Breast Cancer (BC)

Categories: Cancer diseases, Genetic diseases, Immune diseases, Rare diseases, Reproductive diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Breast Cancer

MalaCards integrated aliases for Breast Cancer:

Name: Breast Cancer 57 12 73 43 72 36 13 54 42 3 15 62
Breast Carcinoma 12 43 72 29 54 6 15 17 70
Breast Cancer, Familial 57 73 20 43 70
Malignant Neoplasm of Breast 12 43 70 32
Male Breast Cancer 12 20 42 15
Breast Cancer, Susceptibility to 57 29 6
Breast Cancer, Early-Onset 57 29 6
Malignant Tumor of Breast 43 29 6
Hereditary Breast Cancer 20 58 6
Carcinoma of Male Breast 29 6 70
Breast Cancer, Lobular 57 29 6
Breast Cancer, Protection Against 57 6
Malignant Neoplasm of Male Breast 12 70
Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma 54 70
Breast Cancer, Invasive Ductal 57 6
Hereditary Breast Carcinoma 20 58
Familial Breast Carcinoma 20 58
Familial Cancer of Breast 29 6
Breast Lobular Carcinoma 12 15
Breast Cancer, Somatic 57 6
Familial Breast Cancer 20 58
Male Breast Carcinoma 20 17
Breast Cancer, Male 57 20
Mammary Carcinoma 12 72
Mammary Cancer 12 43
Mammary Tumor 12 54
Breast Tumor 12 6
Breast Cancer, Early-Onset, Susceptibility to 57
Breast Cancer, Male, Susceptibility to 57
Primary Malignant Neoplasm of Breast 70
Invasive Breast Ductal Carcinoma 17
Susceptibility to Breast Cancer 17
Malignant Tumor of the Breast 12
Breast Cancer Susceptibility 57
Breast Cancer, Familial Male 29
Breast Cancer Familial Male 72
Cancer, Breast, Familial 39
Lobular Breast Carcinoma 17
Animal Mammary Neoplasms 70
Neoplasm of Male Breast 12
Heritable Breast Cancer 20
Cancer, Breast, Lobular 39
Breast Cancer Familial 72
Breast Neoplasms, Male 44
Primary Breast Cancer 12
Genetic Breast Cancer 20
Breast Male Carcinoma 54
Breast Cancer in Men 20
Carcinoma of Breast 12
Mammary Carcinomas 15
Mammary Neoplasms 70
Mammary Neoplasm 12
Cancer of Breast 43
Breast Neoplasms 44
Breast Neoplasm 17
Mammary Tumors 15
Cancer, Breast 39
Bc 72



57 (Updated 20-May-2021)
somatic mutation
autosomal dominant

genetic heterogeneity


Orphanet: 58  
Rare gynaecological and obstetric diseases

External Ids:

OMIM® 57 114480
KEGG 36 H00031
NCIt 50 C4872 C9335
UMLS via Orphanet 71 C0346153
Orphanet 58 ORPHA227535
SNOMED-CT via HPO 68 124975008 254838004 263681008
UMLS 70 C0006142 C0024667 C0238033 more

Summaries for Breast Cancer

MedlinePlus Genetics : 43 Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in the breast become abnormal and multiply uncontrollably to form a tumor. Although breast cancer is much more common in women, this form of cancer can also develop in men. In both women and men, the most common form of breast cancer begins in cells lining the milk ducts (ductal cancer). In women, cancer can also develop in the glands that produce milk (lobular cancer). Most men have little or no lobular tissue, so lobular cancer in men is very rare. In its early stages, breast cancer usually does not cause pain and may exhibit no noticeable symptoms. As the cancer progresses, signs and symptoms can include a lump or thickening in or near the breast; a change in the size or shape of the breast; nipple discharge, tenderness, or retraction (turning inward); and skin irritation, dimpling, redness, or scaliness. However, these changes can occur as part of many different conditions. Having one or more of these symptoms does not mean that a person definitely has breast cancer.In some cases, cancerous cells can invade surrounding breast tissue. In these cases, the condition is known as invasive breast cancer. Sometimes, tumors spread to other parts of the body. If breast cancer spreads, cancerous cells most often appear in the bones, liver, lungs, or brain. Tumors that begin at one site and then spread to other areas of the body are called metastatic cancers.A small percentage of all breast cancers cluster in families. These cancers are described as hereditary and are associated with inherited gene mutations. Hereditary breast cancers tend to develop earlier in life than noninherited (sporadic) cases, and new (primary) tumors are more likely to develop in both breasts.

MalaCards based summary : Breast Cancer, also known as breast carcinoma, is related to ovarian cancer and bilateral breast cancer, and has symptoms including pain, lameness, animal and pelvic pain. An important gene associated with Breast Cancer is BRCA2 (BRCA2 DNA Repair Associated), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Breast cancer and MicroRNAs in cancer. The drugs Povidone-iodine and Morphine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include breast, lymph node and bone, and related phenotypes are breast carcinoma and Decreased viability

Disease Ontology : 12 A thoracic cancer that originates in the mammary gland.

GARD : 20 Familial breast cancer is a cluster of breast cancer within a family. Most cases of breast cancer occur sporadically in people with little to no family history of the condition. Approximately 5-10% of breast cancer is considered "hereditary" and is thought to be caused by an inherited predisposition to breast cancer that is passed down through a family in an autosomal dominant manner. In some of these families, the underlying genetic cause is not known; however, many of these cases are caused by changes ( mutations ) in the BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, TP53, CDH1, or STK11 genes (which are each associated with a unique hereditary cancer syndrome ). Additional genes, such as CHEK2, BRIP1, RAD51, and ATM, are associated with breast and/or gynecologic cancers in some cases. About 15-20% of women diagnosed with breast cancer have a significant family history of breast cancer (two or more first-degree or second-degree relatives with breast cancer) but have no identifiable mutation in a gene known to cause a hereditary predisposition to breast cancer. These clusters of breast cancer are likely due to a combination of gene(s) and other shared factors such as environment and lifestyle. High-risk cancer screening and other preventative measures such as chemoprevention and/or prophylactic surgeries are typically recommended in women who have an increased risk for breast cancer based on their personal and/or family histories.

OMIM® : 57 Breast cancer (referring to mammary carcinoma, not mammary sarcoma) is histopathologically and almost certainly etiologically and genetically heterogeneous. Important genetic factors have been indicated by familial occurrence and bilateral involvement. (114480) (Updated 20-May-2021)

MedlinePlus : 42 Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that you cannot change include Age - the risk rises as you get older Genes - two genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, greatly increase the risk. Women who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. Personal factors - beginning periods before age 12 or going through menopause after age 55 Other risks include obesity, using hormone replacement therapy (also called menopausal hormone therapy), taking birth control pills, drinking alcohol, not having children or having your first child after age 35, and having dense breasts. Symptoms of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in size or shape of the breast, and discharge from a nipple. Breast self-exams and mammography can help find breast cancer early, when it is most treatable. One possible treatment is surgery. It could be a lumpectomy or a mastectomy. Other treatments include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses drugs or other substances that attack cancer cells with less harm to normal cells. Men can have breast cancer, too, but it is rare. NIH: National Cancer Institute

CDC : 3 Breast cancer is a disease in which cells in the breast grow out of control. There are different kinds of breast cancer. The kind of breast cancer depends on which cells in the breast turn into cancer. Breast cancer can begin in different parts of the breast. A breast is made up of three main parts: lobules, ducts, and connective tissue. The lobules are the glands that produce milk. The ducts are tubes that carry milk to the nipple. The connective tissue (which consists of fibrous and fatty tissue) surrounds and holds everything together. Most breast cancers begin in the ducts or lobules. Breast cancer can spread outside the breast through blood vessels and lymph vessels. When breast cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it is said to have metastasized.

KEGG : 36 Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gland. The molecular subtypes of breast cancer, which are based on the presence or absence of hormone receptors (estrogen and progesterone subtypes) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), include: hormone receptor positive and HER2 negative (luminal A subtype), hormone receptor positive and HER2 positive (luminal B subtype), hormone receptor negative and HER2 positive (HER2 positive), and hormone receptor negative and HER2 negative (basal-like or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs)). Hormone receptor positive breast cancers are largely driven by the estrogen/ER pathway. In HER2 positive breast tumours, HER2 activates the PI3K/AKT and the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathways, and stimulate cell growth, survival and differentiation. In patients suffering from TNBC, the deregulation of various signalling pathways (Notch and Wnt/beta-catenin), EGFR protein have been confirmed. In the case of breast cancer only 8% of all cancers are hereditary, a phenomenon linked to genetic changes in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Somatic mutations in only three genes (TP53, PIK3CA and GATA3) occurred at >10% incidence across all breast cancers.

Novus Biologicals : 55 Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that originates from breast tissue cells. Although most breast cancers initiate in the cells that line the breast ducts, some begin in the breast lobules and other tissues. As with all cancers, there is a genetic and environmental component of developing breast cancer. Women with defects in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have up to an 80% chance of getting breast cancer. Research has also found that defects in the ErbB-2 gene lead to increased levels of the protein cyclin D1. Cyclin D1 then activates CDK4, which causes proliferation of cellular division. Blocking CDK4 activity may lead to effective breast cancer treatments.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 72 Breast cancer: A common malignancy originating from breast epithelial tissue. Breast neoplasms can be distinguished by their histologic pattern. Invasive ductal carcinoma is by far the most common type. Breast cancer is etiologically and genetically heterogeneous. Important genetic factors have been indicated by familial occurrence and bilateral involvement. Mutations at more than one locus can be involved in different families or even in the same case.

PubMed Health : 62 About breast cancer: Being diagnosed with breast cancer often comes as a shock at first, and makes people feel very frightened and anxious. Having cancer can really turn your life upside down for a while. It helps to know that if you get breast cancer for the first time and it hasn’t spread far, there’s a good chance that treatment can lead to full recovery. There are also many support services that help people in everyday life, to return to work and cope emotionally with breast cancer.

Wikipedia : 73 Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue. Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in... more...

Related Diseases for Breast Cancer

Diseases in the Breast Cancer family:

Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma Sporadic Breast Cancer
Breast Carcinoma in Situ

Diseases related to Breast Cancer via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 2317)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 ovarian cancer 35.3 TP53 RAD54L RAD51 PIK3CA PALB2 NBN
2 bilateral breast cancer 34.9 TP53 RAD51 PIK3CA PALB2 ESR1 CHEK2
3 sporadic breast cancer 34.8 XRCC3 TP53 RAD51 PALB2 NBN ESR1
4 li-fraumeni syndrome 34.6 TP53 RAD51 PALB2 KRAS ESR1 CHEK2
5 gastric cancer, hereditary diffuse 34.6 TP53 PALB2 KRAS CHEK2 CDH1 BRCA2
6 hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome 34.5 TP53 RAD51 PALB2 NBN KRAS CHEK2
7 female breast cancer 34.2 TP53 PALB2 ESR1 BRCA2 BRCA1 ATM
8 lung cancer 34.2 XRCC3 TP53 SLC22A18 RAD51 PIK3CA NBN
9 estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer 34.2 TP53 PIK3CA ESR1 BRCA1 AKT1
10 in situ carcinoma 34.1 TP53 PIK3CA ESR1 CDH1 BRCA2 BRCA1
11 colorectal cancer 34.0 XRCC3 TP53 RAD51 PIK3CA PALB2 KRAS
12 ductal carcinoma in situ 34.0 TP53 PIK3CA ESR1 CDH1 BRCA2 BRCA1
13 breast-ovarian cancer, familial 1 33.9 PALB2 NBN BRCA2 BRCA1
14 breast adenocarcinoma 33.8 TP53 SLC22A18 RB1CC1 PIK3CA KRAS ESR1
15 endometrial cancer 33.8 TP53 RAD51 PIK3CA KRAS ESR1 CDH1
16 prostate cancer 33.8 TP53 RAD51 PIK3CA NBN KRAS ESR1
17 leukemia, acute myeloid 33.8 TP53 RAD51 PIK3CA KRAS ESR1 CHEK2
18 skin carcinoma 33.7 XRCC3 TP53 PIK3CA KRAS ESR1 CHEK2
19 adenocarcinoma 33.7 TP53 PIK3CA KRAS CDH1 BRCA2 BRCA1
20 fanconi anemia, complementation group a 33.7 XRCC3 TP53 RAD51 PALB2 NBN CHEK2
21 lynch syndrome 33.6 XRCC3 TP53 PIK3CA PALB2 NBN KRAS
22 premature menopause 33.4 TP53 RAD54L NBN ESR1 CHEK2 BRCA2
23 breast ductal carcinoma 33.4 TP53 RAD54L ESR1 CDH1 BRCA2 BRCA1
24 gastric cancer 33.3 TP53 PIK3CA KRAS ESR1 CHEK2 CDH1
25 breast disease 33.3 TP53 ESR1 BRCA2 BRCA1
26 pancreatic cancer 33.3 TP53 RAD51 PIK3CA PALB2 KRAS CDH1
27 cowden syndrome 33.3 TP53 PIK3CA PALB2 CHEK2 BRIP1 BRCA2
28 breast-ovarian cancer, familial 2 33.2 BRCA2 BRCA1
29 melanoma 33.2 XRCC3 TP53 PIK3CA KRAS CDH1 CASP8
30 ataxia-telangiectasia 33.2 TP53 NBN CHEK2 BRCA2 BRCA1 ATM
31 rhabdomyosarcoma 33.1 TP53 SLC22A18 PIK3CA KRAS ESR1 CHEK2
32 esophageal cancer 33.1 TP53 PIK3CA KRAS CHEK2 CDH1 CASP8
33 lobular neoplasia 33.0 TP53 ESR1 CDH1 BRCA2 BRCA1
34 bladder cancer 33.0 XRCC3 TP53 PIK3CA KRAS CDH1 CASP8
35 myeloma, multiple 33.0 TP53 PIK3CA KRAS CASP8 BARD1 ATM
36 hypertrophy of breast 32.9 TP53 PIK3CA ESR1 BRCA2 BRCA1
37 xeroderma pigmentosum, variant type 32.9 XRCC3 TP53 RAD54L RAD51 NBN CHEK2
38 myelodysplastic syndrome 32.9 TP53 RAD51 KRAS CHEK2 CASP8 ATM
39 medulloblastoma 32.8 TP53 RAD51 PIK3CA PALB2 NBN CDH1
40 comedo carcinoma 32.8 TP53 ESR1
41 wilms tumor 1 32.8 TP53 SLC22A18 KRAS ESR1 CHEK2 CDH1
42 lung cancer susceptibility 3 32.7 TP53 PIK3CA KRAS CDH1 CASP8 AKT1
43 breast carcinoma in situ 32.7 TP53 PIK3CA ESR1 CDH1 BRCA2 BRCA1
44 telangiectasis 32.7 NBN CHEK2 ATM
45 breast fibroadenoma 32.7 TP53 ESR1 BRCA1
46 neuroblastoma 32.7 TP53 PIK3CA ESR1 CASP8 BRCA1 BARD1
47 familial ovarian cancer 32.7 TP53 PALB2 ESR1 CHEK2 CASP8 BRIP1
48 sarcoma 32.7 TP53 PIK3CA KRAS CHEK2 CASP8 AKT1
49 brain cancer 32.7 TP53 RAD51 PIK3CA CASP8 BRCA2 ATM
50 adenoid cystic carcinoma 32.7 TP53 PIK3CA KRAS CHEK2 CDH1 BRCA1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Breast Cancer:

Diseases related to Breast Cancer

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Breast Cancer

Human phenotypes related to Breast Cancer:

# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 breast carcinoma 31 HP:0003002

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 20-May-2021)
breast carcinoma

Clinical features from OMIM®:

114480 (Updated 20-May-2021)

UMLS symptoms related to Breast Cancer:

pain; lameness, animal; pelvic pain

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Breast Cancer according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26 (show all 27)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability GR00055-A-1 10.92 KRAS PIK3CA
2 Decreased viability GR00055-A-2 10.92 KRAS PIK3CA
3 Decreased viability GR00055-A-3 10.92 KRAS
4 Decreased viability GR00106-A-0 10.92 KRAS
5 Decreased viability GR00221-A-1 10.92 AKT1 CDH1 ESR1 KRAS PIK3CA
6 Decreased viability GR00221-A-2 10.92 AKT1 ESR1 KRAS PIK3CA CHEK2 BRCA1
7 Decreased viability GR00221-A-3 10.92 AKT1 ATM CHEK2 BRCA1
8 Decreased viability GR00221-A-4 10.92 AKT1 ESR1 PIK3CA ATM CHEK2
9 Decreased viability GR00249-S 10.92 AKT1
10 Decreased viability GR00301-A 10.92 CDH1 KRAS BRCA1
11 Decreased viability GR00342-S-2 10.92 CHEK2
12 Decreased viability GR00381-A-1 10.92 KRAS
13 Decreased viability GR00386-A-1 10.92 ESR1
14 Decreased viability GR00402-S-2 10.92 CDH1 ESR1 PIK3CA
15 Decreased homologous recombination repair frequency GR00151-A-1 10.37 BARD1 BRCA1 RAD51
16 Decreased homologous recombination repair frequency GR00151-A-2 10.37 BRCA1 RAD51
17 Decreased homologous recombination repair frequency GR00236-A-1 10.37 BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 PALB2 RAD51
18 Decreased homologous recombination repair frequency GR00236-A-2 10.37 BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 PALB2 RAD51
19 Decreased homologous recombination repair frequency GR00236-A-3 10.37 BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 PALB2 RAD51
20 Increased viability with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) GR00250-A-1 10.3 ATM BARD1 CASP8 CHEK2 TP53
21 Increased viability with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) GR00250-A-2 10.3 AKT1 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRIP1 CASP8
22 Increased viability with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) GR00250-A-3 10.3 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1 CASP8
23 Synthetic lethal with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) GR00250-A-1 10.03 BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 NBN PALB2 RAD54L
24 Synthetic lethal with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) GR00250-A-2 10.03 ATM BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1 PALB2 RAD54L
25 Synthetic lethal with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) GR00250-A-3 10.03 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 CASP8 CHEK2
26 Decreased viability with cisplatin GR00101-A-4 9.65 BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1 RAD51
27 Synthetic lethal with cisplatin GR00101-A-1 9.43 BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1 RAD51 XRCC3

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Breast Cancer:

46 (show all 17)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular MP:0005384 10.5 AKT1 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1
2 embryo MP:0005380 10.41 AKT1 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 CASP8
3 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.38 AKT1 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1
4 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.37 AKT1 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1
5 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.36 AKT1 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 CASP8
6 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.35 AKT1 ATM BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1 ESR1
7 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.34 AKT1 ATM BRCA1 CASP8 CDH1 CHEK2
8 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.32 AKT1 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 CASP8
9 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.31 AKT1 ATM BRCA1 BRCA2 CASP8 CHEK2
10 immune system MP:0005387 10.3 AKT1 ATM BRCA1 BRCA2 CASP8 CDH1
11 integument MP:0010771 10.25 AKT1 ATM BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1 CASP8
12 neoplasm MP:0002006 10.13 AKT1 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1
13 nervous system MP:0003631 10.03 AKT1 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1
14 limbs/digits/tail MP:0005371 9.95 BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1 ESR1 KRAS PALB2
15 muscle MP:0005369 9.92 AKT1 BRCA1 CASP8 ESR1 KRAS PIK3CA
16 normal MP:0002873 9.61 AKT1 BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 CDH1 ESR1
17 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.44 AKT1 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Breast Cancer

PubMed Health treatment related to Breast Cancer: 62

The treatment options always depend on the type and size of the tumor , where it has spread to (if it has spread), the patient’s general health, as well as their personal preferences. Breast cancer can be treated with surgery , radiation and medication. Different treatment approaches are often combined. The standard treatment is to try to surgically remove as much of the tumor as possible. Neighboring lymph nodes are sometimes also removed. If the tumor is small, women are often faced with a decision: Should they keep the breast or have it completely removed? Nowadays many women can have surgery that allows them to keep the breast (breast-conserving surgery). But sometimes the entire breast needs to be removed (mastectomy ) to make sure that all of the tumor tissue has gone. Chemotherapy (treatment with medication) is sometimes used to shrink larger tumors before surgery and make it easier to operate on them. This kind of treatment is called “neoadjuvant chemotherapy.” Chemotherapy is sometimes used after surgery too. Women who have a hormone -sensitive tumor may have anti-hormonal therapy . This aims to slow down tumor growth. After breast -conserving surgery the surrounding tissue is exposed to radiation, if possible, so that any remaining tumor cells can be destroyed. This is sometimes necessary after a mastectomy as well. Radiotherapy is also commonly used if the tumor cannot be surgically removed. The different types of treatment can be very difficult to go through and sometimes have very severe side effects or cause other medical problems. The side effects vary depending on the kind of treatment, but they are often easy to treat. The treatment of side effects is part of what is known as supportive care. Before deciding on whether to have a particular treatment , there is usually enough time to get information from your doctor about the possible benefits and the expected side effects, and to talk with your family or other people who are close to you. You have the right to seek a second opinion from another doctor or to decide not to have a treatment.

Drugs for Breast Cancer (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 1018)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Povidone-iodine Approved Phase 4 25655-41-8
Morphine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 57-27-2 5288826
Povidone Approved Phase 4 9003-39-8 131751496
Aprepitant Approved, Investigational Phase 4 170729-80-3 151165 6918365
Fosaprepitant Approved Phase 4 172673-20-0 219090
Risedronate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 105462-24-6 5245
Nitrous oxide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 10024-97-2 948
Ketamine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 6740-88-1 3821
Ampicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 69-53-4 6249
Sulbactam Approved Phase 4 68373-14-8
Sultamicillin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 76497-13-7
Metoclopramide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 364-62-5 4168
Triclosan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 3380-34-5 5564
Haloperidol Approved Phase 4 52-86-8 3559
Tropisetron Approved, Investigational Phase 4 105826-92-4, 89565-68-4 5595
Droperidol Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 548-73-2 3168
Domperidone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 57808-66-9 3151
Ciprofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 85721-33-1 2764
Riluzole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1744-22-5 5070
Lactulose Approved Phase 4 4618-18-2 11333
Ondansetron Approved Phase 4 99614-02-5 4595
Zoledronic Acid Approved Phase 4 118072-93-8 68740
Indian frankincense Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4
Tranexamic Acid Approved Phase 4 1197-18-8 5526
Isoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 26675-46-7 3763
Pamidronate Approved Phase 4 40391-99-9 4674
Iodine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7553-56-2 807
Menotropins Approved Phase 4 9002-68-0, 61489-71-2 5360545
Palbociclib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 571190-30-2 11431660 5005498 5330286
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 437-38-7 3345
Sevoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 28523-86-6 5206
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 2078-54-8 4943
Ropivacaine Approved Phase 4 84057-95-4 71273 175805
Dimenhydrinate Approved Phase 4 523-87-5 441281
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
Esketamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 33643-46-8
Rocuronium Approved Phase 4 119302-91-9, 143558-00-3 441290
Oxycodone Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 76-42-6 5284603
Succinylcholine Approved Phase 4 306-40-1 5314
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 113775-47-6 68602 5311068
Levobupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 27262-47-1 92253
Glutamic acid Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 56-86-0 33032
Pyridoxine Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 65-23-6 1054
Riboflavin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-88-5 493570
Thiamine Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 70-16-6, 59-43-8 1130
Pirarubicin Investigational Phase 4 72496-41-4
Molgramostim Investigational Phase 4 99283-10-0
Phenothiazine Experimental, Vet_approved Phase 4 92-84-2
Alizapride Investigational Phase 4 59338-93-1 43008
Cadexomer iodine Experimental Phase 4 94820-09-4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 10000)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Use of Proton MR Spectroscopy and 18F-Fluorocholine PET for Breast Cancer Diagnosis, Prediction of Clinical Outcome and Monitoring of Treatment Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Unknown status NCT01956409 Phase 4 18F-FCH;Magnevist
2 Liposomal Doxorubicin-Investigational Chemotherapy-Tissue Doppler Imaging Evaluation (LITE) Randomized Pilot Study Unknown status NCT00531973 Phase 4 liposomal doxorubicin;epirubicin
3 The Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Chemotherapy-induced Neuropathy and Inflammation in Patients With Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT01049295 Phase 4
4 Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Pain Sensation, Seroma Formation and Quality od Life Following BCT With SLND in Breast Cancer Patients Operated With Classic Versus High-frequency Electrocoagulation. Unknown status NCT01216254 Phase 4
5 Hormone Therapy Initiation Immediately After Histological Diagnosis of Breast Cancer, Can it Make Any Difference? Unknown status NCT03111615 Phase 4 Aromatase Inhibitors
6 Selective Lymph Node Dissection Using Fluorescent Dye in Node-positive Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT02781259 Phase 4 Indocyanine green
7 Neoadjuvant Epirubicin-cyclophosphamide-S-1 (ECS) Versus Epirubicin-cyclophosphamide-5-FU (ECF) in Local Advanced Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT01849380 Phase 4 S-1;5-FU
8 Comparison Between Intradermal Injection and Subcutaneous Injection With Methylene Blue for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Breast Cancer Patients Unknown status NCT02982148 Phase 4
9 The Efficacy and Safety of PEG-rhG-CSF in Neutropenia After Chemotherapy Unknown status NCT02905916 Phase 4 PEG-rhG-CSF
10 Sienna+® Injection Time Study: A Prospective Multicentre, Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Performance of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide vs. Standard Technique as Tracer in Sentinel Node Biopsy Unknown status NCT02612870 Phase 4
11 The Use of Botulinum Toxin-A in Two-stage Tissue Expander/Implant Breast Reconstruction: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT01427400 Phase 4 Botulinum Toxin-A;Saline
12 Does a Single Steroid Injection Reduce the Formation of Postmastectomy Seroma Unknown status NCT00307606 Phase 4 Solu-medrol 125 mg
13 MR Mammography: Randomized Controlled Trial to Study Efficiency of MR Mammography in Reducing the Number of Invasive Interventions in Nonpalpable Suspicious Breast Lesions. The MONET - Study Unknown status NCT00302120 Phase 4
14 Effects of Cimicifuga Racemosa L. Nutt Sexuality of Women With Breast Cancer Using Tamoxifen or Aromatase Inhibitor Unknown status NCT02467686 Phase 4 Cimicifuga racemosa;tamoxifen;exemestane
15 Accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Predicting Aggressiveness of Early Breast Cancer According to Molecular Subtypes Identified by ER PR and HER-2 Status Unknown status NCT01597999 Phase 4
16 Use of Integrated PET/MR to Evaluate Clinical Staging and Monitor Treatment Response of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02766530 Phase 4
17 Nanoparticle Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel Followed by Dose-Intensive Epirubicin in Combination With Cyclophosphamide as Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT03799679 Phase 4 Chemotherapeutic Agent
18 A Phase IV, Multi-center, Open Label, Single Arm Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Relationship of Bone Remodeling Markers for Skeletal Complications in Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients Unknown status NCT00912938 Phase 4 zoledronic acid
19 A Clinical Trial of Paclitaxel Loaded Polymeric Micelle (Genexol-PM®) in Patients With Taxane-Pretreated Recurrent Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT00912639 Phase 4 Paclitaxel loaded Polymeric micelle
20 Clinical Trial of Nanoparticle Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel Combined With Carboplatin as Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Luminal B/HER-2 Negative Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT03799692 Phase 4 Chemotherapy
21 Effect of Perioperative Low Dose Ketamine on Postoperative Recovery in Patients Undergoing Breast Cancer Surgery Unknown status NCT03676114 Phase 4 ketamine;Normal saline
22 A Randomized, Parallel, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Pilot Clinical Study on the Effects of Yunzhi as Dietary Supplement in 60 Adult Patients Undergoing Adjuvant/Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer. Unknown status NCT00647075 Phase 4
23 Prospective Multicenter Study of the Role of Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) in Pre-Surgical Planning for Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT00484614 Phase 4
24 A Randomized, Blinded, Single Center Study to Assess the Incidence of Surgical Site Infections in Breast Cancer Surgery After Preoperative Skin Preparation With Chlorhexidine 2% in Alcohol 70% (CHLORAPREP ®) Versus 10% Povidone-iodine Unknown status NCT02479347 Phase 4 Chlorhexidine;Povidone-Iodine
25 Evaluate Efficacy and Safety of Extended Adjuvant Treatment With Letrozole in Postmenopausal Women With Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer Who Have Completed 5 Years of Toremifene Unknown status NCT01072318 Phase 4 Letrozole
26 Breast Cancer Screening With MRI in Women Aged 50-75 Years With Extremely Dense Breast Tissue: the DENSE Trial Unknown status NCT01315015 Phase 4
27 A Randomized Prospective Clinical Trial of Paclitaxel in Combination With Carboplatin Versus Paclitaxel Plus Epirubicin as First-Line Treatment in Metastatic Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT02207361 Phase 4 Paclitaxel, Carboplatin;Paclitaxel, Epirubicin
28 Evaluation of Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy for Operable ER-beta Positive, ER-alpha/PR Negative, Her-2 Negative Breast Cancer Patients Unknown status NCT02089854 Phase 4 Toremifene; Anastrozole
29 Weekly and Every 3 Week Administration of Paclitaxel Liposome Injection in Metastatic Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT02142790 Phase 4 paclitaxel liposome injection
30 G-CSF (Filgrastim) or Pegfilgrastim Secondary Prophylaxis In The Adjuvant Chemotherapy Of Early Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT00030758 Phase 4
31 The Efficacy and Safety of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Liposome Injection Plus Cyclophosphamide Compared to Pirarubicin Plus Cyclophosphamide as Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer :a Randomised Multicentre, Open-label Trial Unknown status NCT02903524 Phase 4 Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Liposome injection and cyclophosphamide;pirarubicin and cyclophosphamide
32 Pilot for a Randomised Comparison of Anastrozole Commenced Before and Continued During Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer Versus Anastrozole and Subsequent Ant-Oestrogen Therapy Delayed Until After Radiotherapy Unknown status NCT00126360 Phase 4 Timing of Anastrozole in respect to radiotherapy
33 Open Labeled, Propective, Multicentric Phase IV Study to Examine the Influence of Pharmacogenetic Markers on the Efficacy and Side Effects in Postmenopausal, Steroid Hormone Positive Breast Cancer Patients, Who Are Treated With Letrozol. Unknown status NCT01908556 Phase 4 Letrozole
34 A Randomized Controlled Double-blinded Study Comparing the Intraoperative Injection of Lymphatic Mapping Agents Tc 99m Tilmanocept to Tc 99m Filtered Sulfur Colloid in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Breast Conservation and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Unknown status NCT03199560 Phase 4 Tc 99m tilmanocept;Tc 99m filtered sulfur colloid
35 National Screening i Danmark Med MR-scanning af Brystet Kontra Klinisk Mammografi Hos Kvinder Der er bærere af Risikogivende BRCA1 Eller BRCA2 Mutationer Unknown status NCT00413491 Phase 4
36 A Single Arm, Multi-center Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Docetaxel Combined With Carboplatin Plus Anlotinib as First Line Treatment in Non-squamous Non-small-cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Unknown status NCT03799601 Phase 4 Anlotinib;Docetaxel;Carboplatin
37 Optimal Timing and Duration of Daily G-CSF With Adjuvant TAC Chemotherapy in Node-positive Breast Cancer;Multicenter, Randomized, Open Label, Clinically IV Phase Unknown status NCT01571518 Phase 4 late leukostim;early leukostim
38 A Randomized, Phase IV Trial of Individualized Care Versus Standard Care, in the Prevention of Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Breast Cancer Patients. The EPIC Study Unknown status NCT01913990 Phase 4 Dexamethasone, Ondansetron, Aprepitant
39 Contrast The Role of Microfibrillar Collagen Hemostat Flour(Avitene) And OK-432 (Sapylin)in Reducing Seroma Formation After Axillary Lymphadenectomy for Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT02158299 Phase 4 Avitene;Sapylin
40 A Prospective Evaluation of Capecitabine and Metabolite Pharmacokinetics in Elderly Breast and Colorectal Cancer Patients and Their Association With Toxicity and Molecular Markers of Enzyme Activity and Aging Unknown status NCT03465202 Phase 4 Capecitabine
41 Integrative Diagnosis of 18F-FLT Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Evaluate the Suspicious Findings on Mammography and Breast Ultrasound: a Pilot Study Unknown status NCT01956890 Phase 4 PET
42 Efficacy of Transdermal Fentanyl Patches in Relief of Acute Postoperative Pain After Mastectomy Unknown status NCT03051503 Phase 4 The Transdermal Therapeutic System-Fentanyl (TTS-F)
44 A Prospective, Single-arm Multicenter Study to Evaluate Effect of Intravenous Zoledronic Acid on Bone Metabolism Given Over 4 Months in Patients With Prostate Cancer or Breast Cancer and Bone Metastasis Completed NCT00334139 Phase 4 Zoledronic Acid
45 The Effect of Bisphosphonate on Bone Mass and Bone Turnover in Elderly, Postmenopausal Women With Breast Cancer Following Initiation of Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy Completed NCT00485953 Phase 4 risedronate
46 Breast Cancer Adjuvant Hormonotherapy : Tamoxifen and the Anti-aromatases Pharmacokinetics, Correlation With the Pharmacogenetic Characteristics PHACS Protocol : Pharmacology of Adjuvant Hormonotherapy in Breast Cancer Completed NCT01127295 Phase 4 Tamoxifen, Letrozole, Anastrozole or Exemestane
47 A Prospective,Open-label Study of Anastrozole in Post-menopausal Women With Hormone Sensitive Advanced Breast Cancer Completed NCT00544986 Phase 4 Anastrozole
48 Low Level Laser Treatment and Breast Cancer Related Lymphedema Completed NCT00852930 Phase 4
49 Open-label, Single-arm, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Rheumatological Tolerability of Letrozole as an Adjuvant Breast Cancer Treatment in Postmenopausal Women Who Are Intolerant and Discontinue Anastrozole Due to Grade 2-3 Arthralgia-myalgia Completed NCT00688909 Phase 4 letrozole
50 An Open Label, randomIzed Controlled Prospective Multicenter Two Arm Phase IV Trial to Determine Patient Preference for Everolimus in Combination With Exemestane or Capecitabine in Combination With Bevacizumab for Advanced (Inoperable or Metastatic) HER2-negative Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer Completed NCT02248571 Phase 4 Bevacizumab;Capecitabine;Everolimus;Exemestane

Search NIH Clinical Center for Breast Cancer

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 70 / NDF-RT 51 :

ado-trastuzumab emtansine
doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome
Epirubicin Hydrochloride
Estradiol acetate
estradiol cypionate
estradiol valerate
Estrogens, Conjugated (USP)
Estrogens, Esterified (USP)
Ethinyl Estradiol
Goserelin Acetate
Idarubicin Hydrochloride
Irinotecan hydrochloride
Leuprolide Acetate
medroxyprogesterone acetate
Megestrol Acetate
Melphalan hydrochloride
Methotrexate Sodium
Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride
nandrolone decanoate
nandrolone phenpropionate
polyestradiol phosphate
Sodium estrone sulfate
synthetic conjugated estrogens, A
synthetic conjugated estrogens, B
Tamoxifen Citrate
testosterone cypionate
testosterone enanthate
Testosterone Propionate
testosterone undecanoate
Toremifene Citrate
Vinblastine Sulfate
Vinorelbine tartrate

Cochrane evidence based reviews: breast neoplasms

Genetic Tests for Breast Cancer

Genetic tests related to Breast Cancer:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Breast Cancer, Susceptibility to 29
2 Breast Cancer, Familial Male 29
3 Breast Cancer, Early-Onset 29
5 Carcinoma of Male Breast 29
6 Breast Carcinoma 29
7 Breast Cancer, Lobular 29
8 Malignant Tumor of Breast 29

Anatomical Context for Breast Cancer

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Breast Cancer:

Breast, Lymph Node, Bone, Brain, Prostate, Skin, Lung

Publications for Breast Cancer

Articles related to Breast Cancer:

(show top 50) (show all 66899)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Breast-cancer risk in families with mutations in PALB2. 6 61 57
25099575 2014
PALB2, which encodes a BRCA2-interacting protein, is a breast cancer susceptibility gene. 57 6 61
17200668 2007
Mutation screening of the BARD1 gene: evidence for involvement of the Cys557Ser allele in hereditary susceptibility to breast cancer. 57 6 54
15342711 2004
Breast-cancer risk in families with mutations in PALB2. 6 57
25337758 2014
ESR1 ligand-binding domain mutations in hormone-resistant breast cancer. 57 6
24185512 2013
Activating ESR1 mutations in hormone-resistant metastatic breast cancer. 57 6
24185510 2013
Prevalence of PALB2 mutations in Australasian multiple-case breast cancer families. 57 6
23448497 2013
Rare germline mutations in PALB2 and breast cancer risk: a population-based study. 57 6
22241545 2012
MicroRNA-221/222 negatively regulates estrogen receptor alpha and is associated with tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. 61 47 57
18790736 2008
MicroRNA-221/222 confers tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer by targeting p27Kip1. 47 61 57
18708351 2008
Identification of a novel truncating PALB2 mutation and analysis of its contribution to early-onset breast cancer in French-Canadian women. 57 6
18053174 2007
A protein-truncating mutation in CYP17A1 in three sisters with early-onset breast cancer. 6 57
16121340 2005
Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and AKT1 mutations occur early in breast carcinoma. 6 54 61
19418217 2010
Common variants in LSP1, 2q35 and 8q24 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. 61 57 54
19656774 2009
Endogenous human microRNAs that suppress breast cancer metastasis. 47 57
18185580 2008
Population-based estimates of breast cancer risks associated with ATM gene variants c.7271T>G and c.1066-6T>G (IVS10-6T>G) from the Breast Cancer Family Registry. 6 54 61
16958054 2006
PIK3CA mutations correlate with hormone receptors, node metastasis, and ERBB2, and are mutually exclusive with PTEN loss in human breast carcinoma. 61 6 54
15805248 2005
Association of a common variant of the CASP8 gene with reduced risk of breast cancer. 54 6 61
15601643 2004
CHEK2*1100delC and susceptibility to breast cancer: a collaborative analysis involving 10,860 breast cancer cases and 9,065 controls from 10 studies. 6 54 61
15122511 2004
A Ser49Cys variant in the ataxia telangiectasia, mutated, gene that is more common in patients with breast carcinoma compared with population controls. 61 54 6
15042666 2004
Spectrum of PALB2 germline mutations and characteristics of PALB2-related breast cancer: Screening of 16,501 unselected patients with breast cancer and 5890 controls by next-generation sequencing. 61 6
32339256 2020
Functional analysis of genetic variants in the high-risk breast cancer susceptibility gene PALB2. 6 61
31757951 2019
Loss of p53 triggers WNT-dependent systemic inflammation to drive breast cancer metastasis. 57 61
31367040 2019
Pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants in PALB2, CHEK2, and other known breast cancer susceptibility genes among 1054 BRCA-negative Hispanics with breast cancer. 6 61
31206626 2019
Frequency of Pathogenic Germline Variants in CDH1, BRCA2, CHEK2, PALB2, BRCA1, and TP53 in Sporadic Lobular Breast Cancer. 61 6
31263054 2019
Germline mutations in 40 cancer susceptibility genes among Chinese patients with high hereditary risk breast cancer. 61 6
29752822 2019
Characterization and prevalence of two novel CHEK2 large deletions in Greek breast cancer patients. 61 6
29785007 2018
Metabolic enzyme PFKFB4 activates transcriptional coactivator SRC-3 to drive breast cancer. 57 61
29615789 2018
BRIP1 loss-of-function mutations confer high risk for familial ovarian cancer, but not familial breast cancer. 6 61
29368626 2018
Variants of cancer susceptibility genes in Korean BRCA1/2 mutation-negative patients with high risk for hereditary breast cancer. 61 6
29338689 2018
Germline mutations of PALB2 gene in a sequential series of Chinese patients with breast cancer. 61 6
28825143 2017
Metabolic recycling of ammonia via glutamate dehydrogenase supports breast cancer biomass. 61 57
29025995 2017
Genomic profiling of pelvic genital type leiomyosarcoma in a woman with a germline CHEK2:c.1100delC mutation and a concomitant diagnosis of metastatic invasive ductal breast carcinoma. 61 6
28514723 2017
Clinical and genetic characterization of hereditary breast cancer in a Chinese population. 6 61
29093764 2017
Identification of germline alterations in breast cancer predisposition genes among Malaysian breast cancer patients using panel testing. 61 6
26757417 2016
Inherited breast cancer predisposition in Asians: multigene panel testing outcomes from Singapore. 61 6
29263802 2016
Mutations predisposing to breast cancer in 12 candidate genes in breast cancer patients from Poland. 61 6
25330149 2015
Prevalence of mutations in a panel of breast cancer susceptibility genes in BRCA1/2-negative patients with early-onset breast cancer. 61 6
25503501 2015
Inherited mutations in 17 breast cancer susceptibility genes among a large triple-negative breast cancer cohort unselected for family history of breast cancer. 61 6
25452441 2015
[CHEK2-mutation in Dutch breast cancer families: expanding genetic testing for breast cancer]. 61 6
26332814 2015
Response of an ERBB2-mutated inflammatory breast carcinoma to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-targeted therapy. 61 6
24516025 2014
Comprehensive sequencing of PALB2 in patients with breast cancer suggests PALB2 mutations explain a subset of hereditary breast cancer. 61 6
24415441 2014
Fine-scale mapping of the FGFR2 breast cancer risk locus: putative functional variants differentially bind FOXA1 and E2F1. 61 57
24290378 2013
Excess breast cancer risk in first degree relatives of CHEK2∗1100delC positive familial breast cancer cases. 61 6
23415889 2013
BRCA1, TP53, and CHEK2 germline mutations in uterine serous carcinoma. 61 6
22811390 2013
Genome-wide association study identifies a common variant in RAD51B associated with male breast cancer risk. 57 61
23001122 2012
Whole-genome analysis informs breast cancer response to aromatase inhibition. 61 57
22722193 2012
Sequence analysis of mutations and translocations across breast cancer subtypes. 57 61
22722202 2012
The landscape of cancer genes and mutational processes in breast cancer. 6 61
22722201 2012
Detection of a large rearrangement in PALB2 in Spanish breast cancer families with male breast cancer. 61 6
22052327 2012