MCID: BDY001
MIFTS: 38

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Categories: Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

MalaCards integrated aliases for Body Dysmorphic Disorder:

Name: Body Dysmorphic Disorder 12 75 37 15
Dysmorphophobia 12 75
Body Dysmorphic Disorders 72
Dysmorphic Syndrome 12
Body Dysmorphia 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0060163
KEGG 37 H01447
UMLS 72 C0005887

Summaries for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

KEGG : 37
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychiatric disorder in which individuals are preoccupied with imagined defects in their appearance, which are not noticeable or appear slight to others. It is characterized by time-consuming behaviors such as mirror gazing, comparing one's appearance with the appearance of others, excessive camouflaging to hide the defect, and seeking reassurance. Patients experience significant distress, disability, and functional impairment, often accompanied by depression and suicidality. There is some clinical and pathologic overlap between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and BDD such as obsessive thoughts and the performance of ritual behavior. Patients with BDD respond to treatment with serotonergic agents such as clomipramine or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which suggests a dysfunction of central serotonergic neurotransmission as a possible etiological factor. A recent study suggests that cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) was more effective than treatment with medications.

MalaCards based summary : Body Dysmorphic Disorder, also known as dysmorphophobia, is related to hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome and choanal atresia-hearing loss-cardiac defects-craniofacial dysmorphism syndrome. An important gene associated with Body Dysmorphic Disorder is TMEM94 (Transmembrane Protein 94), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Serotonergic synapse. The drugs Levetiracetam and Fluoxetine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include breast, brain and skin.

Disease Ontology : 12 A somatoform disorder that involves an excessive concern about and preoccupation with a perceived defect in his or her physical features (body image).

Wikipedia : 75 Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), occasionally still called dysmorphophobia, is a mental disorder... more...

Related Diseases for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Diseases related to Body Dysmorphic Disorder via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 282)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome 12.5
2 choanal atresia-hearing loss-cardiac defects-craniofacial dysmorphism syndrome 12.3
3 hypoparathyroidism-intellectual disability-dysmorphism syndrome 12.3
4 aids dysmorphic syndrome 12.2
5 intellectual disability-severe speech delay-mild dysmorphism syndrome 12.2
6 night blindness-skeletal anomalies-dysmorphism syndrome 12.0
7 genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome-variable intellectual disability syndrome 12.0
8 hypogonadotropic hypogonadism-severe microcephaly-sensorineural hearing loss-dysmorphism syndrome 12.0
9 intellectual disability-expressive aphasia-facial dysmorphism syndrome 12.0
10 congenital labioscrotal agenesis-cerebellar malformation-corneal dystrophy-facial dysmorphism syndrome 12.0
11 multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome-intellectual disability 12.0
12 multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome-variable intellectual disability syndrome 12.0
13 birk-barel syndrome 12.0
14 genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome 12.0
15 overgrowth-macrocephaly-facial dysmorphism syndrome 12.0
16 thin ribs-tubular bones-dysmorphism syndrome 12.0
17 short stature-deafness-neutrophil dysfunction-dysmorphism syndrome 12.0
18 genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome without intellectual disability 12.0
19 intellectual disability-obesity-brain malformations-facial dysmorphism syndrome 12.0
20 lethal multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome 12.0
21 intellectual disability-muscle weakness-short stature-facial dysmorphism syndrome 12.0
22 microcephaly-short stature-intellectual disability-facial dysmorphism syndrome 12.0
23 metopic ridging-ptosis-facial dysmorphism syndrome 12.0
24 genetic lethal multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome 12.0
25 multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome 12.0
26 osteopenia-myopia-hearing loss-intellectual disability-facial dysmorphism syndrome 12.0
27 x-linked intellectual disability-epilepsy-progressive joint contractures-dysmorphism syndrome 12.0
28 obsolete: dysmorphic syndrome associated with bone anomaly 12.0
29 multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome without intellectual disability 12.0
30 arachnodactyly - intellectual disability - dysmorphism 11.6
31 epiphyseal dysplasia hearing loss dysmorphism 11.6
32 kcnk9 imprinting syndrome 11.5
33 spinocerebellar ataxia with dysmorphism 11.3
34 burn-mckeown syndrome 11.3
35 xia-gibbs syndrome 11.3
36 epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 23 11.3
37 med13l haploinsufficiency syndrome 11.2
38 culler-jones syndrome 11.1
39 short stature, hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa, and distinctive facies 11.1
40 fibromatosis, gingival, with distinctive facies 11.0
41 hirschsprung disease with hypoplastic nails and dysmorphic facial features 11.0
42 cubitus valgus with mental retardation and unusual facies 11.0
43 deafness, x-linked 7 11.0
44 fryns macrocephaly 11.0
45 dislocation of hip, congenital, with hyperextensibility of fingers and facial dysmorphism 11.0
46 spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with bowed forearms and facial dysmorphism 11.0
47 mental retardation with language impairment and with or without autistic features 11.0
48 beaulieu-boycott-innes syndrome 11.0
49 steel syndrome 11.0
50 mental retardation, autosomal recessive 39 11.0

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Body Dysmorphic Disorder:



Diseases related to Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Drugs & Therapeutics for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Drugs for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 57)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Levetiracetam Approved, Investigational Phase 4 102767-28-2 441341
2
Fluoxetine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 54910-89-3 3386
3
Norepinephrine Approved Phase 4 51-41-2 439260
4 Nootropic Agents Phase 4
5 Anticonvulsants Phase 4
6 Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors Phase 4
7 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 4
8 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
9 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
10 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
11 Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation Phase 4
12 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4
13 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
14 Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors Phase 4
15 Serotonin Agents Phase 4
16 Venlafaxine Hydrochloride Phase 4
17
Serotonin Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-67-9 5202
18
Citalopram Approved Phase 3 59729-33-8 2771
19 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 3
20 Parasympatholytics Phase 3
21 Cholinergic Agents Phase 3
22 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 3
23 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 3
24 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 3
25 Autonomic Agents Phase 3
26
Oxytocin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 50-56-6 439302 53477758
27
Milk thistle Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 2 65666-07-1
28
Lactitol Investigational Phase 2 585-86-4, 585-88-6 493591
29 Hormones Phase 2
30 Oxytocics Phase 2
31 Antioxidants Phase 2
32 silymarin Phase 2
33 Protective Agents Phase 2
34
Cycloserine Approved Early Phase 1 68-41-7 6234 401
35
Dopamine Approved 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
36
Memantine Approved, Investigational 19982-08-2 4054
37
Cocaine Approved, Illicit 50-36-2 446220 5760
38
Diprenorphine Illicit, Vet_approved 14357-78-9
39 Anti-Bacterial Agents Early Phase 1
40 Renal Agents Early Phase 1
41 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Early Phase 1
42 Antitubercular Agents Early Phase 1
43 Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary Early Phase 1
44 Anti-Infective Agents Early Phase 1
45 Antimetabolites Early Phase 1
46 Dopamine Agents
47 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
48 Excitatory Amino Acids
49 Narcotics
50 Analgesics

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 39)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Open-Label Study of Levetiracetam in Body Dysmorphic Disorder Completed NCT00265109 Phase 4 Levetiracetam
2 Fluoxetine in Pediatric Body Dysmorphic Disorder Completed NCT00245635 Phase 4 Fluoxetine;Placebo
3 A Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as an Adjunct to Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Body Dysmorphic Disorder Terminated NCT00211809 Phase 4 Venlafaxine
4 Pharmacotherapy Relapse Prevention in Body Dysmorphic Disorder Completed NCT00149799 Phase 3 Escitalopram;Placebo
5 Crooked Mirror Externalization Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder Unknown status NCT01316627 Phase 2
6 Effect of Intranasal Oxytocin on Social Cognition Completed NCT02671266 Phase 2 Oxytocin;Placebo
7 Silymarin Treatment of Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Study Recruiting NCT02843451 Phase 2 Milk Thistle;Placebo
8 Quality of Life and Body Image in Women Underwent Thighplasty Completed NCT01453231 Phase 1
9 CBT Versus Supportive Psychotherapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder Unknown status NCT01453439
10 Body Image Disorder in Anorexia Nervosa and Virtual Reality Unknown status NCT03118921
11 Attentional Bias in Body Dysmorphic Disorder Completed NCT01398904
12 Internet Delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder - a Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT02010619
13 Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Pilot Study Completed NCT01850433
14 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial of D-cycloserine Augmentation of Behavior Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder Completed NCT00842309 Early Phase 1 d-cycloserine;Placebo
15 Antiglutamatergic Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa and Body Dysmorphic Disorder: An Open-Label Trial of Memantine Completed NCT01038128 Memantine
16 An Open Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Pediatric Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) Completed NCT01002326
17 Evaluation of an Internet-Based Treatment for Body Dysmorphic Disorder Completed NCT02635152
18 Development of a Cognitive Behavioral Mobile App for Body Dysmorphic Disorder, and Tests of Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy Completed NCT03221738
19 A Randomized Waitlist Controlled Treatment Trial Investigating CBT for Body Dysmorphic Disorder Completed NCT00106223
20 Cerebral Metabolic Correlates of Treatment Response to Escitalopram in Body Dysmorphic Disorder Completed NCT01398865
21 Efficacy of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy -v- Anxiety Management for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: a Randomised Controlled Trial Completed NCT00871143
22 Evaluation of Brain Opioid Receptor Activity in Anorexia Nervosa : a PET [11C]Diprenorphine Study Completed NCT02524301 Positron Emission Tomography using [11C]diprenorphine
23 An Interactive Internet-based Program for Prevention of Eating Disorders on a Broad Basis Completed NCT02567890
24 Body Image in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Completed NCT00832910
25 Impairment of Central Coherence in Restrictive Anorexia Nervosa: Single-center and Case-control Study Completed NCT02381639
26 Effectiveness of Dance on Patients With Fibromyalgia Completed NCT00961805
27 Prevention of Body Image Disorder by Nurse Intervention on the Patient and Family Prior to Breast and Colon Surgery Completed NCT03726801
28 Changes in Hyperprolactinemia Secondary to Antipsychotics After Switching to Quetiapine: a Naturalistic, Prospective, Multicentric Observational Study of 6 Months Follow-up Completed NCT00952757
29 Contribution of a Virtual Reality Program in the Treatment of Dysmorphophobia for Adolescent Female With Anorexia Nervosa Recruiting NCT03426930
30 A Virtual Reality Study of Cognitive Biases in Body Dysmorphic Disorder Recruiting NCT03773549
31 White Light Scanning to Aid Body Contouring: A Pilot Project Recruiting NCT01093950
32 Brain Correlates of Self-Focused Processing as a Biomarker of Treatment Response Recruiting NCT02808702
33 Investigation Into the Impact of Exposure to Images of the Idealised Physique on Body Satisfaction, Dieting Intentions and Mood in Men. Recruiting NCT03991351
34 Descriptive Study of Buccodental Manifestations in a Group of Acromegalic Patients (AcroDent) Followed in the Endocrinology/Diabetology Service in the CHU of Clermont-Ferrand Recruiting NCT03401008
35 Feasibility Pilot Study of Internet-based CBT for Body Dysmorphic Disorder With Global Recruitment Active, not recruiting NCT03517384
36 Outcomes of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Interventions Provided by Unlicensed Professionals in a General Hospital Setting Active, not recruiting NCT01075672
37 Smartphone Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Randomized, Waitlist-control Trial Not yet recruiting NCT04034693
38 Caloric Vestibular Stimulation for Modulation of Insight in Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders Not yet recruiting NCT03918577
39 Smartphone Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Randomized, Waitlist-control Trial Withdrawn NCT03673046

Search NIH Clinical Center for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Genetic Tests for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Anatomical Context for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Body Dysmorphic Disorder:

41
Breast, Brain, Skin, Eye, Testes, Colon, Bone

Publications for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Articles related to Body Dysmorphic Disorder:

(show top 50) (show all 1144)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Intranasal oxytocin alters amygdala-temporal resting-state functional connectivity in body dysmorphic disorder: A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. 38
31146138 2019
2
Experimental induction of self-focused attention via mirror gazing: Effects on body image, appraisals, body-focused shame, and self-esteem. 38
31336262 2019
3
Modeling subjective belief states in computational psychiatry: interoceptive inference as a candidate framework. 38
31230144 2019
4
High Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Moderate to Severe Appearance-Related Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms Among Rhinoplasty Candidates. 38
30607575 2019
5
Invited Response on: Body Dysmorphic Disorder: There is an "Ideal" Strategy? 38
31139915 2019
6
Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Is There an "Ideal" Strategy? 38
31011755 2019
7
Pharmacotherapy in body dysmorphic disorder: relapse prevention and novel treatments. 38
31038370 2019
8
People allergic to me and body dysmorphic disorder. 38
31325759 2019
9
Low prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in specific public and private practices in Australia. 38
30979400 2019
10
Predictors of Response to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. 38
31208692 2019
11
[Labiaplasty: Motivations and post-surgery satisfaction]. 38
31003016 2019
12
The Multidimensional Youth Body Dysmorphic Inventory: Development and Preliminary Validation. 38
31065951 2019
13
French translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the BDDQ-AS for rhinoplasty patients. 38
31092284 2019
14
Prevalence and clinical characteristics of body dysmorphic disorder in adolescent inpatient psychiatric patients-a pilot study. 38
31074670 2019
15
A Practical Guide to Managing Body Dysmorphic Disorder in the Cosmetic Surgery Setting. 38
30676626 2019
16
Impaired Recognition of Negative Facial Emotions in Body Dysmorphic Disorder. 38
31099324 2019
17
Self-induced dermatoses: A great imitator. 38
31178108 2019
18
Sexuality, depression and body image after breast reconstruction. 38
31166474 2019
19
CBT for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. 38
31135848 2019
20
The cross-cultural and transdiagnostic nature of unwanted mental intrusions. 38
31193125 2019
21
Sex Differences in the Presentation of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a Community Sample of Adolescents. 38
28541768 2019
22
Direct comparisons of anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder: A systematic review. 38
30784781 2019
23
Body parts of clinical concern in anorexia nervosa versus body dysmorphic disorder: a cross-diagnostic comparison. 38
30931578 2019
24
Factor structure, validity, and reliability of a Persian version of the Body and Appearance Self-conscious Emotions Scale. 38
30990086 2019
25
Definition and diagnostic criteria for orthorexia nervosa: a narrative review of the literature. 38
30414078 2019
26
Identifying Efficacious Treatment Elements for Refractory Conditions, Such as Body Dysmorphic Disorder. 38
30785632 2019
27
Efficacy and Posttreatment Effects of Therapist-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs Supportive Psychotherapy for Adults With Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial. 38
30785624 2019
28
Avoiding the Unhappy Patient by Building Rapport in the Internet Age. 38
30877682 2019
29
The Health Threat Posed by the Hidden Epidemic of Anabolic Steroid Use and Body Image Disorders Among Young Men. 38
30239802 2019
30
Internet-based, therapist-guided, cognitive-behavioural therapy for body dysmorphic disorder with global eligibility for inclusion: an uncontrolled pilot study. 38
30904854 2019
31
An Internet-based controlled trial of interpretation bias modification versus progressive muscle relaxation for body dysmorphic disorder. 38
30589349 2019
32
Body dysmorphic disorder and its relationship to sexuality, impulsivity, and addiction. 38
30658211 2019
33
Body dysmorphic disorder: The drive for perfection. 38
30720669 2019
34
Body dysmorphic disorder: The drive for perfection. 38
30801405 2019
35
[Body dysmorphic disorder: Symptoms, prevalence, assessment and treatment]. 38
30806630 2019
36
Affect and worry during a checking episode: A comparison of individuals with symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, body dysmorphic disorder, illness anxiety disorder, and panic disorder. 38
30599438 2019
37
Sex differences in own and other body perception. 38
30430680 2019
38
Intranasal oxytocin modulates higher order social cognition in body dysmorphic disorder. 38
30614171 2019
39
Application of a transdiagnostic treatment for emotional disorders to body dysmorphic disorder: A randomized controlled trial. 38
30445389 2019
40
Nonsurgical Medical Penile Girth Augmentation: A Retrospective Study of Psychological and Psychosexual Outcomes. 38
29741580 2019
41
Body-oriented gaze behaviors in men with muscle dysmorphia diagnoses. 38
30714795 2019
42
Body dysmorphia in dentistry and prosthodontics: A practice based study. 38
30579858 2019
43
Body image, cosmetic surgery, and minimally invasive treatments. 38
30704847 2019
44
Body Image as Well as Eating Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptoms in Heterosexual, Homosexual, and Bisexual Women. 38
31427996 2019
45
The emergence of Exercise Addiction, Body Dysmorphic Disorder, and other image-related psychopathological correlates in fitness settings: A cross sectional study. 38
30943200 2019
46
Long-term outcome of therapist-guided internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-NET): a naturalistic 2-year follow-up after a randomised controlled trial. 38
30647044 2019
47
Skin, Body Dysmorphic Disorder, and Other Syndromes. 38
30482571 2019
48
Understanding and treating body dysmorphic disorder. 38
30745686 2019
49
Gazing at facial features increases dissociation and decreases attractiveness ratings in non-clinical females - A potential explanation for a common ritual in body dysmorphic disorder. 38
31344065 2019
50
Screening for Body Dysmorphic Disorders in Acne Patients: A Pilot Study. 38
30389124 2019

Variations for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Copy number variations for Body Dysmorphic Disorder from CNVD:

7
# CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 63474 12 119100000 132349534 Deletion FBXW8 dysmorphic
2 63477 12 119100000 132349534 Deletion FZD10 dysmorphic
3 63480 12 119100000 132349534 Deletion NCOR2 dysmorphic
4 63483 12 119100000 132349534 Deletion P2RX2 dysmorphic
5 63486 12 119100000 132349534 Deletion RAN dysmorphic
6 63489 12 119100000 132349534 Deletion STX2 dysmorphic
7 63492 12 119100000 132349534 Deletion TBX3 dysmorphic
8 63495 12 119100000 132349534 Deletion TESC dysmorphic
9 63498 12 119100000 132349534 Deletion ULK1 dysmorphic

Expression for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

Pathways for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Pathways related to Body Dysmorphic Disorder according to KEGG:

37
# Name Kegg Source Accession
1 Serotonergic synapse hsa04726

GO Terms for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Cellular components related to Body Dysmorphic Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 lysosomal lumen GO:0043202 8.96 GPC6 GPC1
2 anchored component of plasma membrane GO:0046658 8.62 GPC6 GPC1

Biological processes related to Body Dysmorphic Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 retinoid metabolic process GO:0001523 9.26 GPC6 GPC1
2 regulation of signal transduction GO:0009966 9.16 GPC6 GPC1
3 glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic process GO:0006024 8.96 GPC6 GPC1
4 glycosaminoglycan catabolic process GO:0006027 8.62 GPC6 GPC1

Sources for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 TGDB
71 Tocris
72 UMLS
73 UMLS via Orphanet
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