Breast Cancer (BC)

Categories: Cancer diseases, Genetic diseases, Immune diseases, Rare diseases, Reproductive diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Breast Cancer

MalaCards integrated aliases for Breast Cancer:

Name: Breast Cancer 56 12 74 25 73 36 13 54 6 42 3 15 62
Breast Carcinoma 12 25 73 29 54 6 15 17 71
Breast Cancer, Familial 56 74 52 25 71
Malignant Neoplasm of Breast 12 25 71 32
Male Breast Cancer 12 52 42 15
Breast Cancer, Susceptibility to 56 29 6
Breast Cancer, Early-Onset 56 29 6
Carcinoma of Male Breast 29 6 71
Breast Cancer, Lobular 56 29 6
Breast Cancer, Protection Against 56 6
Malignant Neoplasm of Male Breast 12 71
Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma 54 71
Hereditary Breast Carcinoma 52 58
Familial Breast Carcinoma 52 58
Familial Cancer of Breast 29 6
Breast Lobular Carcinoma 12 15
Hereditary Breast Cancer 52 58
Familial Breast Cancer 52 58
Male Breast Carcinoma 52 17
Breast Cancer, Male 56 52
Mammary Carcinoma 12 73
Mammary Cancer 12 25
Mammary Tumor 12 54
Breast Cancer, Early-Onset, Susceptibility to 56
Breast Cancer, Male, Susceptibility to 56
Primary Malignant Neoplasm of Breast 71
Invasive Breast Ductal Carcinoma 17
Susceptibility to Breast Cancer 17
Breast Cancer, Invasive Ductal 56
Malignant Tumor of the Breast 12
Breast Cancer Susceptibility 56
Breast Cancer, Familial Male 29
Breast Cancer Familial Male 73
Malignant Tumor of Breast 25
Cancer, Breast, Familial 39
Lobular Breast Carcinoma 17
Animal Mammary Neoplasms 71
Neoplasm of Male Breast 12
Heritable Breast Cancer 52
Cancer, Breast, Lobular 39
Breast Cancer, Somatic 56
Breast Cancer Familial 73
Breast Neoplasms, Male 43
Primary Breast Cancer 12
Genetic Breast Cancer 52
Lobular Breast Cancer 29
Breast Male Carcinoma 54
Breast Cancer in Men 52
Carcinoma of Breast 12
Mammary Carcinomas 15
Mammary Neoplasms 71
Mammary Neoplasm 12
Cancer of Breast 25
Breast Neoplasms 43
Breast Neoplasm 17
Mammary Tumors 15
Cancer, Breast 39
Breast Tumor 12
Bc 73



somatic mutation
autosomal dominant

genetic heterogeneity


Orphanet: 58  
Rare gynaecological and obstetric diseases

External Ids:

OMIM 56 114480
KEGG 36 H00031
NCIt 49 C4872 C9335
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0346153
Orphanet 58 ORPHA227535
SNOMED-CT via HPO 68 124975008 254838004 263681008
UMLS 71 C0006142 C0024667 C0238033 more

Summaries for Breast Cancer

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in the breast become abnormal and multiply uncontrollably to form a tumor. Although breast cancer is much more common in women, this form of cancer can also develop in men. In both women and men, the most common form of breast cancer begins in cells lining the milk ducts (ductal cancer). In women, cancer can also develop in the glands that produce milk (lobular cancer). Most men have little or no lobular tissue, so lobular cancer in men is very rare. In its early stages, breast cancer usually does not cause pain and may exhibit no noticeable symptoms. As the cancer progresses, signs and symptoms can include a lump or thickening in or near the breast; a change in the size or shape of the breast; nipple discharge, tenderness, or retraction (turning inward); and skin irritation, dimpling, or scaliness. However, these changes can occur as part of many different conditions. Having one or more of these symptoms does not mean that a person definitely has breast cancer. In some cases, cancerous tumors can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body. If breast cancer spreads, cancerous cells most often appear in the bones, liver, lungs, or brain. Tumors that begin at one site and then spread to other areas of the body are called metastatic cancers. A small percentage of all breast cancers cluster in families. These cancers are described as hereditary and are associated with inherited gene mutations. Hereditary breast cancers tend to develop earlier in life than noninherited (sporadic) cases, and new (primary) tumors are more likely to develop in both breasts.

MalaCards based summary : Breast Cancer, also known as breast carcinoma, is related to bilateral breast cancer and ovarian cancer, and has symptoms including pain, lameness, animal and pelvic pain. An important gene associated with Breast Cancer is BRCA2 (BRCA2 DNA Repair Associated), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Breast cancer and MicroRNAs in cancer. The drugs Povidone and Iron have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include breast, lymph node and bone, and related phenotypes are breast carcinoma and Decreased viability

Disease Ontology : 12 A thoracic cancer that originates in the mammary gland.

NIH Rare Diseases : 52 Familial breast cancer is a cluster of breast cancer within a family. Most cases of breast cancer occur sporadically in people with little to no family history of the condition. Approximately 5-10% of breast cancer is considered "hereditary" and is thought to be caused by an inherited predisposition to breast cancer that is passed down through a family in an autosomal dominant manner. In some of these families, the underlying genetic cause is not known; however, many of these cases are caused by changes (mutations ) in the BRCA1 , BRCA2 , PTEN , TP53 , CDH1 , or STK11 genes (which are each associated with a unique hereditary cancer syndrome ). Additional genes, such as CHEK2 , BRIP1 , RAD51 , and ATM , are associated with breast and/or gynecologic cancers in some cases. About 15-20% of women diagnosed with breast cancer have a significant family history of breast cancer (two or more first-degree or second-degree relatives with breast cancer) but have no identifiable mutation in a gene known to cause a hereditary predisposition to breast cancer. These clusters of breast cancer are likely due to a combination of gene(s) and other shared factors such as environment and lifestyle. High-risk cancer screening and other preventative measures such as chemoprevention and/or prophylactic surgeries are typically recommended in women who have an increased risk for breast cancer based on their personal and/or family histories.

OMIM : 56 Breast cancer (referring to mammary carcinoma, not mammary sarcoma) is histopathologically and almost certainly etiologically and genetically heterogeneous. Important genetic factors have been indicated by familial occurrence and bilateral involvement. (114480)

MedlinePlus : 42 Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that you cannot change include Age - the risk rises as you get older Genes - two genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, greatly increase the risk. Women who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. Personal factors - beginning periods before age 12 or going through menopause after age 55 Other risks include obesity, using hormone replacement therapy (also called menopausal hormone therapy), taking birth control pills, drinking alcohol, not having children or having your first child after age 35, and having dense breasts. Symptoms of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in size or shape of the breast, and discharge from a nipple. Breast self-exams and mammography can help find breast cancer early, when it is most treatable. One possible treatment is surgery. It could be a lumpectomy or a mastectomy. Other treatments include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses drugs or other substances that attack cancer cells with less harm to normal cells. Men can have breast cancer, too, but it is rare. NIH: National Cancer Institute

CDC : 3 Breast cancer is a disease in which cells in the breast grow out of control. There are different kinds of breast cancer. The kind of breast cancer depends on which cells in the breast turn into cancer. Breast cancer can begin in different parts of the breast. A breast is made up of three main parts: lobules, ducts, and connective tissue. The lobules are the glands that produce milk. The ducts are tubes that carry milk to the nipple. The connective tissue (which consists of fibrous and fatty tissue) surrounds and holds everything together. Most breast cancers begin in the ducts or lobules. Breast cancer can spread outside the breast through blood vessels and lymph vessels. When breast cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it is said to have metastasized.

KEGG : 36 Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gland. The molecular subtypes of breast cancer, which are based on the presence or absence of hormone receptors (estrogen and progesterone subtypes) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), include: hormone receptor positive and HER2 negative (luminal A subtype), hormone receptor positive and HER2 positive (luminal B subtype), hormone receptor negative and HER2 positive (HER2 positive), and hormone receptor negative and HER2 negative (basal-like or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs)). Hormone receptor positive breast cancers are largely driven by the estrogen/ER pathway. In HER2 positive breast tumours, HER2 activates the PI3K/AKT and the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathways, and stimulate cell growth, survival and differentiation. In patients suffering from TNBC, the deregulation of various signalling pathways (Notch and Wnt/beta-catenin), EGFR protein have been confirmed. In the case of breast cancer only 8% of all cancers are hereditary, a phenomenon linked to genetic changes in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Somatic mutations in only three genes (TP53, PIK3CA and GATA3) occurred at >10% incidence across all breast cancers.

Novus Biologicals : 55 Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that originates from breast tissue cells. Although most breast cancers initiate in the cells that line the breast ducts, some begin in the breast lobules and other tissues. As with all cancers, there is a genetic and environmental component of developing breast cancer. Women with defects in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have up to an 80% chance of getting breast cancer. Research has also found that defects in the ErbB-2 gene lead to increased levels of the protein cyclin D1. Cyclin D1 then activates CDK4, which causes proliferation of cellular division. Blocking CDK4 activity may lead to effective breast cancer treatments.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 73 Breast cancer: A common malignancy originating from breast epithelial tissue. Breast neoplasms can be distinguished by their histologic pattern. Invasive ductal carcinoma is by far the most common type. Breast cancer is etiologically and genetically heterogeneous. Important genetic factors have been indicated by familial occurrence and bilateral involvement. Mutations at more than one locus can be involved in different families or even in the same case.

PubMed Health : 62 About breast cancer: Being diagnosed with breast cancer often comes as a shock at first, and makes people feel very frightened and anxious. Having cancer can really turn your life upside down for a while. It helps to know that if you get breast cancer for the first time and it hasn’t spread far, there’s a good chance that treatment can lead to full recovery. There are also many support services that help people in everyday life, to return to work and cope emotionally with breast cancer.

Wikipedia : 74 Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue. Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in... more...

Related Diseases for Breast Cancer

Diseases in the Breast Cancer family:

Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma Sporadic Breast Cancer
Breast Carcinoma in Situ

Diseases related to Breast Cancer via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 2303)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 bilateral breast cancer 37.1 RAD51 PIK3CA PALB2 ESR1 CHEK2 CDH1
2 ovarian cancer 37.1 TP53 RAD51 PPM1D PIK3CA PHB PALB2
3 sporadic breast cancer 36.8 TP53 RAD51 PALB2 ESR1 CHEK2 BRCA2
4 rare breast tumor 36.8 TP53 PIK3CA PALB2 ESR1 CHEK2 BRIP1
5 female breast cancer 36.5 TP53 PHB PALB2 ESR1 BRCA2 BRCA1
6 estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer 36.3 TP53 PIK3CA ESR1 BRCA1 AKT1
7 li-fraumeni syndrome 35.9 TP53 PALB2 KRAS ESR1 CHEK2 BRCA2
8 hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome 35.6 TP53 RAD51 PALB2 KRAS CHEK2 BRIP1
9 colorectal cancer 35.2 XRCC3 TP53 RAD51 PIK3CA KRAS ESR1
10 adenocarcinoma 35.0 TP53 PIK3CA KRAS CDH1 BRCA2 AKT1
11 prostate cancer 34.9 TP53 RAD51 PIK3CA PHB KRAS ESR1
12 lung cancer 34.9 XRCC3 TP53 RAD51 PIK3CA KRAS ESR1
13 luminal breast carcinoma 34.8 TP53 PIK3CA ESR1 CDH1 BRCA1 AKT1
14 ductal carcinoma in situ 34.7 TP53 PIK3CA ESR1 CDH1 BRCA2 BRCA1
15 endometrial cancer 34.6 TP53 RAD51 PIK3CA KRAS ESR1 CDH1
16 glioblastoma multiforme 34.6 TP53 RAD51 PIK3CA KRAS ESR1 CHEK2
17 in situ carcinoma 34.5 TP53 ESR1 CDH1 BRCA2 BRCA1 AKT1
18 leukemia, acute myeloid 34.5 TP53 RAD51 KRAS ESR1 CHEK2 CDH1
19 breast-ovarian cancer, familial 2 34.5 BRCA2 BRCA1
20 fanconi anemia, complementation group a 34.4 XRCC3 TP53 RAD51 PALB2 CHEK2 BRIP1
21 pancreatic cancer 34.3 TP53 RAD51 PIK3CA PALB2 KRAS CDH1
22 breast adenocarcinoma 34.2 TP53 PIK3CA KRAS ESR1 CHEK2 CASP8
23 ovarian disease 34.2 TP53 PIK3CA PALB2 KRAS ESR1 CHEK2
24 esophageal cancer 34.0 TP53 RAD51 PIK3CA KRAS CHEK2 CDH1
25 breast sarcoma 34.0 TP53 PIK3CA ESR1
26 lynch syndrome 34.0 XRCC3 TP53 PIK3CA PALB2 KRAS CHEK2
27 cowden syndrome 34.0 TP53 RAD51 PIK3CA PALB2 CHEK2 BRCA2
28 breast ductal carcinoma 34.0 TP53 RAD54L ESR1 CDH1 BRCA2 BRCA1
29 rare malignant breast tumor 34.0 BRCA2 BRCA1
30 cervical cancer 34.0 TP53 PIK3CA ESR1 CDH1 CASP8 BRCA1
31 lung cancer susceptibility 3 33.9 TP53 PIK3CA KRAS ESR1 CDH1 CASP8
32 gastric cancer 33.9 TP53 PIK3CA KRAS ESR1 CHEK2 CDH1
33 bladder cancer 33.8 XRCC3 TP53 PIK3CA KRAS CDH1 CASP8
34 lymphoma 33.8 TP53 PIK3CA CHEK2 CDH1 CASP8 BRCA2
35 neuroblastoma 33.8 TP53 PIK3CA ESR1 CDH1 CASP8 BRCA1
36 myeloma, multiple 33.8 TP53 KRAS HMMR ESR1 CDH1 CASP8
37 melanoma 33.7 XRCC3 TP53 PIK3CA KRAS CDH1 BRCA2
38 comedo carcinoma 33.7 TP53 ESR1
39 wilms tumor 1 33.6 TP53 PALB2 KRAS HMMR ESR1 CHEK2
40 lobular neoplasia 33.6 TP53 ESR1 CDH1 BRCA2 BRCA1
41 pancreatic adenocarcinoma 33.5 TP53 PIK3CA KRAS ESR1 CDH1 CASP8
42 breast disease 33.5 TP53 ESR1 BRCA2 BRCA1
43 myelodysplastic syndrome 33.5 TP53 RAD51 KRAS CHEK2 CASP8 ATM
44 adenoid cystic carcinoma 33.5 TP53 PPM1D PIK3CA KRAS CHEK2 CDH1
45 ataxia-telangiectasia 33.5 TP53 CHEK2 BRCA2 BRCA1 ATM
46 hypertrophy of breast 33.5 TP53 PIK3CA ESR1 BRCA2 BRCA1
47 xeroderma pigmentosum, variant type 33.4 XRCC3 TP53 RAD54L RAD51 CHEK2 BRCA2
48 medulloblastoma 33.4 TP53 RAD51 PPM1D PIK3CA CDH1 CASP8
49 rare adenocarcinoma of the breast 33.4 TP53 PIK3CA KRAS
50 papilloma 33.3 TP53 KRAS ESR1 CHEK2 CDH1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Breast Cancer:

Diseases related to Breast Cancer

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Breast Cancer

Human phenotypes related to Breast Cancer:

# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 breast carcinoma 31 HP:0003002

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

breast carcinoma

Clinical features from OMIM:


UMLS symptoms related to Breast Cancer:

pain, lameness, animal, pelvic pain

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Breast Cancer according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26 (show all 22)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability GR00055-A-2 10.98 KRAS PIK3CA
2 Decreased viability GR00106-A-0 10.98 KRAS
3 Decreased viability GR00221-A-1 10.98 AKT1 CDH1 ESR1 KRAS PIK3CA
4 Decreased viability GR00221-A-2 10.98 AKT1 ESR1 KRAS PIK3CA CHEK2 BRCA1
5 Decreased viability GR00221-A-3 10.98 AKT1 ATM CHEK2 BRCA1
6 Decreased viability GR00221-A-4 10.98 AKT1 ESR1 PIK3CA ATM CHEK2
7 Decreased viability GR00301-A 10.98 CDH1 KRAS BRCA1
8 Decreased viability GR00342-S-2 10.98 CHEK2
9 Decreased viability GR00381-A-1 10.98 KRAS
10 Decreased viability GR00402-S-2 10.98 AKT1 CDH1 ESR1 KRAS PIK3CA ATM
11 Decreased homologous recombination repair frequency GR00151-A-1 10.13 BARD1 BRCA1 RAD51
12 Decreased homologous recombination repair frequency GR00151-A-2 10.13 BRCA1 RAD51
13 Decreased homologous recombination repair frequency GR00236-A-3 10.13 BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 PALB2 RAD51
14 Decreased viability in esophageal squamous lineage GR00235-A 10.11 BRCA1 BRCA2 CDH1 CHEK2 ESR1 KRAS
15 Synthetic lethal with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) GR00250-A-1 10.02 AKT1 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 CASP8
16 Synthetic lethal with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) GR00250-A-2 10.02 AKT1 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 CASP8
17 Increased homologous recombination repair frequency GR00236-A-1 10 BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 PALB2 RAD51
18 Increased homologous recombination repair frequency GR00236-A-2 10 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 PALB2 RAD51
19 Increased viability with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) GR00250-A-3 9.97 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1 CASP8
20 Decreased cell migration GR00055-A-1 9.85 AKT1 ATM KRAS PIK3CA PPM1D
21 Decreased viability with cisplatin GR00101-A-4 9.72 BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1 RAD51
22 Synthetic lethal with cisplatin GR00101-A-1 9.43 BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1 RAD51 XRCC3

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Breast Cancer:

45 (show all 14)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular MP:0005384 10.45 AKT1 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1
2 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.37 AKT1 ATM BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1 CASP8
3 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.35 AKT1 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 CASP8
4 embryo MP:0005380 10.32 AKT1 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 CASP8
5 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.31 AKT1 ATM BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1 CASP8
6 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.27 AKT1 ATM BRCA1 BRCA2 CASP8 CHEK2
7 immune system MP:0005387 10.25 AKT1 ATM BRCA1 BRCA2 CASP8 CDH1
8 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.24 AKT1 ATM BRCA1 CASP8 CDH1 ESR1
9 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.21 AKT1 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 CASP8
10 integument MP:0010771 10.18 AKT1 ATM BRCA1 BRCA2 CASP8 CDH1
11 neoplasm MP:0002006 10.06 AKT1 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1
12 limbs/digits/tail MP:0005371 9.87 BRCA1 BRCA2 ESR1 HMMR KRAS PALB2
13 nervous system MP:0003631 9.77 AKT1 ATM BARD1 BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1
14 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.47 AKT1 ATM BRCA1 BRCA2 BRIP1 CDH1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Breast Cancer

PubMed Health treatment related to Breast Cancer: 62

The treatment options always depend on the type and size of the tumor , where it has spread to (if it has spread), the patient’s general health, as well as their personal preferences. Breast cancer can be treated with surgery , radiation and medication. Different treatment approaches are often combined. The standard treatment is to try to surgically remove as much of the tumor as possible. Neighboring lymph nodes are sometimes also removed. If the tumor is small, women are often faced with a decision: Should they keep the breast or have it completely removed? Nowadays many women can have surgery that allows them to keep the breast (breast-conserving surgery). But sometimes the entire breast needs to be removed (mastectomy ) to make sure that all of the tumor tissue has gone. Chemotherapy (treatment with medication) is sometimes used to shrink larger tumors before surgery and make it easier to operate on them. This kind of treatment is called “neoadjuvant chemotherapy.” Chemotherapy is sometimes used after surgery too. Women who have a hormone -sensitive tumor may have anti-hormonal therapy . This aims to slow down tumor growth. After breast -conserving surgery the surrounding tissue is exposed to radiation, if possible, so that any remaining tumor cells can be destroyed. This is sometimes necessary after a mastectomy as well. Radiotherapy is also commonly used if the tumor cannot be surgically removed. The different types of treatment can be very difficult to go through and sometimes have very severe side effects or cause other medical problems. The side effects vary depending on the kind of treatment, but they are often easy to treat. The treatment of side effects is part of what is known as supportive care. Before deciding on whether to have a particular treatment , there is usually enough time to get information from your doctor about the possible benefits and the expected side effects, and to talk with your family or other people who are close to you. You have the right to seek a second opinion from another doctor or to decide not to have a treatment.

Drugs for Breast Cancer (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 1108)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Povidone Approved Phase 4 9003-39-8
Iron Approved, Experimental Phase 4 7439-89-6, 15438-31-0 23925 27284
Povidone-iodine Approved Phase 4 25655-41-8
Risedronate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 105462-24-6 5245
Etidronic acid Approved Phase 4 2809-21-4, 7414-83-7 3305
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 1177-87-3
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 5743
Remifentanil Approved Phase 4 132875-61-7 60815
Granisetron Approved, Investigational Phase 4 109889-09-0 3510
Methyltestosterone Approved Phase 4 58-18-4 6010
Testosterone Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 58-22-0, 481-30-1 6013 10204
Testosterone undecanoate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 5949-44-0
Testosterone enanthate Approved Phase 4 315-37-7 9416
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
Metoclopramide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 364-62-5 4168
Ampicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 69-53-4 6249
Sulbactam Approved Phase 4 68373-14-8
Sultamicillin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 76497-13-7
Diclofenac Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 15307-86-5 3033
Triclosan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 3380-34-5 5564
Angiotensin II Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68521-88-0, 4474-91-3, 11128-99-7 172198
Bleomycin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 11056-06-7 5360373
Etoricoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 202409-33-4 123619
Butorphanol Approved, Illicit, Vet_approved Phase 4 42408-82-2, 58786-99-5 5361092
Flurbiprofen Approved, Investigational Phase 4 5104-49-4 3394
Droperidol Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 548-73-2 3168
Haloperidol Approved Phase 4 52-86-8 3559
Domperidone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 57808-66-9 3151
Tropisetron Approved, Investigational Phase 4 105826-92-4, 89565-68-4 5595
Thrombin Approved, Investigational Phase 4
Atracurium Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 64228-79-1 47319
Lactulose Approved Phase 4 4618-18-2 11333
Parecoxib Approved Phase 4 198470-84-7
Etonogestrel Approved, Investigational Phase 4 54048-10-1 40976 6917715
Dihydrotachysterol Approved Phase 4 67-96-9 5281010 5311071
Dutasteride Approved, Investigational Phase 4 164656-23-9 152945 6918296
Olmesartan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 144689-24-7, 144689-63-4 158781 130881
Probenecid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 57-66-9 4911
Ropivacaine Approved Phase 4 84057-95-4 71273 175805
Ciprofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 85721-33-1 2764
Isoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 26675-46-7 3763
Riluzole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1744-22-5 5070
Tranexamic Acid Approved Phase 4 1197-18-8 5526
Acyclovir Approved Phase 4 59277-89-3 2022
Denosumab Approved Phase 4 615258-40-7
Sevoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 28523-86-6 5206
Pamidronate Approved Phase 4 40391-99-9 4674
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-45-6 774
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 59467-70-8 4192
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 437-38-7 3345

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 10000)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Weekly and Every 3 Week Administration of Paclitaxel Liposome Injection in Metastatic Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT02142790 Phase 4 paclitaxel liposome injection
2 A Randomized, Parallel, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Pilot Clinical Study on the Effects of Yunzhi as Dietary Supplement in 60 Adult Patients Undergoing Adjuvant/Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer. Unknown status NCT00647075 Phase 4
3 A Randomized Prospective Clinical Trial of Paclitaxel in Combination With Carboplatin Versus Paclitaxel Plus Epirubicin as First-Line Treatment in Metastatic Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT02207361 Phase 4 Paclitaxel, Carboplatin;Paclitaxel, Epirubicin
4 A Clinical Trial of Paclitaxel Loaded Polymeric Micelle (Genexol-PM®) in Patients With Taxane-Pretreated Recurrent Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT00912639 Phase 4 Paclitaxel loaded Polymeric micelle
5 The Efficacy and Safety of PEG-rhG-CSF in Neutropenia After Chemotherapy Unknown status NCT02905916 Phase 4 PEG-rhG-CSF
6 Neoadjuvant Epirubicin-cyclophosphamide-S-1 (ECS) Versus Epirubicin-cyclophosphamide-5-FU (ECF) in Local Advanced Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT01849380 Phase 4 S-1;5-FU
7 Selective Lymph Node Dissection Using Fluorescent Dye in Node-positive Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT02781259 Phase 4 Indocyanine green
8 The Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Chemotherapy-induced Neuropathy and Inflammation in Patients With Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT01049295 Phase 4
9 Prospective Multicenter Study of the Role of Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) in Pre-Surgical Planning for Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT00484614 Phase 4
10 G-CSF (Filgrastim) or Pegfilgrastim Secondary Prophylaxis In The Adjuvant Chemotherapy Of Early Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT00030758 Phase 4
11 Accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Predicting Aggressiveness of Early Breast Cancer According to Molecular Subtypes Identified by ER PR and HER-2 Status Unknown status NCT01597999 Phase 4
12 The Efficacy and Safety of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Liposome Injection Plus Cyclophosphamide Compared to Pirarubicin Plus Cyclophosphamide as Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer :a Randomised Multicentre, Open-label Trial Unknown status NCT02903524 Phase 4 Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Liposome injection and cyclophosphamide;pirarubicin and cyclophosphamide
13 Use of Integrated PET/MR to Evaluate Clinical Staging and Monitor Treatment Response of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02766530 Phase 4
14 Does a Single Steroid Injection Reduce the Formation of Postmastectomy Seroma Unknown status NCT00307606 Phase 4 Solu-medrol 125 mg
15 A Phase IV, Multi-center, Open Label, Single Arm Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Relationship of Bone Remodeling Markers for Skeletal Complications in Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients Unknown status NCT00912938 Phase 4 zoledronic acid
16 Open Labeled, Propective, Multicentric Phase IV Study to Examine the Influence of Pharmacogenetic Markers on the Efficacy and Side Effects in Postmenopausal, Steroid Hormone Positive Breast Cancer Patients, Who Are Treated With Letrozol. Unknown status NCT01908556 Phase 4 Letrozole
17 Evaluate Efficacy and Safety of Extended Adjuvant Treatment With Letrozole in Postmenopausal Women With Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer Who Have Completed 5 Years of Toremifene Unknown status NCT01072318 Phase 4 Letrozole
18 Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Pain Sensation, Seroma Formation and Quality od Life Following BCT With SLND in Breast Cancer Patients Operated With Classic Versus High-frequency Electrocoagulation. Unknown status NCT01216254 Phase 4
19 Evaluation of Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy for Operable ER-beta Positive, ER-alpha/PR Negative, Her-2 Negative Breast Cancer Patients Unknown status NCT02089854 Phase 4 Toremifene; Anastrozole
20 Comparison Between Intradermal Injection and Subcutaneous Injection With Methylene Blue for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Breast Cancer Patients Unknown status NCT02982148 Phase 4
21 TARGIT-C(Consolidation) Prospective Phase IV Study of Intraoperative Radiotherapy (IORT) in Patients With Small Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT02290782 Phase 4
22 Liposomal Doxorubicin-Investigational Chemotherapy-Tissue Doppler Imaging Evaluation (LITE) Randomized Pilot Study Unknown status NCT00531973 Phase 4 liposomal doxorubicin;epirubicin
23 Use of Proton MR Spectroscopy and 18F-Fluorocholine PET for Breast Cancer Diagnosis, Prediction of Clinical Outcome and Monitoring of Treatment Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Unknown status NCT01956409 Phase 4 18F-FCH;Magnevist
24 Sienna+® Injection Time Study: A Prospective Multicentre, Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Performance of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide vs. Standard Technique as Tracer in Sentinel Node Biopsy Unknown status NCT02612870 Phase 4
25 MR Mammography: Randomized Controlled Trial to Study Efficiency of MR Mammography in Reducing the Number of Invasive Interventions in Nonpalpable Suspicious Breast Lesions. The MONET - Study Unknown status NCT00302120 Phase 4
26 Pilot for a Randomised Comparison of Anastrozole Commenced Before and Continued During Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer Versus Anastrozole and Subsequent Ant-Oestrogen Therapy Delayed Until After Radiotherapy Unknown status NCT00126360 Phase 4 Timing of Anastrozole in respect to radiotherapy
27 Integrative Diagnosis of 18F-FLT Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Evaluate the Suspicious Findings on Mammography and Breast Ultrasound: a Pilot Study Unknown status NCT01956890 Phase 4 PET
28 National Screening i Danmark Med MR-scanning af Brystet Kontra Klinisk Mammografi Hos Kvinder Der er bærere af Risikogivende BRCA1 Eller BRCA2 Mutationer Unknown status NCT00413491 Phase 4
29 The Use of Botulinum Toxin-A in Two-stage Tissue Expander/Implant Breast Reconstruction: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT01427400 Phase 4 Botulinum Toxin-A;Saline
30 A Randomized, Blinded, Single Center Study to Assess the Incidence of Surgical Site Infections in Breast Cancer Surgery After Preoperative Skin Preparation With Chlorhexidine 2% in Alcohol 70% (CHLORAPREP ®) Versus 10% Povidone-iodine Unknown status NCT02479347 Phase 4 Chlorhexidine;Povidone-Iodine
31 Optimal Timing and Duration of Daily G-CSF With Adjuvant TAC Chemotherapy in Node-positive Breast Cancer;Multicenter, Randomized, Open Label, Clinically IV Phase Unknown status NCT01571518 Phase 4 late leukostim;early leukostim
32 Effects of Cimicifuga Racemosa L. Nutt Sexuality of Women With Breast Cancer Using Tamoxifen or Aromatase Inhibitor Unknown status NCT02467686 Phase 4 Cimicifuga racemosa;tamoxifen;exemestane
33 Efficacy of Transdermal Fentanyl Patches in Relief of Acute Postoperative Pain After Mastectomy Unknown status NCT03051503 Phase 4 The Transdermal Therapeutic System-Fentanyl (TTS-F)
34 Effect of Ketalar to Prevent Postoperative Chronic Pain After Mastectomy Unknown status NCT00129597 Phase 4 ketalar
35 Contrast The Role of Microfibrillar Collagen Hemostat Flour(Avitene) And OK-432 (Sapylin)in Reducing Seroma Formation After Axillary Lymphadenectomy for Breast Cancer Unknown status NCT02158299 Phase 4 Avitene;Sapylin
36 A Randomized, Phase IV Trial of Individualized Care Versus Standard Care, in the Prevention of Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Breast Cancer Patients. The EPIC Study Unknown status NCT01913990 Phase 4 Dexamethasone, Ondansetron, Aprepitant
37 Comparison of the Two Different Doses of Dexamethasone on Persistent Mastectomy Pain Unknown status NCT02551133 Phase 4 dexamethasone
38 Aromatase Inhibitors and Weight Loss in Severely Obese Hypogonadal Male Veterans (Pilot) Unknown status NCT02959853 Phase 4 Anastrazole
39 Analgesic Effects of Local Anesthetic Serratus Plane Infiltration for Total Mastectomy Surgery: A Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02893384 Phase 4 Local Anesthetic Injection above the serratus anterior
40 Pharmacokinetics of Carboplatin After Adjusted Dosing for High BMI, Low Serum Creatinine, and Maximal Renal Function Unknown status NCT02103244 Phase 4 Carboplatin
41 A Single Centre Randomised Study Comparing Standard of Care Schedules of Dexamethasone in Patients Incorrectly Taking Dexamethasone Premedication Prior to Docetaxel Chemotherapy (REaCT-dexamethasone) Unknown status NCT02815319 Phase 4 Dexamethasone
42 Levobupivacaine Prolonged Wound Infusion for Postoperative Pain Relief After Breast Surgery Unknown status NCT02035904 Phase 4 Levobupivacaine PCIA (Patient Controlled Intrawound Analgesia);saline;Levobupivacaine continuous infusion;morphine;Patrol
43 Combination With Intravenous Iron Supplementation or Doubling Erythropoietin Dose for Patients With Chemotherapy-induced Anaemia Inadequately Responsive to Initial Erythropoietin Treatment Alone Unknown status NCT02731378 Phase 4 Erythropoietins (EPO);Aggressive iron dextran supplementation;Erythropoietins (EPO);Sustained iron dextran supplementation
44 An Open-label, Randomized, Comparative, Parallel Group Study to Assess the Immunogenicity of Lupin's Peg-filgrastim Versus Neulasta® as an Adjunct to Chemotherapy in Patients With Breast Cancer Completed NCT03511378 Phase 4 Lupin's Pegfilgrastim;Neulasta®
45 Post Marketing Trial (Phase IV) on the Safety, Tolerability And Efficacy of Eribulin Mesylate in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer Completed NCT03583944 Phase 4 Eribulin Mesylate
46 Does Anesthesia Technique Affect the Presence of Circulating Tumor Cells in Primary Breast Carcinoma? A Randomised Controlled Trial. Completed NCT02005770 Phase 4 Sevoflurane;Propofol
47 A Phase Ⅳ Randomized Clinical Trial of Comparative Efficiency of Three Regimen, CEFci, CEF and EC as Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Primary Breast Cancer Completed NCT01199432 Phase 4 5-FU(intravenous infusion)+epirubicin+cyclophosphamide;5-FU(intravenous bolus)+epirubicin+cyclophosphamide;epirubicin+cyclophosphamide
48 A Phase 4, Open-Label Exemestane Adjuvant Safety Surveillance Program: Adjuvant Exemestane (Aromasin) Treatment Following Previous Treatment With Tamoxifen in Postmenopausal Women With Estrogen Sensitive Primary Breast Cancer (IES Inclusion Criteria) Completed NCT00649090 Phase 4 exemestane
49 Open-label Trial of Imatinib in Combination With Vinorelbine for Patients With Advanced Breast Carcinoma: ICON Completed NCT00372476 Phase 4 Imatinib and Vinorelbine
50 A Prospective,Open-label Study of Anastrozole in Post-menopausal Women With Hormone Sensitive Advanced Breast Cancer Completed NCT00544986 Phase 4 Anastrozole

Search NIH Clinical Center for Breast Cancer

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

ado-trastuzumab emtansine
doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome
Epirubicin Hydrochloride
Estradiol acetate
estradiol cypionate
estradiol valerate
Estrogens, Conjugated (USP)
Estrogens, Esterified (USP)
Ethinyl Estradiol
Goserelin Acetate
Idarubicin Hydrochloride
Irinotecan hydrochloride
Leuprolide Acetate
medroxyprogesterone acetate
Megestrol Acetate
Melphalan hydrochloride
Methotrexate Sodium
Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride
nandrolone decanoate
nandrolone phenpropionate
polyestradiol phosphate
Sodium estrone sulfate
synthetic conjugated estrogens, A
synthetic conjugated estrogens, B
Tamoxifen Citrate
testosterone cypionate
testosterone enanthate
Testosterone Propionate
testosterone undecanoate
Toremifene Citrate
Vinblastine Sulfate
Vinorelbine tartrate

Cochrane evidence based reviews: breast neoplasms

Genetic Tests for Breast Cancer

Genetic tests related to Breast Cancer:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Breast Cancer, Susceptibility to 29
2 Breast Cancer, Familial Male 29
3 Breast Cancer, Early-Onset 29
5 Carcinoma of Male Breast 29
6 Breast Carcinoma 29
7 Breast Cancer, Lobular 29
8 Lobular Breast Cancer 29

Anatomical Context for Breast Cancer

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Breast Cancer:

Breast, Lymph Node, Bone, Brain, Lung, Testes, Prostate

Publications for Breast Cancer

Articles related to Breast Cancer:

(show top 50) (show all 65285)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Mutation screening of the BARD1 gene: evidence for involvement of the Cys557Ser allele in hereditary susceptibility to breast cancer. 54 56 6
15342711 2004
Prevalence of PALB2 mutations in Australasian multiple-case breast cancer families. 56 6
23448497 2013
Endogenous human microRNAs that suppress breast cancer metastasis. 61 46 56
18185580 2008
PALB2, which encodes a BRCA2-interacting protein, is a breast cancer susceptibility gene. 56 6
17200668 2007
Identification of a novel truncating PALB2 mutation and analysis of its contribution to early-onset breast cancer in French-Canadian women. 56 6
18053174 2007
A protein-truncating mutation in CYP17A1 in three sisters with early-onset breast cancer. 56 6
16121340 2005
Lipocalin 2 promotes breast cancer progression. 54 61 56
19237579 2009
MicroRNA-221/222 negatively regulates estrogen receptor alpha and is associated with tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. 46 56
18790736 2008
MicroRNA-221/222 confers tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer by targeting p27Kip1. 46 56
18708351 2008
A Ser49Cys variant in the ataxia telangiectasia, mutated, gene that is more common in patients with breast carcinoma compared with population controls. 54 61 6
15042666 2004
Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis. 54 61 56
11242036 2001
Identification of Rad51 alteration in patients with bilateral breast cancer. 54 61 6
10807537 2000
Recurrent and functional regulatory mutations in breast cancer. 61 56
28658208 2017
Proteogenomics connects somatic mutations to signalling in breast cancer. 61 56
27251275 2016
Updated UK Recommendations for HER2 assessment in breast cancer. 61 6
25488926 2015
Breast-cancer risk in families with mutations in PALB2. 61 56
25337758 2014
Breast-cancer risk in families with mutations in PALB2. 61 56
25099575 2014
Activating ESR1 mutations in hormone-resistant metastatic breast cancer. 61 56
24185510 2013
ESR1 ligand-binding domain mutations in hormone-resistant breast cancer. 61 56
24185512 2013
27-Hydroxycholesterol links hypercholesterolemia and breast cancer pathophysiology. 61 56
24288332 2013
APOBEC3B is an enzymatic source of mutation in breast cancer. 61 56
23389445 2013
Association of a HOXB13 variant with breast cancer. 61 56
22853031 2012
Whole-genome analysis informs breast cancer response to aromatase inhibition. 61 56
22722193 2012
Sequence analysis of mutations and translocations across breast cancer subtypes. 61 56
22722202 2012
Complex landscapes of somatic rearrangement in human breast cancer genomes. 61 56
20033038 2009
Common variants in LSP1, 2q35 and 8q24 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. 54 56
19656774 2009
MicroRNA-125a represses cell growth by targeting HuR in breast cancer. 54 61 46
19875930 2009
Association between CYP2D6 polymorphisms and outcomes among women with early stage breast cancer treated with tamoxifen. 54 56
19809024 2009
Newly discovered breast cancer susceptibility loci on 3p24 and 17q23.2. 61 56
19330027 2009
Somatic mutation and functional polymorphism of a novel regulatory element in the HGF gene promoter causes its aberrant expression in human breast cancer. 61 56
19188684 2009
Gene-expression signatures in breast cancer. 61 56
19228622 2009
National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry laboratory medicine practice guidelines for use of tumor markers in testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancers. 54 6
19042984 2008
Common variants on chromosome 5p12 confer susceptibility to estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. 54 56
18438407 2008
Copy number alterations of the H2AFX gene in sporadic breast cancer patients. 54 56
18206537 2008
The emerging landscape of breast cancer susceptibility. 61 6
18163131 2008
A genome-wide association study identifies alleles in FGFR2 associated with risk of sporadic postmenopausal breast cancer. 54 56
17529973 2007
Genome-wide association study identifies novel breast cancer susceptibility loci. 61 56
17529967 2007
Genetic variation at the CYP19A1 locus predicts circulating estrogen levels but not breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. 54 56
17325027 2007
A large germline deletion in the Chek2 kinase gene is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. 54 6
17085682 2006
Population-based estimates of breast cancer risks associated with ATM gene variants c.7271T>G and c.1066-6T>G (IVS10-6T>G) from the Breast Cancer Family Registry. 54 6
16958054 2006
The ATM missense mutation p.Ser49Cys (c.146C>G) and the risk of breast cancer. 54 6
16652348 2006
Spectrum of mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and TP53 in families at high risk of breast cancer. 54 6
16551709 2006
Association of a common variant of the CASP8 gene with reduced risk of breast cancer. 54 6
15601643 2004
CHEK2*1100delC and susceptibility to breast cancer: a collaborative analysis involving 10,860 breast cancer cases and 9,065 controls from 10 studies. 54 6
15122511 2004
The BRCA1-associated protein BACH1 is a DNA helicase targeted by clinically relevant inactivating mutations. 54 6
14983014 2004
Expression and molecular characterization of alternative transcripts of the ARHGEF5/TIM oncogene specific for human breast cancer. 61 56
14662653 2004
Heritability of mammographic density, a risk factor for breast cancer. 61 56
12239257 2002
Variants in DNA double-strand break repair genes and breast cancer susceptibility. 54 6
12023982 2002
Low-penetrance susceptibility to breast cancer due to CHEK2(*)1100delC in noncarriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. 54 6
11967536 2002
Single nucleotide polymorphism in prohibitin 3' untranslated region and breast-cancer susceptibility. 54 6
11377649 2001