increase the effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A in patients with blepharospasm. 61
19968711 2010
658
Lower limb involvement in adult-onset primary dystonia: frequency and clinical features. 61
19765051 2010
659
Neurotoxin injection for movement disorders. 61
22810184 2010
660
Speech-induced blepharospasm. 61
19779797 2010
661
Content of botulinum neurotoxin in Botox®/Vistabel®, Dysport®/Azzalure®, and Xeomin®/Bocouture®. 61
20698714 2010
662
[Pantogam active in the complex treatment of dystonic hyperkineses]. 61
21389940 2010
663
The effect of bangerter occlusion foils on blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm in occlusion-positive and occlusion-negative patients. 61
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Prospective, randomized, double-blind study, comparing botulinum toxins type a botox and prosigne for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm treatment. 61
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665
Novel THAP1 sequence variants in primary dystonia. 61
20083799 2010
666
[Modern therapy in blepharospasm]. 61
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A family with a hereditary form of torsion dystonia from northern Sweden treated with bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation. 61
19890997 2009
668
Blepharospasm and the modulation of cortical excitability in primary and secondary motor areas. 61
19996078 2009
669
Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire (CDQ-24): validation and cross-cultural adaptation in Serbian patients. 61
20102067 2009
670
Xeomin: an innovative new botulinum toxin type A. 61
20002741 2009
671
Clinical efficacy and tolerability of Xeomin in the treatment of blepharospasm. 61
20002742 2009
672
Botulism and vaccines for its prevention. 61
19837283 2009
673
Unilateral blepharospasm and blepharoptosis with bilateral vertical gaze palsy in thalamic hemorrhage. 61
20329446 2009
674
An analysis of safety data from five phase III clinical trials on the use of botulinum neurotoxin type A-ABO for the treatment of glabellar lines. 61
19945005 2009
675
Use of botulinum A toxin (BOTOX) in different types of facial dystonia. 61
19889277 2009
676
Development of future indications for BOTOX. 61
19470342 2009
677
Botulinum toxin in facial rejuvenation: an update. 61
19850191 2009
678
Cognitive disturbances in primary blepharospasm. 61
19705473 2009
679
Disease-oriented approach to botulinum toxin use. 61
19073203 2009
680
Xeomin is free from complexing proteins. 61
19292989 2009
681
Primary ocular melioidosis due to a single genotype of Burkholderia pseudomallei in two cats from Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory of Australia. 61
19428280 2009
682
Comparison of pain scores with 30-gauge and 32-gauge needles for periocular botulinum toxin type a injections. 61
19966651 2009
683
Effect of reading on surface electromyogram recordings in patients with blepharospasm. 61
19966652 2009
684
Acute effects of sulfur mustard injury--Munich experiences. 61
19482056 2009
685
Abnormalities induced in reciprocal inhibition between orbicularis oculi and levator palpebrae following peripheral facial palsy. 61
19845102 2009
686
Double-blind, randomized, comparative study of Meditoxin versus Botox in the treatment of essential blepharospasm. 61
19794937 2009
687
Meige syndrome: what's in a name? 61
19457699 2009
688
Neutralizing antibodies and secondary therapy failure after treatment with botulinum toxin type A: much ado about nothing? 61
19620852 2009
689
[Botulinum toxin therapy for focal dystonia]. 61
19581172 2009
690
[18q syndrome associated with blepharospasm]. 61
19598144 2009
691
Upper lid orbicularis oculi muscle strip and sequential brow suspension with autologous fascia lata is beneficial for selected patients with essential blepharospasm. 61
18927593 2009
692
Feline entropion: a case series of 50 affected animals (2003-2008). 61
19604337 2009
693
Chlamydophila felis infection. ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. 61
19481040 2009
694
[Ocular motility disorders in a patient with Fabry's disease]. 61
19499232 2009
695
FL-41 tint improves blink frequency, light sensitivity, and functional limitations in patients with benign essential blepharospasm. 61
19410958 2009
696
Diagnostic exercise: epithelioid hemangiosarcoma mimicking metastatic prostatic neoplasia in a dog. 61
19176508 2009
697
[Hemifacial spasm]. 61
19576481 2009
698
Unilateral blepharospasm as an early sign of cephalic tetanus. 61
19243061 2009
699
Experience with long-term treatment with albumin-supplemented botulinum toxin type A. 61
19319477 2009
700
Fifteen-year experience in treating blepharospasm with Botox or Dysport: same toxin, two drugs. 61
19384595 2009
701
Executive functioning in patients with blepharospasm in comparison with patients with hemifacial spasm. 61
19330202 2009
702
High-throughput mutational analysis of TOR1A in primary dystonia. 61
19284587 2009
703
High versus low concentration botulinum toxin A for benign essential blepharospasm: does dilution make a difference? 61
19300145 2009
704
Increase in the tactile catchment area of a sensory trick for alleviating blepharospasm following pallidal DBS. 61
19185017 2009
705
Quality of life in patients with focal dystonia. 61
18995953 2009
706
Relationship between various clinical outcome assessments in patients with blepharospasm. 61
19053054 2009
707
Acute laryngeal and bronchial obstruction after CS (o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile) gas inhalation. 61
18365225 2009
708
The Lanindar test: a method of evaluating patient suitability for cataract surgery using assisted topical anaesthesia. 61
18259208 2009
709
[Efficacy and side-effects of the botulinum toxin A treatment in patients with focal dystonia]. 61
19365387 2009
710
Browlifting as an alternative procedure for apraxia of eyelid opening. 61
19273924 2009
711
Prevalence of primary focal or segmental dystonia in adults in the district of foggia, southern Italy: a service-based study. 61
19556806 2009
712
Blink reflex recovery in central and peripherally originated movement disorders of the cranio-cervical area: a comparative study. 61
19280796 2009
713
Aspergillus flavus keratomycosis in a cat treated with topical 1% voriconazole solution. 61
19152598 2009
714
Controversy: botulinum toxin in pregnancy. 61
20300363 2009
715
Decreased dopamine D receptor binding in essential blepharospasm. 61
18540899 2009
716
Videonystagmography to assess eyelid dynamic disorders. 61
19229740 2009
717
[Use of botulinum neurotoxin for spasticity]. 61
19110753 2008
718
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca attributable to parasympathetic facial nerve dysfunction associated with hypothyroidism in a horse. 61
19046036 2008
719
[Diagnosis and treatment of dystonia]. 61
19198096 2008
720
[Ameliorating strabismus, preventing blepharospasm: botulinum toxin can do more than smooth wrinkles]. 61
19189451 2008
721
Movement disorders in multiple sclerosis: Causal or coincidental association? 61
18768580 2008
722
Lower facial contouring with botulinum toxin type A. 61
19098563 2008
723
Dystonic frowning without blepharospasm. 61
18316230 2008
724
Update on blepharospasm: report from the BEBRF International Workshop. 61
18852443 2008
725
Patients with essential blepharospasm and glaucoma: case reports. 61
19039478 2008
726
Ocular and multicentric lymphoma in a young racehorse. 61
19046270 2008
727
Pallidal deep brain stimulation in the treatment of Meige syndrome. 61
18336624 2008
728
Videonystagmography as a tool to assess blepharospasm before and after botulinum toxin injection. 61
18581129 2008
729
[Long-term therapy of focal dystonia and facial hemispasm with botulinum toxin A]. 61
18551268 2008
730
Increased basal-ganglia activation performing a non-dystonia-related task in focal dystonia. 61
18557921 2008
731
Tactile temporal discrimination in patients with blepharospasm. 61
17986501 2008
732
Effectivity of Dysport in patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm who experienced failure with Botox. 61
18751631 2008
733
Ocular manifestations in a case of childhood cicatricial pemphigoid. 61
18609489 2008
734
[Intraocular hemorrhage in a goat with thrombocytopenia and metastasis of an adenocarcinoma in the iris]. 61
18714940 2008
735
Secondary acute anterior uveitis with hyphema in a purpose-bred kitten. 61
18702452 2008
736
[Botulinum toxin. Development for therapeutic purposes]. 61
18927957 2008
737
Assessment: Botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of movement disorders (an evidence-based review): report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. 61
18458230 2008
738
Long-term assessment of the risk of spread in primary late-onset focal dystonia. 61
17635969 2008
739
Botulinum toxin A injections improve apraxia of eyelid opening without overt blepharospasm associated with neurodegenerative diseases. 61
18200601 2008
740
Regression of symptoms after selective iron chelation therapy in a case of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. 61
18383118 2008
741
Upper eyelid myectomy in blepharospasm with associated apraxia of lid opening. 61
18191096 2008
742
The use of botulinum toxin in head and face medicine: an interdisciplinary field. 61
18331633 2008
743
Pain relief in patients receiving periocular botulinum toxin A. 61
18356715 2008
744
Lamellar keratoplasty with a graft of lyophilized acellular porcine corneal stroma in the rabbit. 61
18302569 2008
745
Exacerbation of blepharospasm associated with craniocervical dystonia after placement of bilateral globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulator. 61
18074391 2008
746
Diffusion tensor imaging in patients with primary cervical dystonia and in patients with blepharospasm. 61
18217887 2008
747
Tacrolimus ointment 0.03% in the eye for treatment of giant papillary conjunctivitis. 61
18216583 2008
748
Efficacy and safety of purified botulinum toxin type A (Dysport) for the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm: a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase II trial. 61
18325821 2008
749
[Functional neurology of blepharospasm]. 61
18786893 2008
750
Limbal stem cell transplantation: an evidence-based analysis. 61
23074512 2008
751
Botulinum toxin in the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. 61
17558461 2008
752
[Mechanism of therapy effects by botulinum neurotoxin]. 61
18543757 2008
753
Drug-induced ocular disorders. 61
18217789 2008
754
Successful treatment of blepharospasm with tandospirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist: a case report. 61
17987656 2008
755
The course of tardive dystonia in Afro Caribbean patients, a population-based study: the Curacao extrapyramidal syndromes study: VII. 61
17936588 2008
756
Final report on the safety assessment of methoxyisopropanol and methoxyisopropyl acetate as used in cosmetics. 61
18830862 2008
757
Closely spaced stressful life events precede the onset of benign essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. 61
18090560 2007
758
Botulinum toxin improves the quality of life and reduces the intensification of depressive symptoms in patients with blepharospasm. 61
17543569 2007
759
Hemifacial spasm: a neurosurgical perspective. 61
19096569 2007
760
Calcified tumours of the paranasal sinuses in three horses. 61
17970850 2007
761
Actinomyces endophthalmitis and pneumonia in a dog. 61
18050796 2007
762
Community survey of primary dystonia in the city of Kolkata, India. 61
17722044 2007
763
[What to do in cases of inadequate effectiveness of botulinum toxin for the treatment of eyelid cramping?]. 61
17726608 2007
764
What is new in the era of focal dystonia treatment? Botulinum injections and more. 61
17700237 2007
765
Electroconvulsive therapy and ocular dystonia. 61
17804995 2007
766
Severe, unilateral, unresponsive keratoconjunctivitis sicca in 16 juvenile Yorkshire Terriers. 61
17760706 2007
767
Influence of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on the risk of primary late onset blepharospasm: evidence from a multicentre case control study. 61
17578856 2007
768
Health-related quality of life in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. 61
17698774 2007
769
Co-occurence of blepharospasm, tourettism and obsessive-compulsive symptoms during lamotrigine treatment. 61
17537560 2007
770
Structural abnormalities in the cerebellum and sensorimotor circuit in writer's cramp. 61
17646630 2007
771
Glucose hypermetabolism in the thalamus of patients with essential blepharospasm. 61
17325818 2007
772
Apraxia of lid opening. 61
17576707 2007
773
Spread of primary dystonia in relation to initially affected region. 61
17401742 2007
774
Botulinum toxin treatment for blepharospasm associated with myasthenia gravis. 61
17486596 2007
775
Blepharospasm and limb dystonia caused by Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome with a novel splice-site mutation in the deafness/dystonia peptide gene. 61
17534980 2007
776
The "Indian turban trick": a novel sensory trick in blepharospasm. 61
17486641 2007
777
Computer vision syndrome: a study of the knowledge, attitudes and practices in Indian ophthalmologists. 61
17595478 2007
778
Morphometric changes of sensorimotor structures in focal dystonia. 61
17443700 2007
779
Botulinum toxin in the treatment of tremors, dystonias, sialorrhea and other symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease. 61
17563247 2007
780
Efficacy of intrapalpebral and intramuscular application of oxytetracycline in a natural outbreak of infectious bovine kertoconjunctivitis (IBK) in calves. 61
17642322 2007
781
Venlafaxine and tardive blepharospasm: a case report. 61
17478026 2007
782
Botulinum toxin in the management of dystonia. 61
17445500 2007
783
Peripheral kynurenine metabolism in focal dystonia. 61
17504201 2007
784
Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of subconjunctival injection of clindamycin in the treatment of naturally occurring infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. 61
17445081 2007
785
A case of primary congenital glaucoma: a diagnostic dilemma. 61
17400138 2007
786
Use of chemical ablation with trichloroacetic acid to treat eyelid apocrine hidrocystomas in a cat. 61
17501654 2007
787
Botulinum toxin A injections improve apraxia of eyelid opening without overt blepharospasm associated with neurodegenerative diseases. 61
17266083 2007
788
Modified Lundie loops improve apraxia of eyelid opening. 61
17414870 2007
789
Are nongenetic triggers for dystonia type-specific? A study exploring scoliosis in blepharospasm. 61
17260341 2007
790
Is there a place for placebo in management of psychogenic movement disorders? 61
17450268 2007
791
Efficacy of skin cooling and EMLA cream application for pain relief of periocular botulinum toxin injection. 61
17413628 2007
792
Complications of botulinum toxin type A. 61
17317555 2007
793
Botulinum neurotoxin type A free of complexing proteins (XEOMIN) in focal dystonia. 61
17385940 2007
794
Asynchronous blepharospasm, facial and cervical dystonia, and bilateral asynchronous hemifacial spasm. 61
17133455 2007
795
A double-blind, randomized, crossover study of prosigne versus botox in patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. 61
17272968 2007
796
Auditory startle reaction in primary blepharospasm. 61
17149731 2007
797
Graded full-thickness anterior blepharotomy for correction of upper eyelid retraction not associated with thyroid eye disease. 61
17237689 2007
798
Use of a dermal biopsy punch for removal of ectopic cilia in dogs: 19 cases. 61
17204131 2007
799
Clozapine-induced tardive dystonia (blepharospasm). 61
17308236 2007
800
Long-term follow-up of patients with frontalis sling operation in the treatment of essential blepharospasm unresponsive to botulinum toxin therapy. 61
16874524 2007
801
Anatomy of the supraorbital region and the evaluation of it for the reconstruction of facial defects. 61
17251847 2007
802
The eyelid and its contribution to eye movements. 61
17314482 2007
803
Double-clip technique in cataract surgery using topical anesthesia. 61
17189788 2007
804
[Wernicke's encephalopathy associated with chronic disulfiram intoxication]. 61
17151518 2006
805
Clinical value of botulinum toxin in neurological indications. 61
17112346 2006
806
Dystonia in Parkinson's disease. 61
17131231 2006
807
Paroxysmal torticollis and blepharospasm following bilateral cerebellar infarction. 61
17219037 2006
808
[Current status and prospects of medical therapy for dystonia]. 61
17432235 2006
809
Efficacy of botulinum toxin type a after topical anesthesia. 61
17117100 2006
810
Bilateral upper eyelid ectropion associated with blepharospasm. 61
17057180 2006
811
Tardive blepharospasm beginning after withdrawal of veralipride. 61
16960858 2006
812
Prevalence of primary blepharospasm in Sardinia, Italy: a service-based survey. 61
16960861 2006
813
Controlling blepharospasm effect during applanation tonometry using the Volk SuperField Lid Lens Adapter. 61
17191193 2006
814
Clozapine for blepharospasm, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and psychotic symptoms in a patient of old brain infarction. 61
17095902 2006
815
Comparison of early and late toxic effects of sulfur mustard in Iranian veterans. 61
17040211 2006
816
Botulinum toxin: clinical use. 61
16870487 2006
817
[Costs and efficacy of type A botulinum toxin for the treatment of essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm]. 61
17187139 2006
818
Epidemiology of primary focal dystonias in the western area of Tottori prefecture in Japan: Comparison with prevalence evaluated in 1993. 61
16755586 2006
819
Bilateral grey-matter increase in the putamen in primary blepharospasm. 61
16690695 2006
820
Supramaximal doses of botulinum toxin for refractory blepharospasm. 61
16828511 2006
821
Primary Whipple's disease of the brain: characterization of the clinical syndrome and molecular diagnosis. 61
16905752 2006
822
Relative risk of spread of symptoms among the focal onset primary dystonias. 61
16673404 2006
823
Blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm: a protocol for titration of botulinum toxin dose to the individual patient and for the management of refractory cases. 61
16531977 2006
824
Analysis of blink rate in patients with blepharospasm. 61
16622858 2006
825
Corneal ulceration associated with naturally occurring canine herpesvirus-1 infection in two adult dogs. 61
16881829 2006
826
Hemifacial spasm: case report. 61
17089501 2006
827
The evaluation of light sensitivity in benign essential blepharospasm. 61
16815254 2006
828
Use of high-dose botulinum A toxin in benign essential blepharospasm: is too high too much? 61
16872340 2006
829
Prevalence of dystonia in Akit