MCID: BDY001
MIFTS: 44

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Categories: Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

MalaCards integrated aliases for Body Dysmorphic Disorder:

Name: Body Dysmorphic Disorder 12 76 37 15
Dysmorphophobia 12 76
Body Dysmorphic Disorders 73
Dysmorphic Syndrome 12
Body Dysmorphia 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0060163
KEGG 37 H01447
UMLS 73 C0005887

Summaries for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Disease Ontology : 12 A somatoform disorder that involves an excessive concern about and preoccupation with a perceived defect in his or her physical features (body image).

MalaCards based summary : Body Dysmorphic Disorder, also known as dysmorphophobia, is related to hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome and macrocephaly, macrosomia, and facial dysmorphism syndrome. An important gene associated with Body Dysmorphic Disorder is SLITRK1 (SLIT And NTRK Like Family Member 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Serotonergic synapse and Glycosaminoglycan metabolism. The drugs Piracetam and Fluoxetine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, eye and skin.

Wikipedia : 76 Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), occasionally still called dysmorphophobia, is a mental disorder... more...

Related Diseases for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Diseases related to Body Dysmorphic Disorder via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 127)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome 12.3
2 macrocephaly, macrosomia, and facial dysmorphism syndrome 12.2
3 hypoparathyroidism-intellectual disability-dysmorphism syndrome 12.2
4 aids dysmorphic syndrome 12.1
5 choanal atresia-hearing loss-cardiac defects-craniofacial dysmorphism syndrome 12.1
6 intellectual disability-severe speech delay-mild dysmorphism syndrome 12.1
7 night blindness-skeletal anomalies-dysmorphism syndrome 11.9
8 hypogonadotropic hypogonadism-severe microcephaly-sensorineural hearing loss-dysmorphism syndrome 11.9
9 intellectual disability-expressive aphasia-facial dysmorphism syndrome 11.9
10 congenital labioscrotal agenesis-cerebellar malformation-corneal dystrophy-facial dysmorphism syndrome 11.9
11 birk-barel syndrome 11.9
12 thin ribs-tubular bones-dysmorphism syndrome 11.8
13 short stature-deafness-neutrophil dysfunction-dysmorphism syndrome 11.8
14 intellectual disability-obesity-brain malformations-facial dysmorphism syndrome 11.8
15 intellectual disability-muscle weakness-short stature-facial dysmorphism syndrome 11.8
16 microcephaly-short stature-intellectual disability-facial dysmorphism syndrome 11.8
17 x-linked external auditory canal atresia-dilated internal auditory canal-facial dysmorphism syndrome 11.8
18 metopic ridging-ptosis-facial dysmorphism syndrome 11.8
19 osteopenia-myopia-hearing loss-intellectual disability-facial dysmorphism syndrome 11.8
20 x-linked intellectual disability-epilepsy-progressive joint contractures-dysmorphism syndrome 11.8
21 xia-gibbs syndrome 11.4
22 arachnodactyly - intellectual disability - dysmorphism 11.4
23 epiphyseal dysplasia hearing loss dysmorphism 11.4
24 kcnk9 imprinting syndrome 11.4
25 culler-jones syndrome 11.0
26 epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 23 11.0
27 short stature, hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa, and distinctive facies 11.0
28 fibromatosis, gingival, with distinctive facies 10.8
29 hirschsprung disease with hypoplastic nails and dysmorphic facial features 10.8
30 spinocerebellar ataxia with dysmorphism 10.8
31 cubitus valgus with mental retardation and unusual facies 10.8
32 fryns macrocephaly 10.8
33 dislocation of hip, congenital, with hyperextensibility of fingers and facial dysmorphism 10.8
34 spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with bowed forearms and facial dysmorphism 10.8
35 burn-mckeown syndrome 10.8
36 mental retardation with language impairment and with or without autistic features 10.8
37 beaulieu-boycott-innes syndrome 10.8
38 steel syndrome 10.8
39 mental retardation, autosomal recessive 39 10.8
40 mental retardation, autosomal dominant 23 10.8
41 tatton-brown-rahman syndrome 10.8
42 mental retardation, autosomal dominant 36 10.8
43 klippel-feil syndrome 4, autosomal recessive, with nemaline myopathy and facial dysmorphism 10.8
44 mental retardation and distinctive facial features with or without cardiac defects 10.8
45 skraban-deardorff syndrome 10.8
46 med13l haploinsufficiency syndrome 10.8
47 reunion island larsen syndrome 10.8
48 cono-spondylar dysplasia 10.8
49 acromegaloid facial appearance syndrome 10.7
50 microcephalic primordial dwarfism, montreal type 10.7

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Body Dysmorphic Disorder:



Diseases related to Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Drugs & Therapeutics for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Drugs for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 65)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Piracetam Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7491-74-9
2
Fluoxetine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 54910-89-3 3386
3
Norepinephrine Approved Phase 4 51-41-2 439260
4 Etiracetam Investigational Phase 4 33996-58-6
5 Nootropic Agents Phase 4
6 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 4
7 Anticonvulsants Phase 4
8 Protective Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
9 Serotonin Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
10 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
11 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
12 Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation Phase 4,Phase 3
13 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 4
14 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
15 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
16 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
17 Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors Phase 4
18 Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors Phase 4
19 Venlafaxine Hydrochloride Phase 4
20
Serotonin Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 50-67-9 5202
21
Citalopram Approved Phase 3 59729-33-8 2771
22 Cholinergic Agents Phase 3
23 Parasympatholytics Phase 3
24 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 3
25 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
26 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 3
27 Autonomic Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
28 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 3,Not Applicable
29
Oxytocin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 50-56-6 439302 53477758
30
Milk thistle Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 2 65666-07-1
31
Ondansetron Approved Phase 2 99614-02-5 4595
32
Lactitol Investigational Phase 2 585-86-4 3871
33 Oxytocics Phase 2
34 Hormones Phase 2
35 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 2,Not Applicable
36 Antioxidants Phase 2
37 silymarin Phase 2
38 Serotonin Antagonists Phase 2
39 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 2
40 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 2
41 Dermatologic Agents Phase 2
42 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 2
43 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 2
44 Antipruritics Phase 2
45 Antiemetics Phase 2
46
Cycloserine Approved Early Phase 1 68-41-7 6234 401
47
Dopamine Approved Not Applicable 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
48
Memantine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 19982-08-2 4054
49
Cocaine Approved, Illicit Not Applicable 50-36-2 5760 446220
50
Diprenorphine Illicit, Vet_approved Not Applicable 14357-78-9

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 38)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Effectiveness of Levetiracetam in the Treatment of Body Dysmorphic Disorder Completed NCT00265109 Phase 4 Levetiracetam
2 Fluoxetine in Pediatric Body Dysmorphic Disorder Completed NCT00245635 Phase 4 Fluoxetine;Placebo
3 CBT as an Adjunct to SRIs in the Treatment of BDD Terminated NCT00211809 Phase 4 Venlafaxine
4 Effectiveness of Escitalopram in the Treatment of Body Dysmorphic Disorder Completed NCT00149799 Phase 3 Escitalopram;Placebo
5 Study of Patients With Body Image Issues Treated With 2 Different Behavioral Interventions Unknown status NCT01316627 Phase 2
6 Oxytocin Administration in BDD and OCD Completed NCT02671266 Phase 2 Oxytocin;Placebo
7 Milk Thistle in Body Dysmorphic Disorder Recruiting NCT02843451 Phase 2 Milk Thistle;Placebo
8 Efficacy and Safety Study of Low-Dose Ondansetron For Adjunctive Therapy In Adult Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Terminated NCT01275248 Phase 2 Ondansetron;Placebo
9 Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Supportive Psychotherapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder Unknown status NCT01453439 Not Applicable
10 Body Image and Self-Care in HIV-Infected MSM Unknown status NCT01817621 Not Applicable
11 Interpretation Bias Modification for Body Dysmorphic Disorder Completed NCT02635152 Not Applicable
12 Attentional Bias in Body Dysmorphic Disorder Completed NCT01398904
13 Internet Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) Completed NCT01850433 Not Applicable
14 D-Cycloserine Augmentation of Behavior Therapy for Individuals With Body Dysmorphic Disorder Completed NCT00842309 Early Phase 1 d-cycloserine;Placebo
15 Treatment Study Investigating New Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Treatment Manual for Body Dysmorphic Disorder Completed NCT00106223 Not Applicable
16 Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Body Dysmorphic Disorder Completed NCT01002326 Not Applicable
17 Internet Delivered CBT for Body Dysmorphic Disorder Completed NCT02010619 Not Applicable
18 An Open Label Trial of Memantine in the Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa and Body Dysmorphic Disorder Completed NCT01038128 Not Applicable Memantine
19 Prevention of Body Image Disorder by Nurse Intervention on the Patient and Family Prior to Breast and Colon Surgery Completed NCT03726801 Not Applicable
20 Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) Completed NCT00871143 Not Applicable
21 Escitalopram Neuroimaging Supplement Completed NCT01398865
22 Evaluation of Brain Opioid Receptor Activity in Anorexia Nervosa : a PET [11C]Diprenorphine Study Completed NCT02524301 Not Applicable Positron Emission Tomography using [11C]diprenorphine
23 Assessment of Body Image in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Completed NCT00832910
24 Effectiveness of Dance on Patients With Fibromyalgia Completed NCT00961805 Not Applicable
25 Impairment of Central Coherence in Restrictive Anorexia Nervosa (CoCA) Completed NCT02381639 Not Applicable
26 Cortical Excitability in Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders Completed NCT00029068
27 Contribution of a Virtual Reality Program in the Treatment of Dysmorphophobia for Adolescent Female With Anorexia Nervosa Recruiting NCT03426930 Not Applicable
28 Body Image Disorder in Anorexia Nervosa and Virtual Reality Recruiting NCT03118921 Not Applicable
29 Brain Correlates of Self-Focused Processing Recruiting NCT02808702 Not Applicable
30 White Light Scanning to Aid Body Contouring: A Pilot Project Recruiting NCT01093950
31 The Pride Body Project Recruiting NCT03451513 Not Applicable
32 Feasibility Pilot Study of Internet-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Body Dysmorphic Disorder With Global Recruitment Active, not recruiting NCT03517384 Not Applicable
33 Smartphone-Administered App Treatment for Adults With Body Dysmorphic Disorder Active, not recruiting NCT03221738 Not Applicable
34 Outcomes of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Interventions Provided by Unlicensed Professionals Active, not recruiting NCT01075672 Not Applicable
35 A Virtual Reality Study of Cognitive Biases in Body Dysmorphic Disorder Not yet recruiting NCT03773549
36 Waitlist-Control Trial of Smartphone CBT for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) Not yet recruiting NCT03673046 Not Applicable
37 Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Rhinoplasty Outcomes Not yet recruiting NCT03727815 Not Applicable
38 Benefits of a Psychoeducation Program for Those Awaiting Treatment for OCD and OCD Spectrum Disorders Withdrawn NCT01953042 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Genetic Tests for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Anatomical Context for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Body Dysmorphic Disorder:

41
Brain, Eye, Skin, Testes, Bone, Heart, Neutrophil

Publications for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Articles related to Body Dysmorphic Disorder:

(show top 50) (show all 627)
# Title Authors Year
1
Shame and Defectiveness Beliefs in Treatment Seeking Patients With Body Dysmorphic Disorder. ( 29557815 )
2018
2
Escalation from normal appearance related intrusive cognitions to clinical preoccupations in Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A cross-sectional study. ( 29704773 )
2018
3
New perspectives in the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. ( 29636904 )
2018
4
A systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitive processing deficits associated with body dysmorphic disorder. ( 29935380 )
2018
5
Patients Screening Positive for Body Dysmorphic Disorder Show No Significant Health-Related Quality of Life Gain after Functional Septorhinoplasty at a Tertiary Referral Center. ( 29702720 )
2018
6
Body dysmorphic disorder: a guide to identification and management for the orthodontic team. ( 29952250 )
2018
7
The classification of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms in male and female adolescents. ( 28858657 )
2018
8
Non-weight-related body image concerns and Body Dysmorphic Disorder prevalence in patients with Anorexia Nervosa. ( 29886274 )
2018
9
Pharmacological Treatment Of Body Dysmorphic Disorder. ( 29701157 )
2018
10
Body dysmorphic disorder in the cosmetic practice. ( 29667794 )
2018
11
Cosmetic Surgery and Body Dysmorphic Disorder - An Update. ( 29872676 )
2018
12
Aberrant Dynamic Connectivity for Fear Processing in Anorexia Nervosa and Body Dysmorphic Disorder. ( 29997532 )
2018
13
Influencing Factors of Social Anxiety Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a Nonclinical Brazilian Population. ( 30388392 )
2018
14
An experimental test of the role of appearance-related safety behaviors in body dysmorphic disorder, social anxiety, and body dissatisfaction. ( 30307259 )
2018
15
Set shifting and visuospatial organization deficits in body dysmorphic disorder. ( 29202381 )
2018
16
Body dysmorphic disorder in pediatric dermatology. ( 29984846 )
2018
17
Effects of induced appearance-related interpretation bias: A test of the cognitive-behavioral model of body dysmorphic disorder. ( 30118967 )
2018
18
An initial investigation of the unique relationship between disgust propensity and body dysmorphic disorder. ( 30153602 )
2018
19
Prevalence of bullying in a pediatric sample of body dysmorphic disorder. ( 30193152 )
2018
20
Conscious Perception of Facial Asymmetry in a Unilateral Cleft Lip Model: Body Dysmorphic Disorder Is an Exclusion Criterion. ( 30223679 )
2018
21
The relationship between body dysmorphic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: A systematic review of direct comparative studies. ( 30238784 )
2018
22
Body dysmorphic disorder: A diagnostic challenge in adolescence. ( 30263210 )
2018
23
Plastic surgery in gynaecology: Factors affecting women's decision to undergo labiaplasty. Mind the risk of body dysmorphic disorder: A review. ( 30351259 )
2018
24
A psychiatric condition ...: Body dysmorphic disorder: a guide to identification and management for the orthodontic team. ( 30412528 )
2018
25
Application of a transdiagnostic treatment for emotional disorders to body dysmorphic disorder: A randomized controlled trial. ( 30445389 )
2018
26
Skin, Body Dysmorphic Disorder, and Other Syndromes. ( 30482571 )
2018
27
Validation of Spanish Language Evaluation Instruments for Body Dysmorphic Disorder and the Dysmorphic Concern Construct. ( 28713311 )
2017
28
The neurobiology of body dysmorphic disorder: A systematic review and theoretical model. ( 29017915 )
2017
29
Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and associated features in German adolescents: A self-report survey. ( 28482195 )
2017
30
Evaluation of the Body Parts That Preoccupy Adolescents With Body Dysmorphic Disorder. ( 29099545 )
2017
31
Neurocognitive Functioning in Young Adults with Subclinical Body Dysmorphic Disorder. ( 28367586 )
2017
32
Long-Term Outcomes of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder. ( 28577583 )
2017
33
Body dysmorphic disorder: A serious concern for our young generation. ( 28784390 )
2017
34
Insight in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) relative to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and psychotic disorders: Revisiting this issue in light of DSM-5. ( 28651226 )
2017
35
Face and Object Perception in Body Dysmorphic Disorder versus Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: The Mooney Faces Task. ( 28528596 )
2017
36
[Body dysmorphic disorder : Diagnostics and treatment in cosmetic dermatology]. ( 29075869 )
2017
37
How individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) process their own face: a quantitative and qualitative investigation based on an eye-tracking paradigm. ( 28322616 )
2017
38
Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Patients With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Reflection of Increased Local Processing and Self-Focus. ( 28366095 )
2017
39
Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Plastic Surgery and Dermatology Patients: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. ( 28411353 )
2017
40
Body dysmorphic disorder in female Swedish dermatology patients. ( 28960272 )
2017
41
A multi-method analysis of distress tolerance in body dysmorphic disorder. ( 28826046 )
2017
42
Patient-identified events implicated in the development of body dysmorphic disorder. ( 28285175 )
2017
43
Visual selective attention in body dysmorphic disorder, bulimia nervosa and healthy controls. ( 27998509 )
2017
44
'Not just right' experiences and incompleteness in body dysmorphic disorder. ( 27918970 )
2017
45
Selfie use: The implications for psychopathology expression of body dysmorphic disorder. ( 29456333 )
2017
46
A Review of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Aesthetic Surgery Patients and the Legal Implications. ( 28204935 )
2017
47
Recent advances in understanding and managing body dysmorphic disorder. ( 28729345 )
2017
48
Body dysmorphic disorder: history and curiosities. ( 28220373 )
2017
49
An Aberrant Presentation of Delusional Body Dysmorphic Disorder - Importance of Early Psychiatry Liaison. ( 28479822 )
2017
50
Body dysmorphic disorder and its associated psychological and psychopathological features in an Italian community sample. ( 29069974 )
2017

Variations for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Copy number variations for Body Dysmorphic Disorder from CNVD:

7
# CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 63474 12 119100000 132349534 Deletion FBXW8 dysmorphic
2 63477 12 119100000 132349534 Deletion FZD10 dysmorphic
3 63480 12 119100000 132349534 Deletion NCOR2 dysmorphic
4 63483 12 119100000 132349534 Deletion P2RX2 dysmorphic
5 63486 12 119100000 132349534 Deletion RAN dysmorphic
6 63489 12 119100000 132349534 Deletion STX2 dysmorphic
7 63492 12 119100000 132349534 Deletion TBX3 dysmorphic
8 63495 12 119100000 132349534 Deletion TESC dysmorphic
9 63498 12 119100000 132349534 Deletion ULK1 dysmorphic

Expression for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

Pathways for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Pathways related to Body Dysmorphic Disorder according to KEGG:

37
# Name Kegg Source Accession
1 Serotonergic synapse hsa04726

Pathways related to Body Dysmorphic Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
12.31 GALE GPC1 GPC3 GPC6
2
Show member pathways
12.24 GPC1 GPC3 GPC6
3
Show member pathways
12.12 GPC1 GPC3 GPC6
4
Show member pathways
12.04 GPC1 GPC3 GPC6
5
Show member pathways
11.93 GPC1 GPC3 GPC6
6
Show member pathways
11.83 GPC1 GPC3 GPC6
7
Show member pathways
11.51 GPC1 GPC3 GPC6
8
Show member pathways
11.3 GPC1 GPC3 GPC6
9
Show member pathways
10.9 GPC1 GPC3 GPC6

GO Terms for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Cellular components related to Body Dysmorphic Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 collagen-containing extracellular matrix GO:0062023 9.54 GPC1 GPC3 GPC6
2 anchored component of membrane GO:0031225 9.43 GPC1 GPC3 GPC6
3 Golgi lumen GO:0005796 9.33 GPC1 GPC3 GPC6
4 intrinsic component of plasma membrane GO:0031226 9.32 GPC1 GPC3
5 lysosomal lumen GO:0043202 9.13 GPC1 GPC3 GPC6
6 anchored component of plasma membrane GO:0046658 8.8 GPC1 GPC3 GPC6

Biological processes related to Body Dysmorphic Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 retinoid metabolic process GO:0001523 9.43 GPC1 GPC3 GPC6
2 regulation of signal transduction GO:0009966 9.33 GPC1 GPC3 GPC6
3 glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic process GO:0006024 9.13 GPC1 GPC3 GPC6
4 glycosaminoglycan catabolic process GO:0006027 8.8 GPC1 GPC3 GPC6

Sources for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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