Buerger Disease (TAO)

Categories: Blood diseases, Bone diseases, Cardiovascular diseases, Nephrological diseases, Rare diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Buerger Disease

MalaCards integrated aliases for Buerger Disease:

Name: Buerger Disease 56 52 58 36 54 37
Thromboangiitis Obliterans 56 12 52 58 43 15 17 71
Buerger's Disease 12 74 52
Inflammatory Occlusive Peripheral Vascular Disease 52
Occlusive Peripheral Vascular Disease 52
Presenile Gangrene 12
Tao 52


Orphanet epidemiological data:

buerger disease
Prevalence: 1-5/10000 (Worldwide),1-5/10000 (Europe); Age of onset: Adult; Age of death: normal life expectancy;


autosomal recessive


buerger disease:
Inheritance autosomal recessive inheritance


Orphanet: 58  
Rare circulatory system diseases
Rare renal diseases
Rare systemic and rhumatological diseases

External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:12918
OMIM 56 211480
KEGG 36 H01625
ICD9CM 34 443.1
MeSH 43 D013919
NCIt 49 C35070
SNOMED-CT 67 52403007
ICD10 32 I73.1
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 I73.1
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0040021
Orphanet 58 ORPHA36258
MedGen 41 C0040021
UMLS 71 C0040021

Summaries for Buerger Disease

NIH Rare Diseases : 52 Buerger disease is a disease in which small and medium-sized blood vessels in the arms and/or legs become inflamed and blocked (vasculitis ). This reduces blood flow to affected areas of the body, eventually resulting damage to tissues . Symptoms of Buerger disease may include coldness, numbness, tingling or burning, and pain. Symptoms may first be felt in the fingertips or toes, and then move further up the arms or legs. Additional symptoms that may develop include changes in the texture and color of the skin, Raynaud's phenomenon , painful muscle cramps, swelling (edema), skin ulcers, and gangrene . Rare complications that have been reported include transient ischemic attacks or stroke, and heart attack. Buerger disease almost always occurs in people who use tobacco, but it is not known exactly how tobacco plays a role in the development of the disease. Some people may have a genetic predisposition to Buerger disease. It is also possible that Buerger disease is an autoimmune disease , as the immune system seems to play a large role in its development. More research is needed to identify the exact underlying causes. Quitting all forms of tobacco is an essential part of stopping the progression of the disease. There are no definitive treatments, but certain therapies may improve symptoms in some people. Therapies that have been reported with varying success include medications to improve blood flow and reduce the risk of clots, pain medicines, compression of the arms and legs, spinal cord stimulation , and surgery to control pain and increase blood flow. Amputation may be necessary if gangrene or a serious infection develops.

MalaCards based summary : Buerger Disease, also known as thromboangiitis obliterans, is related to intermittent claudication and peripheral vascular disease. An important gene associated with Buerger Disease is APOH (Apolipoprotein H), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+ and Formation of Fibrin Clot (Clotting Cascade). The drugs Sodium citrate and Citric acid have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include Adipose, and related phenotypes are skin ulcer and gangrene

KEGG : 36 Buerger disease, also known as thromboangiitis obliterans, is a nonatherosclerotic, inflammatory disease that most commonly affects the small and medium-sized arteries and veins in the upper and lower extremities. Cigarette smoking has been implicated as the main etiology of the disease. Although Buerger's disease has a worldwide distribution, it is more prevalent in the Middle East and Far East and classically develops in male smokers younger than 45 years. There may be a predisposition to development of Buerger's disease, although no gene has been identified to date. The most common symptom is pain at rest and claudication in the affected hands or feet. Other symptoms include cold insensitivity, diminished peripheral pulses, cyanosis, skin atrophy, and reduced hair growth. As the disease progresses, patients will develop ischemic ulcerations and eventually gangrene. Abstinence from smoking is the definitive treatment to prevent disease progression. Medical line of treatment with vasodilators, pentoxyfylline, and cilostazol may help improve pain-free walking distance but cannot prevent disease progression. Surgical treatment in form of revascularization and sympathectomy increases peripheral blood flow and decreases the rate of amputations. Newer therapy with prostaglandins, bosentan, and stem cell therapy has shown promising results.

Wikipedia : 74 Thromboangiitis obliterans, also known as Buerger disease (English /b??rg?r/, German /byrg?r/), is a... more...

More information from OMIM: 211480

Related Diseases for Buerger Disease

Diseases related to Buerger Disease via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 298)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 intermittent claudication 30.7 SERPINE1 F2 APOH
2 peripheral vascular disease 30.6 SERPINE1 SELE NOS3 F2
3 takayasu arteritis 30.5 SELE MMP3 F2 APOH
4 thrombophilia due to thrombin defect 30.5 SERPINE1 MTHFR F2 APOH
5 ischemic colitis 30.5 SERPINE1 F2 APOH
6 endocarditis 30.4 SERPINE1 F2 APOH
7 branch retinal artery occlusion 30.4 MTHFR F2
8 varicose veins 30.4 MTHFR MMP3 F2
9 chronic venous insufficiency 30.3 SERPINE1 MTHFR F2
10 homocysteinemia 30.3 SERPINE1 NOS3 MTHFR F2 APOH
11 thrombophilia 30.3 SERPINE1 MTHFR F2 APOH
12 nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy 30.2 NOS3 MTHFR F2
13 limb ischemia 30.2 SERPINE1 SELE NOS3 HGF F2
14 pulmonary edema 30.2 NOS3 HGF F2
15 portal hypertension 30.1 SERPINE1 NOS3 F2
16 disseminated intravascular coagulation 30.1 SERPINE1 SELE F2
17 polyarteritis nodosa 30.1 SELE MPO APOH
18 retinal artery occlusion 30.0 SERPINE1 MTHFR F2 APOH
19 peritonitis 30.0 SERPINE1 MPO F2
20 antiphospholipid syndrome 30.0 SERPINE1 SELE MTHFR F2 APOH
21 coronary heart disease 1 30.0 SERPINE1 SELE NOS3 MTHFR
22 vasculitis 30.0 SERPINB1 SELE MPO APOH
23 thrombophlebitis 29.9 SERPINE1 MTHFR F2 APOH
24 budd-chiari syndrome 29.9 MTHFR F2 APOH
25 migraine with or without aura 1 29.9 NOS3 MTHFR F2 APOH
26 venous insufficiency 29.8 SERPINE1 PLAU MTHFR F2
27 arteries, anomalies of 29.8 SERPINE1 SELE NOS3
28 coronary artery anomaly 29.8 SERPINE1 SELE NOS3 F2
29 protein s deficiency 29.8 SERPINE1 MTHFR F2 APOH
30 aortic aneurysm, familial abdominal, 1 29.7 PLAU MMP3 CD68
31 atherosclerosis susceptibility 29.3 SERPINE1 SELE NOS3 MTHFR MPO
32 arteriosclerosis 29.1 SERPINE1 SELE NOS3 ITGA2 HGF
33 pulmonary embolism 28.9 SERPINE1 PLAU MTHFR MPO F2 APOH
34 diabetes mellitus 28.9 SERPINE1 SELE NOS3 MTHFR MMP3 F2
35 thrombocytopenia 28.8 SERPINE1 SELE ITGA2 F2 APOH
36 thrombosis 28.5 SERPINE1 SELE PLAU NOS3 MTHFR ITGA2
37 vascular disease 28.1 SERPINE1 SELE NOS3 MTHFR MPO MMP3
38 hypertension, essential 27.8 SERPINE1 SELE NOS3 MTHFR MPO MMP3
39 myocardial infarction 27.4 SERPINE1 SELE NOS3 MTHFR MPO MMP3
40 autoimmune disease 10.5
41 alpha/beta t-cell lymphopenia with gamma/delta t-cell expansion, severe cytomegalovirus infection, and autoimmunity 10.5
42 ischemia 10.5
43 periodontitis 10.4
44 dic in newborn 10.4 SERPINE1 F2
45 thrombophlebitis migrans 10.4
46 hypoglycemia 10.4
47 hepatic infarction 10.4 F2 APOH
48 hemifacial spasm 10.3 NOS3 MTHFR
49 neonatal stroke 10.3 SERPINE1 MTHFR
50 amaurosis fugax 10.3 SERPINE1 MTHFR

Comorbidity relations with Buerger Disease via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Hypertension, Essential Peripheral Vascular Disease

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Buerger Disease:

Diseases related to Buerger Disease

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Buerger Disease

Human phenotypes related to Buerger Disease:

58 31 (show all 13)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 skin ulcer 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0200042
2 gangrene 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0100758
3 vasculitis 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002633
4 arterial thrombosis 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0004420
5 arthralgia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002829
6 acrocyanosis 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001063
7 paresthesia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0003401
8 hyperhidrosis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000975
9 insomnia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0100785
10 sensory neuropathy 58 Very frequent (99-80%)
11 pain 31 HP:0012531
12 raynaud phenomenon 31 HP:0030880
13 limb pain 31 HP:0009763

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

raynaud's phenomenon

red, elevated areas over venous valves
digital ulcers

Clinical features from OMIM:


MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Buerger Disease:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.15 CD68 F2 HGF ITGA2 MMP3 MPO
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.1 APOH F2 ITGA2 MMP3 MPO MTHFR
3 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.01 F2 HGF MPO MYD88 NOS3 PLAU
4 immune system MP:0005387 9.96 CD68 F2 MMP3 MPO MYD88 NOS3
5 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.7 APOH F2 HGF MPO MTHFR MYD88
6 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.63 HGF MTHFR NOS3 PLAU SELE SERPINE1
7 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.17 F2 MYD88 NOS3 PLAU SELE SERPINB1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Buerger Disease

Drugs for Buerger Disease (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 10)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 68-04-2
Citric acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 1, Phase 2 77-92-9 311
3 Citrate Phase 1, Phase 2
4 Anticoagulants Phase 2
5 Vasodilator Agents Phase 2
Bosentan Approved, Investigational 147536-97-8 104865
7 Antihypertensive Agents
8 Endothelin Receptor Antagonists
9 Anesthetics
10 Pharmaceutical Solutions

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 13)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Transplantation of Autologous BM-MNC Processed by ResQ Separator and Conventional Manual Method for Patients With Chronic Limb Ischemia: a Multi-center Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT01446055 Phase 1, Phase 2
2 Effectiveness and Safety of Adipose-Derived Regenerative Cells for the Treatment of Critical Lower Limb Ischemia Unknown status NCT02864654 Phase 1, Phase 2
3 A Non-randomized, Open Label, Multicentric, Dose Ranging , Phase II Study Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Intramuscular Administration of Stempeucel - CLI™ (ex Vivo Cultured Adult Bone Marrow Derived Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells) in Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia Due to Buerger's Disease Completed NCT01484574 Phase 2
4 Autologous Immunomagnetic Selected cd133+ Cells in the Treatment of No-option Critical Limb Ischemia: Clinical and Ceus Assessed Results. Completed NCT01595776 Phase 1, Phase 2
5 A Prospective, Open Label, Controlled, Randomized, Multicenter Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of CLBS12 in Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI) Due to Arteriosclerosis Obliterans (ASO) With a Single-arm Substudy to Assess the Safety and Potential Efficacy of CLBS12 in Patients With CLI Due to Buerger's Disease (BD) Recruiting NCT02501018 Phase 2 SOC
6 A Single Arm, Open Label, Multicentric, Clinical Study Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Stempeucel® (ex Vivo Cultured Adult Bone Marrow Derived Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells) in Patients With CLI Due to Buerger's Disease Withdrawn NCT03056742 Phase 2
7 Therapeutic Angiogenesis Using Cell Transplantation (TACT) Study at Nagoya Unknown status NCT00145262
8 Randomized Control Trial on Purified CD34+ Cells Versus Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Treatment of Critical Limb Ischemia Unknown status NCT02089828
9 Safety and Efficacy of Autologous Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation in Patient With Buerger's Disease Completed NCT01302015
10 Treatment of Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger's Disease) With Bosentan Completed NCT01447550 Bosentan
11 Study of Psychological and Addictive Profile of Patients With Buerger's Disease Completed NCT01064206
12 Echographie de Contraste Pour l'Analyse de la Perfusion Musculaire Dans l'ischémie Critique Completed NCT02128750
13 A Trial Comparing Pain During Local Tumesent Injection In Fingers Using Different Syringe-Needle Combinations Recruiting NCT03736915

Search NIH Clinical Center for Buerger Disease

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

Isoxsuprine Hydrochloride
Tolazoline Hydrochloride

Cell-based therapeutics:

LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Buerger Disease cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.

Cochrane evidence based reviews: thromboangiitis obliterans

Genetic Tests for Buerger Disease

Anatomical Context for Buerger Disease

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Buerger Disease:

Skin, Bone, Heart, Spinal Cord, Bone Marrow, Endothelial, T Cells
LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Buerger Disease:
# Tissue Anatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 Adipose Subcutaneous White Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
2 Adipose Subcutaneous White Adipose Stromal Cells Potential therapeutic candidate

Publications for Buerger Disease

Articles related to Buerger Disease:

(show top 50) (show all 1018)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease). 61 56
11188842 2001
Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease). 61 56
10995867 2000
Cellular sensitivity to collagen in thromboangiitis obliterans. 61 56
6835334 1983
Evidence for an HLA-linked resistance gene in Buerger's disease. 61 56
91227 1979
Buerger's disease and anticardiolipin antibodies. 54 61
19455050 2009
Compartment syndrome in patients with Buerger disease and anticardiolipin antibodies. 54 61
18580711 2008
Are anticardiolipin antibodies really important in thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease)? 54 61
12710839 2002
Serotonin as a factor involved in pathophysiology of thromboangiitis obliterans. 54 61
8376917 1993
A Non-smoking Woman with Anti-phospholipid Antibodies Proved to Have Thromboangiitis Obliterans. 61
31588083 2020
[Intervention of Vascular Dysplasia Caused by Different Mechanisms - Anlotinib for Right Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Combined with Thromboangiitis Obliterans: A Case Report and Literature Review]. 61
31948540 2020
Protective effects and potential mechanism of salvianolic acid B on sodium laurate-induced thromboangiitis obliterans in rats. 61
31790900 2020
Associations Between Elevated Plasma Total Homocysteine Level and Risk of Thromboangiitis Obliterans in a Chinese Population: A Matched Case-Control Study. 61
31472234 2020
How to use clinical signs and symptoms to estimate the probability of limb ischaemia in patients with a diabetic foot ulcer. 61
31845475 2019
Botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Ilex pubescens Hook et Arn. 61
31401319 2019
"Idiopathic Eosinophilic Vasculitis": Another Side of Hypereosinophilic Syndrome? A Comprehensive Analysis of 117 Cases in Asthma-Free Patients. 61
31863912 2019
Successful Fat Grafting in a Patient With Thromboangiitis Obliterans. 61
31764150 2019
Medical adjunctive therapy for patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia: a systematic review. 61
31603294 2019
Major lower extremity amputation: a contemporary analysis from an academic tertiary referral centre in a developing community. 61
31722699 2019
Effect of bradykinin on rats with thromboangiitis obliterans through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. 61
31799689 2019
Fibrinogen, Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Rate and Platelet-to-Neutrophil Rate as Novel Acute Phase Indicators in Patients with Thromboangiitis Obliterans. 61
31743780 2019
Case report of two pregnancies and deliveries by a woman with Buerger disease. 61
31368151 2019
Management of Buerger's Disease in Endovascular Era. 61
31452585 2019
Angiogenesis induction in Buerger's disease: a disease management double-edged sword? 61
31383033 2019
Risk of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases in newly diagnosed ankylosing spondylitis patients: a population-based matched cohort study. 61
31464632 2019
Risk Factors, Mechanisms and Treatments of Thromboangiitis Obliterans: An Overview of Recent Research. 61
31419926 2019
[Acute carpal tunnel syndrome caused by a thrombosis of a persistent median artery: 2 case reports]. 61
31040049 2019
The Association of HLA-A, B and DRB1 with Buerger's Disease. 61
31832439 2019
Endovascular Recanalization of Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger's Disease) in Twenty-Eight Consecutive Patients and Combined Antegrade-Retrograde Intervention in Eight Patients. 61
30834476 2019
Molecular mechanisms regulating immune responses in thromboangiitis obliterans: A comprehensive review. 61
31156780 2019
Unexpected inflammation in the sympathetic ganglia in thromboangiitis obliterans: more likely sterile or infectious induced inflammation? 61
31316304 2019
Homozygous Factor V Leiden Thrombophilia in a Patient With Histologically Confirmed Thromboangiitis Obliterans. 61
30792584 2019
Thromboangiitis Obliterans: Changing Demographics for a Preventable Disease. 61
30899620 2019
Visceral bed involvement in thromboangiitis obliterans: a systematic review. 61
31616151 2019
Assessment of T helper 17-associated cytokines in thromboangiitis obliterans. 61
31564950 2019
[Comprehensive treatment of a patient with Buerger's disease using genetically engineered complexes VEGF-165]. 61
30994625 2019
[Marijuana-associated peripheral arteriopathy]. 61
31048280 2019
Long-Term Outcome and Prognostic Factors of Complications in Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger's Disease): A Multicenter Study of 224 Patients. 61
30571594 2018
Thromboangiitis Obliterans: 110 Years Old and Little Progress Made. 61
30571606 2018
Effects of aspirin combined with cilostazol on thromboangiitis obliterans in diabetic patients. 61
30546409 2018
Stem cell therapy for treatment of thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease). 61
30378681 2018
Performance of noninvasive laser Doppler flowmetry and laser speckle contrast imaging methods in diagnosis of Buerger disease: A case report. 61
30412126 2018
Alleviation of A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) on thromboangiitis obliterans involves the HMGB1/RAGE/ NF-κB pathway. 61
30245136 2018
Cilostazol on the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and inflammatory factors in plasma in patients with thromboangiitis obliterans. 61
30186478 2018
Vascular Changes of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Unmask Buerger's Disease (Thromboangiitis Obliterans): A Letter to the Editor. 61
29800280 2018
Purified CD34+ cells versus peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the treatment of angiitis-induced no-option critical limb ischaemia: 12-Month results of a prospective randomised single-blinded non-inferiority trial. 61
30172703 2018
Three cases of dorsal metatarsal artery bypass in patients with Buerger disease. 61
30148235 2018
Anti-inflammatory activities and potential mechanisms of phenolic acids isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba roots in THP-1 macrophages. 61
29751125 2018
Peripheral sympathetic block with therapeutic local anesthesia for the manage-ment of upper limb digital ischemia. 61
31641336 2018
Immediate and late outcomes of endovascular therapy for lower extremity arteries in Buerger disease. 61
29157680 2018
[Acute kidney injury in thromboangiitis obliterans disease]. 61
29291940 2018

Variations for Buerger Disease

Expression for Buerger Disease

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Buerger Disease.

Pathways for Buerger Disease

GO Terms for Buerger Disease

Cellular components related to Buerger Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.56 SERPINE1 SERPINB1 PLAU MPO MMP3 HGF
2 collagen-containing extracellular matrix GO:0062023 9.46 SERPINE1 SERPINB1 F2 APOH
3 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.28 SERPINE1 SERPINB1 SELE PLAU MPO MMP3

Biological processes related to Buerger Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 17)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 response to hypoxia GO:0001666 9.74 PLAU MTHFR ITGA2
2 positive regulation of angiogenesis GO:0045766 9.72 SERPINE1 NOS3 HGF
3 platelet degranulation GO:0002576 9.69 SERPINE1 HGF APOH
4 positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process GO:0032967 9.56 ITGA2 F2
5 regulation of signaling receptor activity GO:0010469 9.54 SERPINE1 PLAU
6 blood coagulation, intrinsic pathway GO:0007597 9.52 F2 APOH
7 response to interleukin-1 GO:0070555 9.5 SELE MYD88 MTHFR
8 negative regulation of blood coagulation GO:0030195 9.49 SERPINE1 APOH
9 removal of superoxide radicals GO:0019430 9.48 NOS3 MPO
10 cellular response to oxidised low-density lipoprotein particle stimulus GO:0140052 9.46 MYD88 CD68
11 regulation of blood coagulation GO:0030193 9.43 F2 APOH
12 negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors GO:1902042 9.43 SERPINE1 NOS3 HGF
13 plasminogen activation GO:0031639 9.4 PLAU APOH
14 negative regulation of platelet activation GO:0010544 9.37 NOS3 F2
15 fibrinolysis GO:0042730 9.33 SERPINE1 PLAU F2
16 positive regulation of blood coagulation GO:0030194 9.13 SERPINE1 F2 APOH
17 negative regulation of fibrinolysis GO:0051918 8.8 SERPINE1 F2 APOH

Molecular functions related to Buerger Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 serine-type endopeptidase activity GO:0004252 8.92 PLAU MMP3 HGF F2

Sources for Buerger Disease

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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