BEB
MCID: BLP048
MIFTS: 39

Blepharospasm, Benign Essential (BEB)

Categories: Eye diseases, Genetic diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Blepharospasm, Benign Essential

MalaCards integrated aliases for Blepharospasm, Benign Essential:

Name: Blepharospasm, Benign Essential 58
Benign Essential Blepharospasm 54 26 55 76 74
Blepharospasm, Primary Benign 58 13
Blepharospasm 54 74
Beb 54 76
Blepharospasm, Benign Essential, Susceptibility to 58
Essential Blepharospasm 26
Primary Blepharospasm 26
Eyelid Twitching 26
Spasm of Eyelids 26

Characteristics:

OMIM:

58
Inheritance:
autosomal dominant

Miscellaneous:
mean age of onset 56 years


HPO:

33
blepharospasm, benign essential:
Onset and clinical course middle age onset
Inheritance sporadic


Classifications:



External Ids:

OMIM 58 606798
MeSH 45 D001764
SNOMED-CT via HPO 70 59026006

Summaries for Blepharospasm, Benign Essential

NIH Rare Diseases : 54 Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by abnormal blinking or spasms of the eyelids. It is a form of dystonia, a group of movement disorders involving uncontrolled tensing of the muscles (contractions), rhythmic shaking (tremors), and other involuntary movements. BEB occurs in both men and women, although it is especially common in middle-aged women. Initial symptoms include an increased frequency of blinking, dry eyes, and eye irritation. As the condition progresses, spasms of the muscles surrounding the eyes cause involuntary winking or squinting and increasing difficulty keeping eyes open, which can lead to vision impairment. In more than half of all people with BEB, the symptoms affect other facial muscles and muscles in other areas of the body. When people with BEB also experience involuntary muscle spasms affecting the tongue and jaw, this is known as Meige syndrome. The cause of BEB is unknown; however, some cases appear to run through families. Although there is no cure for BEB, symptoms can be treated using various methods including botulinum toxin injections. 

MalaCards based summary : Blepharospasm, Benign Essential, also known as benign essential blepharospasm, is related to lymphatic malformation 5 and vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and has symptoms including myoclonus, oromandibular dystonia and torticollis. An important gene associated with Blepharospasm, Benign Essential is DRD5 (Dopamine Receptor D5). The drugs Acetylcholine and Silicon have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, brain and tongue, and related phenotype is blepharospasm.

Genetics Home Reference : 26 Benign essential blepharospasm is a condition characterized by abnormal blinking or spasms of the eyelids. This condition is a type of dystonia, which is a group of movement disorders involving uncontrolled tensing of the muscles (muscle contractions), rhythmic shaking (tremors), and other involuntary movements. Benign essential blepharospasm is different from the common, temporary eyelid twitching that can be caused by fatigue, stress, or caffeine.

OMIM : 58 Blepharospasm is a form of primary focal dystonia affecting the orbicularis oculi muscles, usually beginning in middle age. Initial symptoms include eye irritation and frequent blinking, progressing to involuntary spasms of eyelid closure. In severe cases, this can lead to functional blindness (summary by Misbahuddin et al., 2002). (606798)

NINDS : 55 Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and spasms of the eyelid muscles. It is a form of dystonia, a movement disorder in which muscle contractions cause sustained eyelid closure, twitching or repetitive movements. BEB begins gradually with increased frequency of eye blinking often associated with eye irritation. Other symptoms may include increasing difficulty in keeping the eyes open, and light sensitivity. Generally, the spasms occur during the day, disappear in sleep, and reappear after waking. As the condition progresses, the spasms may intensify, forcing the eyelids to remain closed for long periods of time, and thereby causing substantial visual disturbance or functional blindness. It is important to note that the blindness is caused solely by the uncontrollable closing of the eyelids and not by a dysfunction of the eyes. BEB occurs in both men and women, although it is especially common in middle-aged and elderly women.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 76 Benign essential blepharospasm: A primary focal dystonia affecting the orbicularis oculi muscles. Dystonia is defined by the presence of sustained involuntary muscle contraction, often leading to abnormal postures. BEB usually begins in middle age. Initial symptoms include eye irritation and frequent blinking, progressing to involuntary spasms of eyelid closure. Patients have normal eyes. The visual disturbance is due solely to the forced closure of the eyelids. In severe cases, this can lead to functional blindness.

Related Diseases for Blepharospasm, Benign Essential

Diseases in the Blepharospasm family:

Blepharospasm, Benign Essential

Diseases related to Blepharospasm, Benign Essential via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 92)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 lymphatic malformation 5 12.2
2 vernal keratoconjunctivitis 11.1
3 x-linked dystonia-parkinsonism/lubag 11.1
4 hemifacial spasm 10.8
5 dystonia 10.7
6 cervical dystonia 10.6
7 oromandibular dystonia 10.4
8 apraxia 10.4
9 torticollis 10.4
10 apraxia of eyelid opening 10.3
11 ptosis 10.3
12 strabismus 10.2
13 mechanical strabismus 10.2
14 blepharospasm 10.2
15 bell's palsy 10.1
16 depression 10.1
17 schwartz-jampel syndrome, type 1 10.1
18 headache 10.1
19 myasthenia gravis 10.0
20 supranuclear palsy, progressive, 1 10.0
21 focal dystonia 10.0
22 movement disease 10.0
23 myasthenia gravis congenital 10.0
24 myoclonus 10.0
25 tremor 10.0
26 epilepsy, idiopathic generalized 10.0
27 epilepsy 10.0
28 hemifacial spasm, familial 9.9
29 multiple system atrophy 1 9.9
30 schizophrenia 9.9
31 entropion 9.9
32 spasticity 9.9
33 multiple sclerosis 9.8
34 corneal dystrophy, fuchs endothelial, 1 9.8
35 systemic lupus erythematosus 9.8
36 obsessive-compulsive disorder 9.8
37 parkinson disease, late-onset 9.8
38 cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis 9.8
39 sjogren syndrome 9.8
40 tardive dyskinesia 9.8
41 mohr-tranebjaerg syndrome 9.8
42 ataxia and polyneuropathy, adult-onset 9.8
43 xanthomatosis 9.8
44 astigmatism 9.8
45 aceruloplasminemia 9.8
46 anxiety 9.8
47 autoimmune disease 1 9.8
48 alpha/beta t-cell lymphopenia with gamma/delta t-cell expansion, severe cytomegalovirus infection, and autoimmunity 9.8
49 bardet-biedl syndrome 2 9.8
50 bardet-biedl syndrome 10 9.8

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Blepharospasm, Benign Essential:



Diseases related to Blepharospasm, Benign Essential

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Blepharospasm, Benign Essential

Human phenotypes related to Blepharospasm, Benign Essential:

33
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 blepharospasm 33 HP:0000643

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

58
Head And Neck Eyes:
eye irritation
frequent blinking
involuntary spasms of eyelid closure (blepharospasm)

Neurologic Central Nervous System:
dystonia, focal, limited to orbicularis oculi muscle (blepharospasm)

Clinical features from OMIM:

606798

UMLS symptoms related to Blepharospasm, Benign Essential:


myoclonus, oromandibular dystonia, torticollis, lingual dystonia, erythema of the eyelids, spasmodic torticollis

Drugs & Therapeutics for Blepharospasm, Benign Essential

Drugs for Blepharospasm, Benign Essential (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 49)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable 51-84-3 187
2
Silicon Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7440-21-3 4082203
3 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
4 abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
5 Botulinum Toxins Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
6 Neuromuscular Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
7 Acetylcholine Release Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
8 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
9 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
10 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
11 incobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
12 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4,Phase 3
13
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 525-66-6 4946
14 Adrenergic Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
15 Vasodilator Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
16 Adrenergic beta-Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
17 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
18 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
19 Adrenergic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
20
Etanercept Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 185243-69-0
21
Mexiletine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 31828-71-4 4178
22 Analgesics Phase 1, Phase 2
23 Immunologic Factors Phase 1, Phase 2
24 Autoantibodies Phase 1, Phase 2
25 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 1, Phase 2
26 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
27 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
28 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 1, Phase 2
29 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
30 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 1, Phase 2,Not Applicable
31 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 2
32 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 2
33
Zinc Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 7440-66-6 32051
34
Carbamazepine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 298-46-4 2554
35
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 83-43-2 6741
36
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Not Applicable 2921-57-5
37
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 302-25-0
38
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 50-24-8 5755
39
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Not Applicable 2920-86-7
40
Cortisone Experimental Not Applicable 53-06-5 222786
41 Nutrients Not Applicable
42 Trace Elements Not Applicable
43 Micronutrients Not Applicable
44 Zinc Supplement Not Applicable
45 Ophthalmic Solutions
46 Anticonvulsants Not Applicable
47 Dihydroxyphenylalanine
48 Methylprednisolone Acetate Not Applicable
49 Prednisolone acetate Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 54)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Objective of This Study is to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Botulax® in Patients With Essential Blepharospasm. Completed NCT03641950 Phase 4 Botulinum toxin type A
2 Efficacy and Safety Study of Meditoxin® to Treat Essential Blepharospasm Completed NCT01259557 Phase 4 Botulinum Toxin Type A
3 Comparison of Two Botulinum Type A Products in the Treatment of Blepharospasm Completed NCT00761592 Phase 4
4 Pretarsal Versus Preseptal Botulinum Toxin for Patients With Eyelid Spasm Completed NCT03508882 Phase 4 Botulinum Toxin Type A 100Unit/Vial (Product);Saline Solution for Injection
5 Functional Effects of Botox on the Brain Using MRS and fMRI Completed NCT03373162 Phase 4 onabotulinumtoxinA
6 Frontalis Botulinum Toxin Not yet recruiting NCT03186001 Phase 4 Abobotulinum toxin A
7 Efficacy of Aurosling in Frontalis Sling Suspension Surgery Completed NCT00753831 Phase 4
8 Safety and Efficacy of NABOTA in Treatment of Essential Blepharospasm Unknown status NCT02947815 Phase 2, Phase 3 Clostridium Botulinum Toxin Type A;Clostridium Botulinum Toxin Type A
9 Evaluation of Botulinum Toxin Injection Efficacy in the Treatment of Head Essential Tremor Unknown status NCT02555982 Phase 3 BOTOX ® 200 Unités;Placebo
10 Clinical Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Neuronox and Botox With Essential Blepharospasm Completed NCT03216473 Phase 3 Neuronox;Botox
11 Therapeutic Confirmatory Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of "Hugeltox Inj." in Essential Blepharospasm Completed NCT01791881 Phase 3 Hugeltox;Botulinum Toxin Type A(Botox®)
12 Comparison of Korean Botulinum Toxin Type A Versus Botox in the Treatment of Essential Blepharospasm Completed NCT00682760 Phase 3 Korean Botulinum toxin type A (KbtxA) and Botox injection
13 Efficacy and Safety Study of Botulinum Toxin Type A Against Placebo to Treat Abnormal Contraction or Twitch of the Eyelid Completed NCT01896895 Phase 3 IncobulinumtoxinA (Xeomin), 25 Units;IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin), 12.5 Units;Placebo;IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin), 35 Units
14 IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) Versus Placebo in the Treatment of Blepharospasm Completed NCT00406367 Phase 3 incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin);Placebo
15 Effects of Botulinum Toxin Injections in Patients With Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia Completed NCT02604186 Phase 2, Phase 3
16 Addressing Involuntary Movements in Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT02291861 Phase 3 SD-809;Placebo
17 Aim to Reduce Movements in Tardive Dyskinesia Completed NCT02195700 Phase 2, Phase 3 SD-809;Placebo
18 Safety and Efficacy of Propranolol in the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia Withdrawn NCT03254186 Phase 2, Phase 3 Propranolol Hydrochloride;Placebo Oral Tablet
19 ASIS for Enbrel in Plaque Psoriasis Unknown status NCT02112097 Phase 1, Phase 2 Gadolinium;Gadolinium;Gadolinium;Efficacy of Enbrel subcutaneously at Week 12;Efficacy of Enbrel subcutaneously at Week 24;Efficacy of Enbrel subcutaneously at Week 36;Efficacy of Enbrel subdermally at Week 12;Efficacy of Enbrel subdermally at Week 24;Efficacy of Enbrel subdermally at Week 36;PASI 75 n(%) subcutaneously at Week 12;PASI 75 n(%) subcutaneously at Week 24;PASI 75 n(%) subcutaneously at Week 36;PASI 75 n(%) subdermally at Week 12;PASI 75 n(%) subdermally at Week 24;PASI 75 n(%) subdermally at Week 36;Adverse Reactions of Enbrel subcutaneously;Adverse Reactions of Enbrel subdermally at Week 36;Gadolinium;Gadolinium;Gadolinium
20 Study of a Single Administration of 3 Doses of Dysport® for the Treatment of Benign Essential Blepharospasm Completed NCT00234507 Phase 2 Botulinum toxin type A (Dysport®)
21 Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 for Blepharospasm Terminated NCT01750346 Phase 2 Topical acetyl hexapeptide-8;Placebo
22 A Study of Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 (AH8) in Treatment of Blepharospasm Completed NCT00942851 Phase 1, Phase 2 Acetyl-Hexapeptide Topical Treatment;placebo
23 Blepharospasm Short Interval Terminated NCT00507637 Phase 2 NT 201
24 Brain Stimulation to Treat Blepharospasm or Meige Syndrome Completed NCT00411255 Phase 2
25 Mexiletine for the Treatment of Focal Dystonia Completed NCT00001784 Phase 2 Mexiletine
26 Administration of Expanded Autologous Adult Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cells in Established Chronic Spinal Cord Injuries Completed NCT02570932 Phase 2
27 Comparison of Different Botulinum Toxin A Injection Patterns in the Treatment of Blepharospasm Unknown status NCT02327728 Not Applicable Botulinum toxin A 12.5U;Botulinum toxin A 10U
28 Two Different Surgical Methods of Blepharospasm Unknown status NCT02765113 Early Phase 1
29 Influence of Gaze Shift and Emotions on Symptoms of Blepharospasm Unknown status NCT01759745
30 An RCT of a Patient-initiated Treatment Service for BEB and HFS Unknown status NCT02577224 Not Applicable
31 Testing the Effect of Zinc Supplementation to Improve the Treatment Effect of Botulinum Toxin for Oculofacial Spasm Unknown status NCT01546805 Not Applicable Zinc Supplement;Sugar pill
32 rTMS and Botulinum Toxin in Benign Essential Blepharospasm Completed NCT02370875 Not Applicable
33 The Role of the Upper Colliculus in the Idiopathic Blepharospasm Recruiting NCT03903341 Not Applicable
34 Blepharospasm Tools Recruiting NCT02780336
35 Blepharospasm Patient Survey for Patients With Blepharospasm Completed NCT01686061
36 A Mechanical Device for Blepharospasm Completed NCT03269123 Not Applicable
37 Trial Evaluating Xeomin® (incobotulinumtoxinA) for Cervical Dystonia or Blepharospasm in the United States Completed NCT01287247
38 Photic Blink Reflex in People With Blepharospasm and Increased Blinking Terminated NCT03263000
39 Brain Changes in Blepharospasm Completed NCT00500799
40 A Retrospective Chart Review of BOTOX® and Xeomin® for the Treatment of Cervical Dystonia and Blepharospasm Completed NCT01814774
41 A Retrospective Chart Review of BOTOX® and Xeomin® for the Management of Cervical Dystonia and Blepharospasm Completed NCT02245958
42 Analysis of Gait Before and After Botulinum Toxin Treatment in Patients With Focal Dystonia Not yet recruiting NCT03938363 Not Applicable Botulinum Toxin injection
43 Brain Changes in Blepharospasm Terminated NCT00487383
44 Movement Disorder Survey in East China Completed NCT01168388
45 Effect of Lipid Based Eye Drops on Tear Film Lipid Layer Thickness Recruiting NCT03399292 Cationorm MD sine eye drops
46 MDs on Botox Utility (MOBILITY) Completed NCT00535938
47 HLA Screening in Reducing the Risk of Antiepileptic Drug-induced Cutaneous Adverse Reactions Recruiting NCT03184597 Not Applicable
48 The Dystonia Coalition Natural History and Biospecimen Repository for Isolated Dystonias Recruiting NCT01373424
49 Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Raynaud's Completed NCT01233999 Not Applicable botulinum toxin A
50 Cognitive Function and Emotional Possessing in Bilateral Facial Palsy Completed NCT02179450

Search NIH Clinical Center for Blepharospasm, Benign Essential

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 74 / NDF-RT 52 :


Genetic Tests for Blepharospasm, Benign Essential

Anatomical Context for Blepharospasm, Benign Essential

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Blepharospasm, Benign Essential:

42
Eye, Brain, Tongue, Bone, Testes, Spinal Cord, Bone Marrow

Publications for Blepharospasm, Benign Essential

Articles related to Blepharospasm, Benign Essential:

(show top 50) (show all 64)
# Title Authors Year
1
Benign Essential Blepharospasm: What We Know and What We Don't. ( 29239874 )
2018
2
The Benign Essential Blepharospasm Research Foundation. ( 29239875 )
2018
3
Oral Pharmacotherapy for Benign Essential Blepharospasm. ( 29239876 )
2018
4
The Facial Nerve and Selective Neurectomy for Treatment of Benign Essential Blepharospasm. ( 29239881 )
2018
5
Combined effects of rTMS and botulinum toxin therapy in benign essential blepharospasm. ( 29530449 )
2018
6
Developments in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm. ( 29916840 )
2018
7
Clinical Features of Benign Essential Blepharospasm in Korean Patients. ( 30311455 )
2018
8
Epidemiology of benign essential blepharospasm: A nationwide population-based retrospective study in Taiwan. ( 30586395 )
2018
9
Transcranial direct current stimulation for patients with benign essential blepharospasm: a case report. ( 27672032 )
2017
10
Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Botox and Neuronox in the Management of Benign Essential Blepharospasm: A Split-face Study. ( 29022290 )
2017
11
Five-Year Retrospective Review of Cases with Benign Essential Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm Presenting in a Tertiary Eye Care Center in North India. ( 27078720 )
2017
12
Alleviating Maneuvers for Benign Essential Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm. ( 27607413 )
2016
13
Language modulation of benign essential blepharospasm. ( 26990543 )
2016
14
Effect of upper eyelid myectomy on subsequent chemodenervation in the management of benign essential blepharospasm. ( 25192329 )
2015
15
Changes in corneal aesthesiometry and the sub-basal nerve plexus in benign essential blepharospasm. ( 25904123 )
2015
16
Benign Essential Blepharospasm is a Disorder of Neuroplasticity: Lessons From Animal Models. ( 26576017 )
2015
17
Benign Essential Blepharospasm--There Is More to It Than Just Blinking. ( 26576018 )
2015
18
The influence of benign essential blepharospasm on dry eye disease and ocular inflammation. ( 24269849 )
2014
19
Re: "Comparison of preferences between onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) and incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm". ( 24398499 )
2014
20
Reply Re: "Comparison of preferences between onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) and incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm". ( 24398500 )
2014
21
Long-term therapy of benign essential blepharospasm and facial hemispasm with botulinum toxin A: retrospective assessment of the clinical and quality of life impact in patients treated for more than 15 years. ( 24604684 )
2014
22
A direct comparison of onabotulinumtoxina (Botox) and IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm: a split-face technique. ( 24739994 )
2014
23
Scientific skepticism and new discoveries: an analysis of a report of zinc/phytase supplementation and the efficacy of botulinum toxins in treating cosmetic facial rhytides, hemifacial spasm and benign essential blepharospasm. ( 25105993 )
2014
24
Long-term botulinum toxin treatment of benign essential blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, and Meige syndrome. ( 23541393 )
2013
25
Comparison of preferences between onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) and incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm. ( 23552607 )
2013
26
A resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study of patients with benign essential blepharospasm. ( 23636105 )
2013
27
Animal models for investigating benign essential blepharospasm. ( 23814538 )
2013
28
Efficacy of botulinum toxin in benign essential Blepharospasm: Desirable & undesirable effects. ( 24550960 )
2013
29
Quantification of macular carotenoids using autofluorescence imaging in patients with photosensitive migraine and benign essential blepharospasm. ( 22332230 )
2012
30
Gender differences in benign essential blepharospasm. ( 22460669 )
2012
31
Treatment of benign essential blepharospasm with finasteride: a case report. ( 20386102 )
2010
32
Difference in response to botulinum toxin type A treatment between patients with benign essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. ( 20456439 )
2010
33
Orbicularis oculi myo-osseous fixation: a new treatment for benign essential blepharospasm and blepharospasm associated with diffuse facial dystonia (meige syndrome). ( 20507022 )
2010
34
Risk of glaucoma among patients with benign essential blepharospasm. ( 20724866 )
2010
35
Ophthaproblem. Can you identify this condition? Benign essential blepharospasm. ( 21075996 )
2010
36
High versus low concentration botulinum toxin A for benign essential blepharospasm: does dilution make a difference? ( 19300145 )
2009
37
FL-41 tint improves blink frequency, light sensitivity, and functional limitations in patients with benign essential blepharospasm. ( 19410958 )
2009
38
Efficacy and safety of purified botulinum toxin type A (Dysport) for the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm: a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase II trial. ( 18325821 )
2008
39
Closely spaced stressful life events precede the onset of benign essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. ( 18090560 )
2007
40
Myobloc for the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm in patients refractory to botox. ( 16714924 )
2006
41
The evaluation of light sensitivity in benign essential blepharospasm. ( 16815254 )
2006
42
Use of high-dose botulinum A toxin in benign essential blepharospasm: is too high too much? ( 16872340 )
2006
43
Health-related quality of life and psychosocial characteristics of patients with benign essential blepharospasm. ( 16401794 )
2006
44
Benign essential blepharospasm. ( 15860145 )
2005
45
Benign essential blepharospasm. ( 15970766 )
2005
46
Benign essential blepharospasm: risk factors with reference to hemifacial spasm. ( 16340493 )
2005
47
A functional magnetic resonance imaging study in patients with benign essential blepharospasm. ( 12616082 )
2003
48
Benign essential blepharospasm among residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1976 to 1995: an epidemiologic study. ( 12918550 )
2003
49
Benign essential blepharospasm. ( 11914708 )
2002
50
Differential section of the seventh nerve as a tertiary procedure for the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm. ( 11476178 )
2001

Variations for Blepharospasm, Benign Essential

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Blepharospasm, Benign Essential:

6
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 DRD5 DRD5, (CT/GT/GA)n undetermined variant risk factor

Expression for Blepharospasm, Benign Essential

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Blepharospasm, Benign Essential.

Pathways for Blepharospasm, Benign Essential

GO Terms for Blepharospasm, Benign Essential

Sources for Blepharospasm, Benign Essential

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