Aliases & Classifications for Bruxism

MalaCards integrated aliases for Bruxism:

Name: Bruxism 12 29 55 6 44 15 73
Sleep Bruxism 44 73
Bruxism - Teeth Grinding 12
Sleep Related Bruxism 12
Sleep-Related Bruxism 73
Grinding Teeth 12
Teeth Grinding 12

Classifications:



Summaries for Bruxism

Disease Ontology : 12 A sleep disorder that involves involuntarily grinding or clenching of the teeth while sleeping.

MalaCards based summary : Bruxism, also known as sleep bruxism, is related to fibromyalgia and social phobia, and has symptoms including sleep disturbances, snoring and toothache. An important gene associated with Bruxism is MECP2 (Methyl-CpG Binding Protein 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Susceptibility Pathways and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics. The drugs Acetylcholine and Lidocaine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, bone and eye.

Wikipedia : 76 Bruxism is excessive teeth grinding or jaw clenching. It is an oral parafunctional activity; i.e., it is... more...

Related Diseases for Bruxism

Diseases related to Bruxism via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 92)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 fibromyalgia 30.1 HTR2A SLC6A4
2 social phobia 30.0 DRD2 SLC6A4
3 pervasive developmental disorder 29.5 CDKL5 MECP2 SLC6A4
4 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 29.2 DRD2 HTR2A MECP2 SLC6A4
5 autism 29.1 CDKL5 DRD2 HTR2A MECP2 SLC6A4
6 parasomnia, sleep bruxism type 12.3
7 cdkl5 deficiency disorder 11.0
8 oromandibular dystonia 10.9
9 tardive dyskinesia 10.8 DRD2 HTR2A
10 drug-induced mental disorder 10.7 DRD2 HTR2A
11 drug psychosis 10.7 DRD2 HTR2A
12 gait apraxia 10.7 CDKL5 MECP2
13 tic disorder 10.7 DRD2 HTR2A
14 progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 10.6 HTR2A MECP2
15 infantile hypotonia 10.6 MECP2 UNC80
16 epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 9 10.5 CDKL5 MECP2
17 alzheimer disease 5 10.4 HTR2A SLC6A4
18 alcohol-induced mental disorder 10.4 DRD2 SLC6A4
19 psychosexual disorder 10.3 HTR2A SLC6A4
20 x-linked non-specific intellectual disability 10.3 IQSEC2 MECP2
21 dysthymic disorder 10.3 HTR2A SLC6A4
22 oppositional defiant disorder 10.3 DRD2 SLC6A4
23 headache 10.3
24 alexithymia 10.3 DRD2 SLC6A4
25 seizure disorder 10.2 CDKL5 FRRS1L MECP2
26 encephalopathy 10.2 CDKL5 FRRS1L MECP2
27 anxiety 10.2
28 antisocial personality disorder 10.2 DRD2 SLC6A4
29 sleep apnea 10.1
30 paranoid schizophrenia 10.1 HTR2A SLC6A4
31 alcoholic psychosis 10.1 DRD2 HTR2A SLC6A4
32 periodic limb movement disorder 10.1 DRD2 HTR2A SLC6A4
33 pathological gambling 10.1 DRD2 HTR2A SLC6A4
34 early-onset schizophrenia 10.1 DRD2 HTR2A SLC6A4
35 generalized anxiety disorder 10.1 DRD2 HTR2A SLC6A4
36 personality disorder 10.1 DRD2 HTR2A SLC6A4
37 apnea, obstructive sleep 10.1
38 post-traumatic stress disorder 10.1 DRD2 HTR2A SLC6A4
39 schizoaffective disorder 10.1 DRD2 HTR2A SLC6A4
40 cervicitis 10.1
41 depression 10.1
42 mood disorder 10.1 DRD2 HTR2A SLC6A4
43 psychotic disorder 10.1 DRD2 HTR2A SLC6A4
44 borderline personality disorder 10.1 HTR2A SLC6A4
45 obsessive-compulsive disorder 10.1 DRD2 HTR2A SLC6A4
46 sleep disorder 10.1
47 migraine without aura 10.0 DRD2 SLC6A4
48 migraine with or without aura 1 10.0 DRD2 HTR2A SLC6A4
49 specific developmental disorder 10.0 CDKL5 MECP2 SLC6A4
50 gastroesophageal reflux 10.0

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Bruxism:



Diseases related to Bruxism

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Bruxism

UMLS symptoms related to Bruxism:


sleep disturbances, snoring, toothache, teeth chattering, mental and behavioral signs and symptoms, excessive daytime somnolence, sleeplessness

Drugs & Therapeutics for Bruxism

Drugs for Bruxism (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 66)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Acetylcholine Approved Phase 4,Phase 1 51-84-3 187
2
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676
3 abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4,Phase 1
4 Botulinum Toxins Phase 4,Phase 1
5 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 4,Phase 1
6 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 1
7 Neuromuscular Agents Phase 4,Phase 1
8 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
9 onabotulinumtoxinA Phase 4,Phase 1
10 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
11 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
12 Anesthetics Phase 4
13 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4
14 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4
15 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 4
16 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 4
17
Salicylic acid Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2,Early Phase 1,Not Applicable 69-72-7 338
18 Lemon Balm Nutraceutical Phase 3
19 Poke Nutraceutical Phase 3
20
Miconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 1, Phase 2,Early Phase 1,Not Applicable 22916-47-8 4189
21
Norepinephrine Approved Phase 2 51-41-2 439260
22 Antifungal Agents Phase 1, Phase 2,Early Phase 1,Not Applicable
23 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 1, Phase 2,Early Phase 1,Not Applicable
24 Dermatologic Agents Phase 1, Phase 2,Early Phase 1,Not Applicable
25 Keratolytic Agents Phase 1, Phase 2,Early Phase 1,Not Applicable
26 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 2,Not Applicable
27 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 2,Not Applicable
28 Adrenergic Agents Phase 2
29 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 2
30 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 2
31 Antidepressive Agents Phase 2,Not Applicable
32 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 2
33 Autonomic Agents Phase 2
34 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 2
35 Quetiapine Fumarate Phase 2 111974-72-2
36 Serotonin Agents Phase 2
37 Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors Phase 2
38 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Phase 2
39 Vasoconstrictor Agents Phase 2
40
Serotonin Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 2 50-67-9 5202
41
Hydrocortisone Approved, Vet_approved Early Phase 1 50-23-7 5754
42
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 60142-96-3 3446
43
gamma-Aminobutyric acid Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 56-12-2 119
44
Buspirone Approved, Investigational 36505-84-7 2477
45
Clonidine Approved 4205-90-7 2803
46
Butyric Acid Experimental, Investigational Early Phase 1 107-92-6 264
47 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Early Phase 1
48 Cortisol succinate Early Phase 1
49 Hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate Early Phase 1
50 Hydrocortisone acetate Early Phase 1

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 45)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Effects of Botulinum Toxin Type A(Meditoxin®) on Sleep Bruxism Unknown status NCT01336439 Phase 4 Botulinum toxin type A (Meditoxin®)
2 Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Botox in Bruxism Unknown status NCT00908050 Phase 4 Botulinum toxin type A
3 Accuracy and Efficacy of Trazodone (Desyrel) on Sleep Quality and Pain Management of TMD Patient Not yet recruiting NCT03522207 Phase 4 Trazodone;Placebos;Trazodone;placebos
4 Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Versus Lidocaine in Treating Masticatory Myofascial Face Pain Using Ultrasound and EMG Guided Techniques Terminated NCT00992108 Phase 4 lidocaine;chemodenervation
5 Postoperative Hypersensitivity Randomized Comparative Effectiveness Research Trial Completed NCT01268605 Phase 3
6 The Platelet-Rich Plasma in the Therapy of Temporomandibular Disorders Recruiting NCT03371888 Phase 2, Phase 3
7 Efficacy of Phytolacca Decandra and Melissa Officinalis in Children With Nocturnal Bruxism Active, not recruiting NCT02870543 Phase 3 Phytolacca decandra;Melissa officinalis;Phyt.decandra + Melissa offic.
8 The Influence of Oral Vibrational Stimulation on Cognitive Function of Elderly Individuals Unknown status NCT02332525 Phase 1, Phase 2
9 Physiotherapy on the Airway of Bruxist Children Completed NCT01178229 Phase 1, Phase 2
10 Occlusal Adjustment as Treatment for Chronic Orofacial Pain Completed NCT00899717 Phase 1, Phase 2
11 A Study to Compare the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of JNJ-42847922 Versus Quetiapine Extended-Release as Adjunctive Therapy to Antidepressants in Adult Participants With Major Depressive Disorder Who Have Responded Inadequately to Antidepressant Th Recruiting NCT03321526 Phase 2 JNJ-42847922;Placebo Matching to JNJ-42847922;Quetiapine XR;Placebo Matching to Quetiapine XR;Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI);Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (SNRI)
12 Botox for Treatment of TMJ Disorder With Bruxism Withdrawn NCT02202070 Phase 1 onabotulinumtoxinA
13 Evaluation of Muscle Activity, Bite Force and Salivary Cortisol in Children With Bruxism Unknown status NCT02757261 Early Phase 1
14 Physical Therapy Interventions Relative to Dental Treatment in Individuals With Bruxism Unknown status NCT01778881 Not Applicable
15 Relationship of Facial Pattern With Bruxism Unknown status NCT00868244
16 TMJ NextGen Pilot Study to Treat Subjects With Bruxism Unknown status NCT02446288 Not Applicable
17 Reduction of Masticatory Muscle Activity by Restoring Canine Guidance Unknown status NCT02235220 Not Applicable
18 Analysis of the Prevalence and Characteristics of Concomitant Sleep and Headache Disorders, and the Efficacy of CPAP Treatment for Headache Among Those Patients Diagnosed With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Unknown status NCT00520156
19 The Effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation, Myofascial Releasing Maneuvers and Home Exercises on Pain and Jaw Function in Patients With Bruxism Completed NCT03499665 Not Applicable
20 Respiratory Problems and Caries in Children With Bruxism Completed NCT01463826
21 Treatment Sleep Bruxism With the Luco Hybrid OSA Appliance Completed NCT02882880 Not Applicable
22 Floral Remedies for Sleep-bruxism Patients Completed NCT03112954 Not Applicable Buccal-relaxant formula;Placebo
23 Comparative Evaluation of Gabapentine and Occlusal Splint in the Management of Sleep Bruxism Completed NCT01255878 Not Applicable Gabapentine
24 TMJ NextGeneration(TM) Feasibility Study Completed NCT02257320 Not Applicable
25 Effects of the Continuous Wear of Invisalign® Trays on the Temporomandibular Joints and Orofacial Muscular Complex Completed NCT01812850
26 Nocturnal Mouth Guards, SOVA vs. Standard Acrylic Orthotic; Phase IV Completed NCT02340663 Not Applicable
27 Effects of Dry Needling in Patients With Sleep Bruxism and Temporomandibular Disorders: a Prospective Case Series Completed NCT02587182 Not Applicable
28 A Clinical Trial of the Optimal Treatment Period and Long-term Efficacy of Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) on Sleep Bruxism Completed NCT01000389 Not Applicable
29 Oral Appliance in Obstructive Sleep Apnea. A Randomized Controlled Blinded Multicenter Study Comparing Two Devices Completed NCT02148510 Not Applicable
30 Impact of an Intensive Multimodal Educative Program on Behavioral Disorders of Patients With Profound Multiple Disabilities and on the Quality of Life and Feelings of Caregivers Completed NCT02510846 Not Applicable
31 Conservative Treatment of Patients With Temporomandibular Disorders Completed NCT01021306 Not Applicable
32 Prevalence of Bruxism in a Group of Preschool Egyptian Children Recruiting NCT03006133
33 All-ceramic Crowns in Patients With Sleep Bruxism Recruiting NCT03039985 Not Applicable
34 Efficacy of a Physiotherapy in Patients With Bruxism. Recruiting NCT03555201 Not Applicable
35 Temporomandibular Dysfunction in Patients With Tinnitus: Assessment and Treatment Recruiting NCT03209297 Not Applicable
36 Sleep Bruxism and (Peri-)Implant Complications Active, not recruiting NCT02410681
37 Evaluation of Selected Disorders With Sleep Bruxism Enrolling by invitation NCT03083405 Clonidine;Buspirone
38 Validation of a Diagnostic Method for Quantification of Sleep Bruxism Not yet recruiting NCT03325920 Not Applicable
39 Interest of the BRUXENSE Occlusal Splints for Bruxism Diagnosis: a Feasibility Study Not yet recruiting NCT03363204 Not Applicable
40 Evaluation of Biofeedback Therapy Efficiency in Sleep Bruxism and Masticatory Muscles Pain Management Not yet recruiting NCT03421028 Not Applicable
41 Clinical Efficacy of Crowns Fabricated Using LuxaCrown Not yet recruiting NCT03160950 Not Applicable
42 Treatment Period and Long-term Efficacy of Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) on Sleep Bruxism Terminated NCT01005511 Not Applicable
43 Treatment Period and Long-term Effect of Functional Electric Stimulation (FES) for Bruxism Terminated NCT00807430 Not Applicable
44 Restoring Masticatory Function to Treat Chronic Pain Terminated NCT02144233 Not Applicable
45 TMJ-1001 Bruxism Run-In/Pivotal Trial Withdrawn NCT02269553 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Bruxism

Cochrane evidence based reviews: bruxism

Genetic Tests for Bruxism

Genetic tests related to Bruxism:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Bruxism 29

Anatomical Context for Bruxism

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Bruxism:

41
Brain, Bone, Eye, Heart, Testes, Tongue, Pineal

Publications for Bruxism

Articles related to Bruxism:

(show top 50) (show all 671)
# Title Authors Year
1
Evaluation of the association of bruxism, psychosocial and sociodemographic factors in preschoolers. ( 29412225 )
2018
2
Bruxism- is botulinum toxin an effective treatment? ( 29930364 )
2018
3
Long-term variability of sleep bruxism and psychological stress in patients with jaw-muscle pain: Report of two longitudinal clinical cases. ( 29197103 )
2018
4
Prevalence of Sleep Bruxism in IBD Patients and Its Correlation to Other Dental Disorders and Quality of Life. ( 29721012 )
2018
5
Comparative Evaluation of Salivary Cortisol Levels in Bruxism Patients Before and After Using Soft Occlusal Splint: An <i>in vivo</i> Study. ( 29875558 )
2018
6
Fluoxetine-Induced Sleep Bruxism Rapidly Treated With Once-Nightly Dosing of Buspirone in a 6-Year-Old Girl. ( 29979192 )
2018
7
Possible sleep bruxism, circadian preference, and sleep-related characteristics and behaviors among dental students. ( 29741116 )
2018
8
Insufficient evidence about sleep bruxism being a risk factor for ceramic restoration failure. ( 29150017 )
2018
9
Painful temporomandibular disorder, sleep bruxism, anxiety symptoms and subjective sleep quality among military firefighters with frequent episodic tension-type headache. A controlled study. ( 29972421 )
2018
10
Onabotulinum toxin-A injections for sleep bruxism: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. ( 29343468 )
2018
11
Evidence-Based Support for Sleep Bruxism Treatment Other Than Oral Appliances Remains Insufficient. ( 29747797 )
2018
12
SSRI-associated bruxism: A systematic review of published case reports. ( 29708207 )
2018
13
Bruxism and oral health-related quality of life among male inmates in a penal institution, Mysore: A cross-sectional study. ( 29900908 )
2018
14
Are there associations between sleep bruxism, chronic stress, and sleep quality? ( 29777735 )
2018
15
On Defining Bruxism. ( 29678021 )
2018
16
International consensus on the assessment of bruxism: Report of a work in progress. ( 29926505 )
2018
17
Can oral appliances reduce sleep bruxism?: Oral appliances for managing sleep bruxism in adults: a systematic review from 2007 to 2017. ( 29372702 )
2018
18
Association of sleep bruxism with oral health-related quality of life and sleep quality. ( 29589157 )
2018
19
Effects of clear aligners on sleep bruxism: randomized controlled trial. ( 29720327 )
2018
20
Changes in the temporomandibular joint disc and temporal and masseter muscles secondary to bruxism in Turkish patients. ( 29332113 )
2018
21
The risk factors related to bruxism in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. ( 29149621 )
2018
22
The Effects of Sleeping With or Without Prostheses on Sleep Quality, Sleep Bruxism, and Signs of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: A Pilot Study. ( 29723310 )
2018
23
Polysomnography-Detected Bruxism in Children is Associated With Somatic Complaints But Not Anxiety. ( 29198292 )
2018
24
Association between psychotropic medications and presence of sleep bruxism: A systematic review. ( 29663484 )
2018
25
Patents related to the treatment and diagnosis of bruxism. ( 29874935 )
2018
26
Relationship of self-reported sleep bruxism and awake bruxism with chronotype profiles in Italian dental students. ( 29376478 )
2018
27
The phenotype, psychotype and genotype of bruxism. ( 29599979 )
2018
28
Association of possible sleep bruxism in children with different chronotype profiles and sleep characteristics. ( 29363987 )
2018
29
Personality traits and dental anxiety in self-reported bruxism. A cross-sectional study. ( 28684309 )
2017
30
Current Concepts of Bruxism. ( 28806429 )
2017
31
Clinical Decision Support Model to Predict Occlusal Force in Bruxism Patients. ( 29181234 )
2017
32
The Evaluation of the Clinical Effects of Botulinum Toxin on Nocturnal Bruxism. ( 28757802 )
2017
33
Sleep and awake bruxism in adults and its relationship with temporomandibular disorders: A systematic review from 2003 to 2014. ( 27796166 )
2017
34
Proton pump inhibitor shows no convincing evidence of efficacy for treating sleep bruxism. ( 28550850 )
2017
35
Nocturnal sleep architecture is altered by sleep bruxism. ( 28883558 )
2017
36
Effect of interocclusal appliance on bite force, sleep quality, salivary cortisol levels and signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction in adults with sleep bruxism. ( 28601734 )
2017
37
Relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and sleep bruxism: a systematic review. ( 27977045 )
2017
38
Homeopathic therapy for sleep bruxism in a child: Findings of a 2-year case report. ( 28914254 )
2017
39
A cure for bruxism. ( 29205719 )
2017
40
Sleep bruxism and related risk factors in adults: A systematic literature review. ( 28692828 )
2017
41
The effects of stabilization splint treatment on the volume of masseter muscle in sleep bruxism patients. ( 28920539 )
2017
42
The relationship between bruxism, sleep quality, and headaches in schoolchildren. ( 29200617 )
2017
43
The prevalence of sleep bruxism and associated factors in children: a report by parents. ( 29075962 )
2017
44
Dental erosion: Bitterness-induced bruxism. ( 29269905 )
2017
45
Success Rate and Technical Quality of Home Polysomnography with Self-Applicable Electrode Set in Subjects with Possible Sleep Bruxism. ( 28829322 )
2017
46
Sleep Bruxism and Anxiety Impacts in Quality of Life Related to Oral Health of Brazilian Children and their Families. ( 28422599 )
2017
47
Association of malocclusion, self-reported bruxism and chewing-side preference with oral health-related quality of life in patients with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis. ( 29094335 )
2017
48
The clinical management of awake bruxism. ( 28550845 )
2017
49
Mother's Work Status on Children's Bruxism in a Subset of Saudi Population. ( 29285473 )
2017
50
Aesthetic Treatment of Bruxism. ( 28670358 )
2017

Variations for Bruxism

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Bruxism:

6
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 MECP2 NM_004992.3(MECP2): c.377+1G> T single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs267608463 GRCh38 Chromosome X, 154032206: 154032206
2 MECP2 NM_004992.3(MECP2): c.377+1G> T single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs267608463 GRCh37 Chromosome X, 153297657: 153297657
3 CDKL5 NM_003159.2(CDKL5): c.622C> T (p.Gln208Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs587783405 GRCh37 Chromosome X, 18606141: 18606141
4 CDKL5 NM_003159.2(CDKL5): c.622C> T (p.Gln208Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs587783405 GRCh38 Chromosome X, 18588021: 18588021

Expression for Bruxism

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Bruxism.

Pathways for Bruxism

Pathways related to Bruxism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.01 HTR2A MECP2 SLC6A4
2 10.4 HTR2A SLC6A4

GO Terms for Bruxism

Biological processes related to Bruxism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 response to hypoxia GO:0001666 9.61 DRD2 MECP2 SLC6A4
2 release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol GO:0051209 9.48 DRD2 HTR2A
3 long-term memory GO:0007616 9.46 DRD2 MECP2
4 behavioral response to cocaine GO:0048148 9.4 DRD2 HTR2A
5 regulation of dopamine secretion GO:0014059 9.37 DRD2 HTR2A
6 temperature homeostasis GO:0001659 9.32 DRD2 HTR2A
7 startle response GO:0001964 9.26 DRD2 MECP2
8 negative regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic GO:0051967 9.16 DRD2 HTR2A
9 memory GO:0007613 9.13 HTR2A MECP2 SLC6A4
10 neurological system process involved in regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure GO:0001976 8.62 DRD2 MECP2

Sources for Bruxism

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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