Categories: Infectious diseases, Respiratory diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Bronchitis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Bronchitis:

Name: Bronchitis 12 3 44 15 62 17 70
Chronic Bronchitis 12 73 29 42 15 17
Acute Bronchitis 12 42 62 70 32
Bronchitis, Chronic 73 44 70
Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection 70
Acute Bronchitis and Bronchiolitis 12
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection 70
Recurrent Wheezy Bronchitis 12
Ci - Chest Infection 12
Bronchitis Chronic 54
Chest Infection 12
Chest Cold 12


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:6132
ICD9CM 34 466.0 490 491
UMLS 70 C0006277 C0008677 C0149514 more

Summaries for Bronchitis

MedlinePlus : 42 Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It causes a cough that often brings up mucus. It can also cause shortness of breath, wheezing, a low fever, and chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your cough can last for several weeks after the infection is gone. The same viruses that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when people cough, or though physical contact (for example, on unwashed hands). Being exposed to tobacco smoke, air pollution, dusts, vapors, and fumes can also cause acute bronchitis. Less often, bacteria can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute bronchitis, your health care provider will ask about your symptoms and listen to your breathing. You may also have other tests. Treatments include rest, fluids, and aspirin (for adults) or acetaminophen to treat fever. A humidifier or steam can also help. You may need inhaled medicine to open your airways if you are wheezing. Antibiotics won't help if the cause is viral. You may get antibiotics if the cause is bacterial. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

MalaCards based summary : Bronchitis, also known as chronic bronchitis, is related to haemophilus influenzae and pulmonary emphysema, and has symptoms including cough, chest tightness and shortness of breath. An important gene associated with Bronchitis is ELANE (Elastase, Neutrophil Expressed), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and Akt Signaling. The drugs Cefdinir and Tazobactam have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include lung, neutrophil and kidney, and related phenotypes are hematopoietic system and immune system

Disease Ontology : 12 A bronchial disease that is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes. It is caused by bacteria and viruses. The disease has symptom cough with mucus, has symptom shortness of breath, has symptom low fever and has symptom chest tightness.

CDC : 3 Bronchitis occurs when the airways of the lungs swell and produce mucus. That's what makes you cough. Acute bronchitis, often called a "chest cold," is the most common type of bronchitis. The symptoms last less than 3 weeks. Antibiotics are not indicated to treat acute bronchitis. Using antibiotics when not needed could do more harm than good. If you're a healthy person without underlying heart or lung problems or a weakened immune system, this information is for you.

PubMed Health : 62 About acute bronchitis: In acute bronchitis, the lower airways (bronchi) are temporarily inflamed. The inflammation is usually caused by cold viruses, so it often occurs together with other symptoms of a cold. Acute bronchitis causes a cough which might not go away for a while, even after the cold has gone away. Although the cough may be unpleasant and persistent, in otherwise healthy people it usually isn’t anything serious. The symptoms then go away on their own after a few weeks. Treatment with medication usually isn’t necessary. Some medications may help relieve the symptoms a bit.

Wikipedia : 73 Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs that causes... more...

Related Diseases for Bronchitis

Diseases related to Bronchitis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 831)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 haemophilus influenzae 32.0 TNF LACTB CXCL8
2 pulmonary emphysema 31.5 SLPI SERPINB1 SERPINA1 ELANE CXCL8
3 anthracosis 31.5 TNF IL6 CXCL8
4 avian influenza 31.3 TNF IL6 CXCL8
5 pneumoconiosis 31.2 TNF SERPINA1 IL6 CXCL8
6 hypereosinophilic syndrome 31.2 RNASE3 MPO IL9 IL5 CXCL8 CCR3
7 chlamydia pneumonia 31.0 TNF IL6 CXCL8 CRP
8 pertussis 31.0 TNF IL6 CXCL8 CCL11
9 bacterial infectious disease 31.0 TNF IL6 ELANE CXCL8 CRP CFTR
10 pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive 31.0 TNF TAC1 SLPI SERPINB1 SERPINA1 RNASE3
11 chlamydia 31.0 TNF IL6 IL5 CXCL8 CRP
12 bronchiectasis 31.0 TNF SLPI SERPINA1 MPO IL6 ELANE
13 bronchiolitis 30.9 TNF RNASE3 IL9 IL6 IL5 CXCL8
14 farmer's lung 30.9 TNF SLPI ELANE
15 pulmonary hypertension 30.9 VIP TNF IL6 ELANE CXCL8 CRP
16 tracheitis 30.9 TNF SERPINB1 IL6 CXCL8 CRP
17 bronchial disease 30.9 TNF TAC1 RNASE3 IL9 IL6 IL5
18 allergic asthma 30.9 RNASE3 IL9 IL5 CXCL8 CCL11
19 cytokine deficiency 30.8 IL9 IL5
20 laryngitis 30.8 TNF IL6 CRP
21 chronic asthma 30.8 RNASE3 IL5 CCL11
22 aspergillosis 30.8 TNF IL6 IL5 ELANE CXCL8 CFTR
23 exanthem 30.8 TNF IL6 CXCL8 CRP
24 bronchopneumonia 30.8 TNF MPO IL6 ELANE CXCL8 CRP
25 acute asthma 30.8 RNASE3 IL5
26 severe acute respiratory syndrome 30.8 TNF IL6 CXCL8 CRP
27 rhinitis 30.7 VIP TNF RNASE3 IL9 IL6 IL5
28 eosinophilic pneumonia 30.7 RNASE3 IL5 CXCL8 CCL11
29 status asthmaticus 30.7 RNASE3 IL5 ELANE CXCL8 CCL11
30 allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis 30.7 IL5 CFTR CCR3
31 gastroenteritis 30.6 TNF RNASE3 LACTB IL6 IL5 CXCL8
32 allergic rhinitis 30.6 VIP RNASE3 MPO IL9 IL5 CXCL8
33 bronchopulmonary dysplasia 30.6 RNASE3 ELANE CXCL8
34 common cold 30.6 TNF RNASE3 IL6 IL5 CXCL8 CFTR
35 pollen allergy 30.6 RNASE3 MPO IL5
36 bronchiolitis obliterans 30.6 TNF SLPI MPO IL6 CXCL8 CRP
37 nasopharyngitis 30.5 TNF IL5 CRP
38 tonsillitis 30.5 TNF MPO LACTB IL6 CXCL8
39 extrinsic allergic alveolitis 30.5 MPO IL6 ELANE CXCL8
40 sarcoidosis 1 30.5 TNF IL9 CRP CCL11
41 enterocolitis 30.5 TNF IL6 CXCL8
42 lung abscess 30.5 TNF LACTB IL6 CRP
43 vaginitis 30.5 TNF SLPI IL6 CXCL8
44 proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome 1 30.4 TNF RNASE3 MPO IL6 IL5 ELANE
45 asbestosis 30.4 SERPINA1 MPO IL6
46 streptococcus pneumonia 30.4 TNF IL6 CXCL8 CRP
47 gastric ulcer 30.4 TNF IL6 CXCL8
48 pericarditis 30.4 TNF IL6 CXCL8 CRP
49 pharyngitis 30.4 TNF LACTB IL6 CXCL8 CRP
50 dermatitis 30.4 TNF RNASE3 IL6 IL5 CXCL8 CCL11

Comorbidity relations with Bronchitis via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show top 50) (show all 127)

Acquired Polycythemia Active Peptic Ulcer Disease
Acute Conjunctivitis Acute Cor Pulmonale
Acute Cystitis Acute Ethmoiditis
Acute Frontal Sinusitis Acute Kidney Failure
Acute Maxillary Sinusitis Agammaglobulinemia, X-Linked
Allergic Rhinitis Alzheimer Disease
Anthracosis Anxiety
Aortic Valve Disease 1 Asbestosis
Aspergillosis Asthma
Atrophic Gastritis Benign Essential Hypertension
Bronchiectasis Bronchopneumonia
Cardiac Arrest Cerebral Atherosclerosis
Cerebral Degeneration Cerebrovascular Disease
Chronic Ethmoiditis Chronic Frontal Sinusitis
Chronic Kidney Disease Chronic Laryngitis
Chronic Maxillary Sinusitis Chronic Pulmonary Heart Disease
Chronic Rhinitis Conjunctivitis
Conn's Syndrome Cystitis
Decubitus Ulcer Deficiency Anemia
Diabetic Polyneuropathy Diaphragm Disease
Duodenitis Dyskinesia of Esophagus
Dysthymic Disorder Encephalopathy
Esophageal Candidiasis Esophageal Disease
Esophagitis Familial Atrial Fibrillation
First-Degree Atrioventricular Block Gastroesophageal Reflux

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Bronchitis:

Diseases related to Bronchitis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Bronchitis


  • cough
  • chest tightness
  • shortness of breath
  • low fever

UMLS symptoms related to Bronchitis:

fever; recurrent pharyngitis; pruritus; snoring; coughing

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Bronchitis:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.93 CCL11 CCR3 CFTR ELANE IL5 IL6
2 immune system MP:0005387 9.8 CCL11 CCR3 CFTR CRP ELANE IL5
3 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.23 CCL11 CCR3 CFTR IL5 IL6 SERPINB1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Bronchitis

PubMed Health treatment related to Bronchitis: 62

Acute bronchitis gets better on its own without treatment . If you feel weak and ill, it’s best to take it easy for a few days. This also means not doing any sports or other strenuous physical activities. Hot tea or broth is usually considered to have a soothing effect. But there is no scientific proof that drinking a lot more fluids than usual helps, or doesn’t help. Acute bronchitis doesn’t need to be treated with medication. Drugs such as paracetamol (acetaminophen ) or ibuprofen are sometimes a good idea, though, for the relief of cold symptoms such as fever and pain. There hasn’t been enough research on the effectiveness of cough medicines that are designed to make you cough less (cough suppressants) or make it easier to cough up phlegm (expectorants). Because coughing has the important function of getting rid of mucus and foreign objects, cough suppressants should only be used for a limited amount of time, and only for really unpleasant, dry coughs that disrupt your sleep . Herbal medicines might relieve coughs somewhat. Because the symptoms are usually caused by viruses , antibiotics don’t help much in the treatment of acute bronchitis . But they can have side effects and contribute to bacteria becoming resistant. So antibiotics aren’t recommended as a treatment for acute bronchitis.

Drugs for Bronchitis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 229)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Cefdinir Approved Phase 4 91832-40-5 6915944
Tazobactam Approved Phase 4 89786-04-9 123630
Piperacillin Approved Phase 4 66258-76-2 43672
Codeine Approved, Illicit Phase 4 76-57-3 5284371
Dextromethorphan Approved Phase 4 125-71-3 5360696 5362449
Thyme Approved Phase 4
Penicillin G Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 61-33-6 5904
Ethinyl Estradiol Approved Phase 4 57-63-6 5991
Polyestradiol phosphate Approved Phase 4 28014-46-2
Moxifloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 354812-41-2, 151096-09-2 152946
Estradiol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-28-2 5757
Norgestimate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 35189-28-7 6540478
Cefuroxime Approved Phase 4 55268-75-2 5361202 5479529
Fluticasone Approved, Experimental Phase 4 90566-53-3 62924
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 93-14-1 3516
Phenylpropanolamine Approved, Vet_approved, Withdrawn Phase 4 14838-15-4 26934
Acetazolamide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-66-5 1986
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 1177-87-3
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 5743
Meropenem Approved, Investigational Phase 4 119478-56-7, 96036-03-2 441130 64778
Chlorpheniramine Approved Phase 4 132-22-9, 113-92-8 2725
Budesonide Approved Phase 4 51333-22-3 63006 5281004
Ivacaftor Approved Phase 4 873054-44-5 16220172
Streptokinase Approved, Investigational Phase 4 9002-01-1
Montelukast Approved Phase 4 158966-92-8 5281040
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 616-91-1 12035
Angiotensin II Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68521-88-0, 11128-99-7, 4474-91-3 172198
Losartan Approved Phase 4 114798-26-4 3961
Ergocalciferol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-14-6 5280793
Cysteine Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 52-90-4 5862
Andrographolide Investigational Phase 4 5508-58-7
Bambuterol Investigational Phase 4 81732-65-2, 81732-46-9 54766
33 Antitussive Agents Phase 4
34 Vitamin D2 Phase 4
35 Ergocalciferols Phase 4
36 Andrographis Phase 4
37 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 4
38 Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination Phase 4
39 Antipyretics Phase 4
40 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 4
41 Penicillin G Procaine Phase 4
42 Penicillin G Benzathine Phase 4
43 Contraceptive Agents Phase 4
44 Contraceptives, Oral Phase 4
45 Contraceptives, Oral, Combined Phase 4
46 Estradiol 17 beta-cypionate Phase 4
47 Estradiol 3-benzoate Phase 4
48 Norgestimate, ethinyl estradiol drug combination Phase 4
49 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 4
50 cefuroxime axetil Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 330)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation in Young Children With Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa Unknown status NCT02054182 Phase 4 Vitamin D
2 Efficacy and Safety of Combined With Andrographolide Sulfonate on the Basis of Conventional Therapy in Patients With Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis: a Randomized, Single Blind, Placebo-controlled, Multicenter Study Unknown status NCT03132610 Phase 4 andrographolide sulfonate;andrographolide sulfonate simulation
3 Comparison of Cefdinir and Cefdinir/Clavulanic Acid Combination in Treatment of Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis (AECB) and Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in Adults Unknown status NCT03400735 Phase 4 Cefdinir 300Mg Capsule
4 Effects of Exercise Training on Systemic Inflammation an Muscle Repair According to the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Phenotype Unknown status NCT01431625 Phase 4
5 Inspiratory Capacity and HRCT Comparison of Nebulized Arformoterol (Brovana) vs. Dry-powder Inhaler Salmeterol (Serevent) Unknown status NCT01361984 Phase 4 Nebulized arformoterol;Salmeterol
6 The Efficacy and Safety of Andrographolide Sulfonate in the Treatment of Acute Bronchitis: a Randomized,Double-blind,Placebo Parallel Controlled,Multicenter Study Unknown status NCT03132623 Phase 4 andrographolide sulfonate;andrographolide sulfonate simulation
7 Effectiveness of Antitussives, Anticholinergics and Honey Versus Usual Care in Adults With Uncomplicated Acute Bronchitis. Unknown status NCT03738917 Phase 4 Dextromethorphan 15 milligrams;Ipratropium Bromide 20Micrograms Inhaler
8 Procalcitonin as a Marker of Antibiotic Therapy in Patients With Lower Respiratory Tract Infections. Can Measurement of Procalcitonin Reduce the Use of Antibiotics? Unknown status NCT02171338 Phase 4
9 Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Study of add-on Montelukast to Inhaled Budesonide in the Treatment of Nonasthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis Unknown status NCT01121016 Phase 4 Montelukast
10 Randomised, Open-label, Parallel-group Study of the Response to Bronchodilator Treatment in Subjects With Eosinophilic Bronchitis and the Mechanism of Varied Responses to Bronchodilator Treatment. Unknown status NCT02002754 Phase 4 Bambuterol Hydrochloride tablets
11 A Multicenter, Randomized, Open Label, Add-on Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Xiyanping Injection in Subjects With Pediatric Bronchitis Unknown status NCT02937857 Phase 4 Standard treatment only;Standard treatment+Xiyanping injection
12 MAESTRAL - A Prospective, Multinational, Multicenter, Randomized, Double Blind, Double Dummy, Controlled Study Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Moxifloxacin to That of Amoxicillin Clavulanic Acid for the Treatment of Subjects With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis. Completed NCT00656747 Phase 4 Avelox (Moxifloxacin, BAY12-8039);Amoxicillin clavulanic acid
13 Acetazolamide for Prevention of Altitude Related Illness in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial. Completed NCT03156231 Phase 4 ACETAZOLAMIDE oral capsule;Placebo oral capsule
14 Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease at Altitude - Effect of Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy on Exercise Performance Completed NCT02143609 Phase 4 oxygen;sham oxygen (room air)
15 Dexamethasone for Prophylaxis of Sleep Related Breathing Disturbances in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Travelling to Altitude Completed NCT02450994 Phase 4 Dexamethasone;Placebo
16 Dexamethasone for Prophylaxis of Acute Mountain Sickness in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Travelling to Altitude Completed NCT02450968 Phase 4 Dexamethasone;Placebo
17 Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Staying at Altitude - Effect of Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy on Breathing and Sleep in Completed NCT02150590 Phase 4 Oxygen;sham oxygen (room air)
18 Pharmacoeconomic Outcomes of Levalbuterol and Racemic Albuterol in Inpatients Requiring Nebulization (POLARIS) Completed NCT00667797 Phase 4 levalbuterol HCl;albuterol Sulfate
19 A Double-blind, Placebo Controlled, Randomized Crossover Trial to Characterize the Mucolytic Effectiveness of Tacholiquine® in Chronic Bronchitis Completed NCT02515799 Phase 4 Tacholiquine
20 A Multicenter, Multinational, Randomized, DB Controlled Study of the Efficacy & Safety of Oral Telithromycin 800 mg Once QD for 5 Days vs Azithromycin in the Treatment of Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis in Adult Outpatients With COPD. Completed NCT00538148 Phase 4 Telithromycin
21 An Open-label, Randomized, Multicenter, Clinical Study to Compare the Effects of Telithromycin, Azithromycin and Cefuroxime Axetil on the Penicillin or Macrolide Resistance of Streptococcus Pneumoniae in Patients With Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis Completed NCT00132938 Phase 4 telithromycin
22 Ceftidoren Versus Levofloxacin in the Treatment of Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis (AECB). Multi-centre, Open-label, Randomised, Pilot Study to Evaluate the Effects of the Treatment on Serum Inflammatory Biomarkers Completed NCT01467297 Phase 4 ceftidoren;levofloxacin
23 The Effectiveness of Roflumilast in Improving Mucociliary Clearance in Patients With COPD and Chronic Bronchitis Completed NCT03073798 Phase 4 Roflumilast;Placebo
24 A Randomized, Sham-controlled, Double-blinded Pilot Study to Assess the Effects of High Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation (HFCWO) Therapy in Patients With Chronic Bronchitis Completed NCT00181207 Phase 4
25 Study Regarding the Clinical Efficacy of Synatura® in Patients With Chronic Bronchitis Type COPD Completed NCT03623282 Phase 4 Synatura® 15 mL
26 A Canadian Multicenter, Prospective, Open Label, Non-Comparative Study of the Effectiveness and Safety of Oral Telithromycin, 800mg Once Daily in the Treatment of Either Community Acquired Pneumonia or Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis in Ambulator Completed NCT00546676 Phase 4 Telithromycin
27 A Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial Comparing the Efficacy and Cost-effectiveness of Inhaled Fluticason Propionate Versus Oral N-acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Patients With COPD in General Practice Completed NCT00184977 Phase 4 N-acetylcysteine;fluticasone propionate
28 Effects of Fluticasone On Systemic Markers of Inflammation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Completed NCT00175565 Phase 4 inhaled fluticasone 500 mcg b.i.d.
29 Randomised Cross-over Study to Compare the Effect of Formoterol Plus Tiotropium Versus Formoterol Monotherapy on Breathlessness, Dynamic Hyperinflation and Exercise Tolerance in Moderate-to-severe Stable COPD Patients Completed NCT00680056 Phase 4 Formoterol plus Placebo (Tiotropium);Formoterol plus Tiotropium
30 Efficacy of Losartan in Preventing Progression of COPD Completed NCT00720226 Phase 4 Losartan;Placebo
31 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel Group, Multicenter Study of the Effects of Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol Combination Product 250/50mcg BID (ADVAIR DISKUS™) in Comparison to Salmeterol 50mcg BID (SEREVENT DISKUS™) on the Rate of Exacerbations of COPD Following Hospitalization Completed NCT01110200 Phase 4 ADVAIR DISKUS 250/50 mg BID;SEREVENT 50 mcg BID
32 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, 16-Week Study to Evaluate the Effect of Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS® 250/50mcg BID and Placebo on Arterial Stiffness in Subjects With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Completed NCT00857766 Phase 4 ADVAIR DISKUS™ 250/50mcg
33 Comparison of Azithromycin or Clarithromycin in 3drugs Protocol of H-pylori Eradication Regimen Completed NCT01667692 Phase 4 azithromycin;clarithmycin
34 Clinical Evaluation of a Meropenem Dosage Strategy Based on a Population Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic Model in Lower Respiratory Tract Infection Patients Completed NCT01944319 Phase 4 Routine meropenem therapy;Meropenem therapy based on a PPK and PD model
35 Effectiveness and Costs of Combined Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccination in Pre-School Children With Recurrent Respiratory Tract Infections (RTI): a General Practice-Based Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT00161122 Phase 4
36 Anti-inflammatory Effects of Macrolide Treatment in Influenza Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Completed NCT01779570 Phase 4 Macrolide treatment
37 Efficacy of Intermittent Tiotropium in Early Childhood Wheezing Completed NCT03199976 Phase 4 Tiotropium Bromide;Fluticasone Propionate;Salbutamol
38 Randomised, Open-label, Parallel-group Study of Therapeutic Effect of Different Treatment Course With Inhaled Corticosteroids in Eosinophilic Bronchitis Patients Completed NCT02002715 Phase 4 Inhaled budesonide
39 A Prospective, Open-label Study of Azithromycin for Lymphocytic Bronchiolitis/Bronchitis After Lung Transplantation Completed NCT01109160 Phase 4 Azithromycin Dihydrate
40 Phase 4 Study of Oral Montelukast Hospitalized Preschool Children Completed NCT03369119 Phase 4 Montelukast 4 Mg Oral Granule;Placebos
41 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Multicenter, Placebo-Controlled Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Mucinex D as Adjunct Therapy to Antibiotic Treatment of Acute Respiratory Infection Completed NCT00441246 Phase 4 Mucinex D (600 mg guaifenesin and 60 mg pseudoephedrine HCl extended-release bi-layer tablets)
42 A Two-Week, Randomized, Modified-Blind, Double-Dummy, Parallel-Group Efficacy and Safety Study of Arformoterol Tartrate Inhalation Solution Twice-Daily, Tiotropium Once-Daily, and Arformoterol Tartrate Inhalation Solution Twice-Daily and Tiotropium Once Daily in Subjects With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Completed NCT00424528 Phase 4 Arformoterol Tartrate Inhalation Solution;Tiotropium;Arformoterol and Tiotropium;Placebo
43 Clinical Trial for the Assessment of Delayed Antibiotic Treatment in the Non-complicated Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Pediatric (Study DAP-Pediatrics) Completed NCT01800747 Phase 4
44 Clinical Trial for the Assessment of Delayed Antibiotic Treatment Strategies in the Non-complicated Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in General Practice Completed NCT01363531 Phase 4
45 An Open Label Study to Investigate the Role of Ivacaftor (VX-770) for the Treatment of Chronic Bronchitis With CFTR Dysfunction Recruiting NCT03251911 Phase 4 Ivacaftor (VX-770)
46 Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled, Multicenter, Phase IV Clinical Trial to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of MUCOLASE Tablet (Streptokinase • Streptodornase) in Patients With Acute Upper Respiratory Infection or Acute Bronchitis Recruiting NCT04252963 Phase 4 MUCOLASE tablet (streptokinase • streptodornase);Placebo
47 Effectiveness of Montelukast in Children With Recurrent Obstructive Bronchitis Active, not recruiting NCT04613180 Phase 4 Montelukast Sodium;Placebo
48 A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Trial of Intravenous N-acetylcysteine and Oseltamivir Versus Intravenous 5% Dextrose and Oseltamivir in Adults Hospitalized With Influenza Complicated by Lower Respiratory Tract Infection. Not yet recruiting NCT03900988 Phase 4 N-acetyl cysteine;5% Dextrose
49 Mepolizumab for the Treatment of Chronic Cough With Eosinophilic Airways Diseases Not yet recruiting NCT04765722 Phase 4 Mepolizumab;Normal Saline
50 A Randomized, Investigator Blinded, Multi-Center Clinical Study To Compare Patient Outcomes and Clinical Effectiveness of Telithromycin Versus Azithromycin in Outpatients With Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Terminated NCT00132951 Phase 4 Telithromycin;Azithromycin

Search NIH Clinical Center for Bronchitis

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 70 / NDF-RT 51 :

aminophylline dihydrate
Dornase Alfa
fenugreek seed meal
Fenugreek seed preparation
gemifloxacin mesylate
iodinated glycerol
Ipratropium Bromide
Theophylline anhydrous
Theophylline calcium salicylate
Theophylline Sodium Glycinate

Cochrane evidence based reviews: bronchitis

Genetic Tests for Bronchitis

Genetic tests related to Bronchitis:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Chronic Bronchitis 29

Anatomical Context for Bronchitis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Bronchitis:

Lung, Neutrophil, Kidney, Trachea, Skin, Smooth Muscle, T Cells

Publications for Bronchitis

Articles related to Bronchitis:

(show top 50) (show all 21873)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Impact of atmospheric pollution on asthma and bronchitis based on lichen biomonitoring using IAP, IHI and GIS in Algiers Bay (Algeria). 61 42
33730196 2021
Effect of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics for chronic bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. 61 42
33157958 2020
Effect of myrtol on chronic bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. 42 61
32664065 2020
Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Chronic Airway Diseases. 42 61
32570774 2020
Impact of social isolation due to COVID-19 on the seasonality of pediatric respiratory diseases. 42 61
33306735 2020
Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of Candida tracheobronchitis. 42
33578566 2021
Chronic bronchitis before age 50 years predicts incident airflow limitation and mortality risk. 61 54
19581277 2009
Characterisation of phenotypes based on severity of emphysema in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 61 54
17573447 2007
Determinants of airflow obstruction in severe alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. 54 61
17389752 2007
Plasma cells and IL-4 in chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 54 61
17322111 2007
[Systemic and lung inflammation in 2 phenotypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]. 61 54
16945263 2006
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator function is suppressed in cigarette smokers. 54 61
16497995 2006
High seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in chronic bronchitis among Chinese population. 54 61
16565595 2006
ErbB2 activity is required for airway epithelial repair following neutrophil elastase exposure. 54 61
15923396 2005
Enhanced PMN response in chronic bronchitis and community-acquired pneumonia. 54 61
15516671 2004
[Complex search for antiprotease-protease enzyme gene polymorphisms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases]. 61 54
15612581 2004
[Protective and therapeutic effect of pulmonary surfactant on the experimental chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in hamsters]. 54 61
15266830 2004
Atypical sinusitis in adults must lead to looking for cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia. 61 54
15126740 2004
Marked up-regulation of T lymphocytes and expression of interleukin-9 in bronchial biopsies from patients With chronic bronchitis with obstruction. 61 54
14605067 2003
Protease inhibitors of the sulfonamide type: anticancer, antiinflammatory, and antiviral agents. 61 54
12789686 2003
The role of neural inflammation in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 54 61
12794061 2003
[The study of inflammatory mediators and pulmonary ventilatory capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]. 54 61
12775264 2003
[Eotaxin in induced sputum in patients with asthma and chronic bronchitis: relationship with airway inflammation]. 54 61
11953096 2002
Eotaxin and CCR3 are up-regulated in exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. 61 54
11991282 2002
Mucin-producing elements and inflammatory cells. 54 61
12568488 2002
Interleukin-4 and interleukin-5 gene expression and inflammation in the mucus-secreting glands and subepithelial tissue of smokers with chronic bronchitis. Lack of relationship with CD8(+) cells. 54 61
11751191 2001
Pre-protachykinin-A mRNA is increased in the airway epithelium of smokers with chronic bronchitis. 54 61
11555376 2001
Bacteriology and beta-lactamase activity in acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. 54 61
11468101 2001
[Effects of bacterial extract IRS-19 on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and myeloperoxidase activity in nasal washings of patients with chronic bronchitis]. 54 61
11417179 2001
Serum ECP and MPO are increased during exacerbations of chronic bronchitis with airway obstruction. 61 54
10917466 2000
Airways inflammation in chronic bronchitis: the effects of smoking and alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. 61 54
10853853 2000
Heat shock proteins mRNA expressions by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in asthma and chronic bronchitis. 54 61
11775547 2000
Detection of CFTR gene mutations in patients suffering from chronic bronchitis. 54 61
10767489 2000
IL-9 and its receptor in allergic and nonallergic lung disease: increased expression in asthma. 54 61
10629460 2000
The significance of sputum ECP levels in differential diagnosis of asthma in children. 54 61
10498044 1999
Pancreatitis and cystic fibrosis gene mutations. 61 54
10503135 1999
Novel insights into structure and function of MRP8 (S100A8) and MRP14 (S100A9). 61 54
9920411 1998
Complete mutational screening of the CFTR gene in 120 patients with pulmonary disease. 61 54
9921909 1998
Environmental correlates of impaired lung function in non-smokers with severe alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiZZ). 54 61
10193391 1998
Cellular and molecular characteristics of inflammation in chronic bronchitis. 61 54
9650009 1998
Increased levels of elastase and alpha1-antitrypsin in sputum of asthmatic patients. 61 54
9476865 1998
Increased VIP-positive nerve fibers in the mucous glands of subjects with chronic bronchitis. 54 61
9412581 1997
Blood interleukin-8 production is increased in chemical workers with bronchitic symptoms. 54 61
9358925 1997
Human lactoferrin receptor activity in non-encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae. 61 54
9368377 1997
Iron-binding proteins in sputum of chronic bronchitis patients with Haemophilus influenzae infections. 61 54
9387961 1997
Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of FK706, a novel elastase inhibitor. 61 54
9389382 1997
Serum secretory leukoprotease inhibitor levels in chronic bronchitis and Sjögren's syndrome. 54 61
9352624 1997
Inhibition of neutrophil elastase-induced interleukin-8 gene expression by urinary trypsin inhibitor in human bronchial epithelial cells. 54 61
9030096 1997
Effect of bacterial extract, IRS-19, on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and myeloperoxidase activity in nasal washings of patients with chronic bronchitis. 54 61
9090443 1997
[Interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid material from patients with chronic bronchitis]. 61 54
9273226 1996

Variations for Bronchitis

Expression for Bronchitis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Bronchitis.

Pathways for Bronchitis

Pathways related to Bronchitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 36)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
13.32 TNF IL9R IL9 IL6 IL5 CXCL8
Show member pathways
13.31 TNF IL9R IL9 IL6 IL5 CXCL8
Show member pathways
13.19 TNF IL9R IL9 IL6 IL5 CXCL8
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
12.36 IL9R IL9 IL6 IL5
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
12.23 TNF IL6 CXCL8 CCR3 CCL11
10 12.21 MPO IL6 ELANE CXCL8
Show member pathways
12.18 TNF IL9 IL6 IL5 CXCL8
Show member pathways
13 12.11 TNF TAC1 IL6 CXCL8
Show member pathways
15 11.91 TNF IL6 CXCL8 CCL11
16 11.83 TNF MPO IL6 IL5 CCR3
17 11.81 TNF IL9R IL6 IL5
Show member pathways
11.78 VIP IL6 CRP
19 11.75 IL6 IL5 CXCL8
20 11.74 TNF IL9 IL5
21 11.71 TNF IL6 CXCL8
Show member pathways
11.7 TNF IL5 CXCL8
23 11.63 TNF IL6 IL5
Show member pathways
11.6 TNF IL6 CXCL8
25 11.55 TNF IL6 CXCL8
26 11.49 TNF IL6 CXCL8
27 11.47 TNF IL6 CXCL8
28 11.44 IL6 CXCL8 CCL11
29 11.42 IL9 IL5 CCL11
30 11.42 TNF MPO IL6 ELANE
31 11.17 TNF IL6 IL5
32 11.06 TNF IL9 IL6 IL5
34 10.94 TNF IL9 IL6 IL5 CXCL8 CCL11
35 10.74 TNF IL6 CXCL8 CRP
36 10.34 IL9R IL9 IL6 IL5

GO Terms for Bronchitis

Cellular components related to Bronchitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.86 VIP TNF TAC1 SLPI SERPINB1 SERPINA1
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.5 TNF TAC1 SLPI SERPINB1 SERPINA1 RNASE3

Biological processes related to Bronchitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 22)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.85 TNF IL6 IL5 CXCL8 CCL11
2 neutrophil degranulation GO:0043312 9.85 SLPI SERPINB1 SERPINA1 RNASE3 MPO ELANE
3 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.83 TAC1 SLPI MPO ELANE
4 chemotaxis GO:0006935 9.81 RNASE3 CXCL8 CCR3 CCL11
5 defense response to bacterium GO:0042742 9.8 TNF SLPI RNASE3 MPO ELANE
6 chemokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0070098 9.76 CXCL8 CCR3 CCL11
7 positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation GO:0001938 9.75 VIP CCR3 CCL11
8 positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation GO:0048661 9.73 TNF IL6 ELANE
9 positive regulation of interleukin-8 production GO:0032757 9.71 TNF IL6 ELANE
10 acute-phase response GO:0006953 9.65 SERPINA1 IL6 CRP
11 defense response to Gram-positive bacterium GO:0050830 9.62 TNF RNASE3 IL6 CRP
12 positive regulation of neuroinflammatory response GO:0150078 9.61 TNF IL6
13 positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade GO:0046427 9.61 TNF IL6 IL5
14 positive regulation of podosome assembly GO:0071803 9.6 TNF IL5
15 negative regulation of chemokine production GO:0032682 9.59 IL6 ELANE
16 interleukin-9-mediated signaling pathway GO:0038113 9.57 IL9R IL9
17 immune response GO:0006955 9.56 TNF SLPI IL9 IL6 IL5 CXCL8
18 vascular endothelial growth factor production GO:0010573 9.55 TNF IL6
19 response to yeast GO:0001878 9.49 MPO ELANE
20 negative regulation of neurogenesis GO:0050768 9.43 TNF IL6 CCL11
21 negative regulation of lipid storage GO:0010888 9.33 TNF IL6 CRP
22 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.28 TNF TAC1 IL9 IL6 IL5 CXCL8

Molecular functions related to Bronchitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.1 TNF IL9 IL6 IL5 CXCL8 CCL11

Sources for Bronchitis

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
69 Tocris
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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