CSYN
MCID: CSY001
MIFTS: 50

C Syndrome (CSYN)

Categories: Bone diseases, Fetal diseases, Genetic diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for C Syndrome

MalaCards integrated aliases for C Syndrome:

Name: C Syndrome 56 12 74 52 58 73 36 29 13 6 39
Opitz Trigonocephaly Syndrome 56 12 52 58 73 43
Trigonocephaly 74 36 29 54
Trigonocephaly C Syndrome 12 52 58
Trigonocephaly Syndrome 56 52 73
Opitz Trigonocephaly C Syndrome 12 58
Opitz C Trigonocephaly 12 58
Otcs 12 58
Csyn 73

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
c syndrome
Inheritance: Not applicable; Prevalence: 1-9/1000000 (Europe); Age of onset: Antenatal,Neonatal; Age of death: early childhood;

OMIM:

56
Inheritance:
autosomal dominant


HPO:

31

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare neurological diseases
Rare bone diseases
Developmental anomalies during embryogenesis


Summaries for C Syndrome

NIH Rare Diseases : 52 C syndrome , also known as Opitz trigonocephaly syndrome, is characterized by trigonocephaly , severe intellectual disability , hypotonia , variable cardiac defects, redundant (extra folds of) skin, joint and limb abnormalities, and unusual facial features such as upslanted palpebral fissures (upward pointing outside corners of the eyes), epicanthal folds , depressed nasal bridge, and low-set, posteriorly rotated ears. This condition is genetically heterogeneous, meaning that there is evidence of more than one type of inheritance. While many cases are sporadic, autosomal recessive , autosomal dominant , and germline mosaicism have all been suggested. At least some cases of C syndrome have been caused by dysfunction of the CD96 gene .

MalaCards based summary : C Syndrome, also known as opitz trigonocephaly syndrome, is related to cleft lip/palate and retinitis pigmentosa, and has symptoms including seizures An important gene associated with C Syndrome is CD96 (CD96 Molecule), and among its related pathways/superpathways are MAPK signaling pathway and Adherens junction. Affiliated tissues include skin, eye and bone, and related phenotypes are short neck and intellectual disability

Disease Ontology : 12 A syndrome characterized by trigonocephaly, psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, variable cardiac defects, redundant skin, and dysmorphic facial features that has material basis in heterozygous mutation in CD96 on chromosome 3q13.1-q13.2.

OMIM : 56 The C syndrome, also known as Opitz trigonocephaly syndrome, is a malformation syndrome characterized by trigonocephaly, severe mental retardation, hypotonia, variable cardiac defects, redundant skin, and dysmorphic facial features, including upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, depressed nasal bridge, and low-set, posteriorly rotated ears (summary by Kaname et al., 2007). C syndrome shows phenotypic overlap with Bohring-Opitz syndrome, or C-like syndrome (605039), a disorder with more severe features than C syndrome, caused by heterozygous mutation in the ASXL1 gene (612990) on chromosome 20q11. (211750)

KEGG : 36 Trigonocephaly is a rare form of craniosynostosis characterized by the premature closure of the metopic suture. It has been reported that mutations in FGFR1 and FREM1 can be associated with trigonocephaly.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 73 C syndrome: A syndrome characterized by trigonocephaly, severe mental retardation, hypotonia, variable cardiac defects, redundant skin, and dysmorphic facial features, including upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, depressed nasal bridge, and low-set, posteriorly rotated ears.

Wikipedia : 74 Trigonocephaly is a congenital condition of premature fusion of the metopic suture (from Greek metopon,... more...

Related Diseases for C Syndrome

Diseases related to C Syndrome via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(showing 255, show less)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cleft lip/palate 28.4 IFT140 FGFR1
2 retinitis pigmentosa 27.5 IFT140 HGSNAT FGFR1
3 trigonocephaly 1 12.7
4 trigonocephaly with short stature and developmental delay 12.7
5 trigonocephaly 2 12.6
6 ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, hyperammonemia due to 12.4
7 isolated trigonocephaly 12.3
8 trigonocephaly-broad thumbs syndrome 12.2
9 chromosome 9p deletion syndrome 11.5
10 jacobsen syndrome 11.5
11 opitz gbbb syndrome, type i 11.5
12 cat eye syndrome 11.5
13 bohring-opitz syndrome 11.4
14 trigonobrachycephaly, bulbous bifid nose, micrognathia, and abnormalities of the hands and feet 11.4
15 ben ari shuper mimouni syndrome 11.3
16 baraitser-winter syndrome 11.3
17 congenital disorder of glycosylation, type iu 11.3
18 lowry-maclean syndrome 11.2
19 chromosome 3pter-p25 deletion syndrome 11.2
20 orofaciodigital syndrome xiv 11.2
21 carbonic anhydrase va deficiency, hyperammonemia due to 10.5
22 urea cycle disorder 10.4
23 orotic aciduria 10.4
24 allergic rhinitis 10.3
25 rhinitis 10.3
26 common cold 10.3
27 ocular motor apraxia 10.3
28 microcephaly 10.3
29 plagiocephaly 10.3
30 encephalopathy 10.2
31 autism spectrum disorder 10.2
32 cleft palate, isolated 10.2
33 kleefstra syndrome 10.2
34 gastroesophageal reflux 10.2
35 migraine with or without aura 1 10.2
36 headache 10.2
37 orofaciodigital syndrome vi 10.2
38 corpus callosum, partial agenesis of, x-linked 10.2
39 ptosis 10.2
40 neuroretinitis 10.2
41 ventricular septal defect 10.2
42 heart septal defect 10.2
43 cutis laxa 10.2
44 retinitis 10.2
45 hard palate cancer 10.2
46 multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome-intellectual disability 10.2
47 autism 10.1
48 corpus callosum, agenesis of, with facial anomalies and cerebellar ataxia 10.1
49 hydrocephalus 10.1
50 muscular dystrophy, duchenne type 10.1
51 asthma 10.1
52 constipation 10.1
53 vaginitis 10.1
54 pneumonia 10.1
55 osteoarthritis 10.1
56 muscular dystrophy 10.1
57 saethre-chotzen syndrome 10.1
58 coloboma of macula 10.1
59 greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome 10.1
60 holoprosencephaly 1 10.1
61 astigmatism 10.1
62 pervasive developmental disorder 10.1
63 learning disability 10.1
64 rare surgical neurologic disease 10.1
65 neurofibromatosis, type ii 10.0
66 multinucleated neurons, anhydramnios, renal dysplasia, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hydranencephaly 10.0
67 dry eye syndrome 10.0
68 diarrhea 10.0
69 candidiasis 10.0
70 dermatomycosis 10.0
71 bruxism 10.0
72 inherited metabolic disorder 10.0
73 47,xyy 10.0
74 acute liver failure 10.0
75 coarctation of aorta 9.9
76 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 9.9
77 retinoblastoma 9.9
78 neural tube defects 9.9
79 sturge-weber syndrome 9.9
80 renal hypodysplasia/aplasia 1 9.9
81 acrocallosal syndrome 9.9
82 carpenter syndrome 1 9.9
83 acrocraniofacial dysostosis 9.9
84 arachnoid cysts, intracranial 9.9
85 ebstein anomaly 9.9
86 baraitser-winter syndrome 1 9.9
87 mucolipidosis ii alpha/beta 9.9
88 wilson disease 9.9
89 rett syndrome 9.9
90 retinitis pigmentosa 11 9.9
91 muenke syndrome 9.9
92 valproate embryopathy 9.9
93 polymicrogyria with or without vascular-type ehlers-danlos syndrome 9.9
94 oppositional defiant disorder 9.9
95 non-syndromic intellectual disability 9.9
96 nephrocalcinosis 9.9
97 conduct disorder 9.9
98 communicating hydrocephalus 9.9
99 dysostosis 9.9
100 teratoma 9.9
101 mood disorder 9.9
102 familial retinoblastoma 9.9
103 bilateral retinoblastoma 9.9
104 pafah1b1-associated lissencephaly/subcortical band heterotopia 9.9
105 polymicrogyria 9.9
106 chromosome 3p duplication 9.9
107 foxg1 syndrome 9.9
108 weber syndrome 9.9
109 angiomatosis 9.9
110 multicystic dysplastic kidney 9.9
111 isolated craniosynostosis 9.9
112 cranial malformation 9.9
113 unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney 9.9
114 mesocardia 9.9
115 clubfoot, congenital, with or without deficiency of long bones and/or mirror-image polydactyly 9.9
116 epicanthus 9.9
117 kabuki syndrome 1 9.9
118 chromosome 2q35 duplication syndrome 9.9
119 tetralogy of fallot 9.9
120 down syndrome 9.9
121 dandy-walker syndrome 9.9
122 frontoocular syndrome 9.9
123 global developmental delay, absent or hypoplastic corpus callosum, and dysmorphic facies 9.9
124 brachydactyly 9.9
125 inguinal hernia 9.9
126 meningocele 9.9
127 clubfoot 9.9
128 atrial heart septal defect 9.9
129 hemangioma 9.9
130 alcohol dependence 9.9
131 colorectal cancer 9.9
132 cardiac conduction defect 9.9
133 carpal tunnel syndrome 9.9
134 hypercholesterolemia, familial, 1 9.9
135 otitis media 9.9
136 ovarian cancer 9.9
137 papillomatosis, confluent and reticulated 9.9
138 argininemia 9.9
139 argininosuccinic aciduria 9.9
140 citrullinemia, classic 9.9
141 hyperlysinemia, type i 9.9
142 hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome 9.9
143 retinitis pigmentosa 3 9.9
144 hemophilia b 9.9
145 prostatic hyperplasia, benign 9.9
146 propionic acidemia 9.9
147 anxiety 9.9
148 colorectal cancer 1 9.9
149 gastrointestinal ulceration, recurrent, with dysfunctional platelets 9.9
150 cardiac arrest 9.9
151 pollen allergy 9.9
152 bacterial infectious disease 9.9
153 interstitial nephritis 9.9
154 prostatic hypertrophy 9.9
155 chlamydia 9.9
156 pyelonephritis 9.9
157 nephrotic syndrome 9.9
158 allergic hypersensitivity disease 9.9
159 low compliance bladder 9.9
160 hepatic coma 9.9
161 hepatic encephalopathy 9.9
162 gonadal dysgenesis 9.9
163 reye syndrome 9.9
164 urticaria 9.9
165 angioedema 9.9
166 rheumatic disease 9.9
167 epilepsy 9.9
168 enthesopathy 9.9
169 dental caries 9.9
170 vulvovaginitis 9.9
171 gastroenteritis 9.9
172 kernicterus 9.9
173 long qt syndrome 9.9
174 prostatic adenoma 9.9
175 iga glomerulonephritis 9.9
176 acute kidney failure 9.9
177 glioblastoma multiforme 9.9
178 turner syndrome 9.9
179 theileriasis 9.9
180 fibrolamellar carcinoma 9.9
181 infertility 9.9
182 panic disorder 9.9
183 congestive heart failure 9.9
184 mitral valve disease 9.9
185 premenstrual tension 9.9
186 peptic ulcer disease 9.9
187 osteochondrosis 9.9
188 periodontitis 9.9
189 osteochondritis dissecans 9.9
190 vasculitis 9.9
191 hemophilia 9.9
192 47, xxy 9.9
193 48,xyyy 9.9
194 mast cell activation syndrome 9.9
195 ring chromosome 2 9.9
196 cerebral atrophy 9.9
197 chronic pain 9.9
198 idiopathic avascular necrosis 9.9
199 pik3ca-related overgrowth syndrome 9.9
200 skeletal muscle disease 9.9
201 mucopolysaccharidosis, type iiic 9.7
202 mucopolysaccharidosis-plus syndrome 9.7
203 mucopolysaccharidosis iii 9.7
204 polydactyly 9.5
205 retinitis pigmentosa 73 9.5
206 exanthem 9.5
207 pseudohypoaldosteronism 9.5
208 cleft lip 9.5
209 acanthosis nigricans 9.4
210 hypertelorism 9.4
211 medulloblastoma 9.4
212 polydactyly, postaxial, type a1 9.4
213 split-hand/foot malformation 1 9.4
214 strabismus 9.4
215 short-rib thoracic dysplasia 1 with or without polydactyly 9.4
216 cryptorchidism, unilateral or bilateral 9.4
217 lymphoma, hodgkin, classic 9.4
218 short-rib thoracic dysplasia 9 with or without polydactyly 9.4
219 dermatitis, atopic 9.4
220 lymphoma, non-hodgkin, familial 9.4
221 microvascular complications of diabetes 3 9.4
222 microvascular complications of diabetes 4 9.4
223 microvascular complications of diabetes 6 9.4
224 microvascular complications of diabetes 7 9.4
225 mental retardation with language impairment and with or without autistic features 9.4
226 alacrima, achalasia, and mental retardation syndrome 9.4
227 schaaf-yang syndrome 9.4
228 ataxia, combined cerebellar and peripheral, with hearing loss and diabetes mellitus 9.4
229 alkuraya-kucinskas syndrome 9.4
230 autosomal recessive disease 9.4
231 syndromic intellectual disability 9.4
232 omphalocele 9.4
233 lymphocytic leukemia 9.4
234 patau syndrome 9.4
235 synostosis 9.4
236 amenorrhea 9.4
237 pericarditis 9.4
238 hyperinsulinism 9.4
239 ectodermal dysplasia 9.4
240 craniosynostosis 9.4
241 dermatitis 9.4
242 conjunctivitis 9.4
243 peritonitis 9.4
244 fundus dystrophy 9.4
245 mechanical strabismus 9.4
246 exophthalmos 9.4
247 intracranial hypertension 9.4
248 fgfr-related craniosynostosis syndromes 9.4
249 chromosomal triplication 9.4
250 chromosome 4q deletion 9.4
251 hypotonia 9.4
252 isolated split hand-split foot malformation 9.4
253 ciliopathy 9.4
254 congenital amyoplasia 9.4
255 inherited retinal disorder 9.4

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to C Syndrome:



Diseases related to C Syndrome

Symptoms & Phenotypes for C Syndrome

Human phenotypes related to C Syndrome:

58 31 (showing 81, show less)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 short neck 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000470
2 intellectual disability 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001249
3 high palate 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000218
4 depressed nasal bridge 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0005280
5 gingival overgrowth 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000212
6 short nose 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0003196
7 cryptorchidism 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000028
8 micrognathia 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000347
9 microcephaly 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000252
10 smooth philtrum 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000319
11 anteverted nares 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000463
12 long philtrum 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000343
13 epicanthus 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000286
14 biparietal narrowing 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0004422
15 clinodactyly of the 5th finger 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0004209
16 upslanted palpebral fissure 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000582
17 trigonocephaly 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000243
18 low-set, posteriorly rotated ears 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000368
19 hypoplasia of the ear cartilage 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0100720
20 female pseudohermaphroditism 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0010458
21 pectus excavatum 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000767
22 seizures 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001250
23 muscular hypotonia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001252
24 short stature 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0004322
25 sacral dimple 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000960
26 strabismus 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000486
27 micromelia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002983
28 limitation of joint mobility 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001376
29 abnormality of the anus 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0004378
30 failure to thrive in infancy 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001531
31 abnormality of immune system physiology 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0010978
32 thin vermilion border 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000233
33 talipes 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001883
34 bilateral single transverse palmar creases 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0007598
35 redundant skin 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001582
36 accessory oral frenulum 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000191
37 dislocated radial head 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0003083
38 midline facial capillary hemangioma 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0007601
39 abnormality of cardiovascular system morphology 31 frequent (33%) HP:0030680
40 constipation 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002019
41 horseshoe kidney 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000085
42 polyhydramnios 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001561
43 cleft palate 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000175
44 aplasia/hypoplasia of the abdominal wall musculature 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0010318
45 renal hypoplasia/aplasia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0008678
46 multicystic kidney dysplasia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000003
47 hand polydactyly 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001161
48 congenital diaphragmatic hernia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000776
49 toe syndactyly 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001770
50 abnormal hair pattern 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0010720
51 aplasia/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0007370
52 omphalocele 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001539
53 low-set ears 31 HP:0000369
54 joint dislocation 58 Frequent (79-30%)
55 clinodactyly 31 HP:0030084
56 failure to thrive 31 HP:0001508
57 scoliosis 31 HP:0002650
58 global developmental delay 31 HP:0001263
59 hepatomegaly 31 HP:0002240
60 delayed skeletal maturation 31 HP:0002750
61 wide nasal bridge 31 HP:0000431
62 ventricular septal defect 31 HP:0001629
63 short metacarpal 31 HP:0010049
64 generalized hypotonia 31 HP:0001290
65 malformation of the heart and great vessels 58 Frequent (79-30%)
66 death in infancy 58 Occasional (29-5%)
67 patent ductus arteriosus 31 HP:0001643
68 hip dislocation 31 HP:0002827
69 wide mouth 31 HP:0000154
70 posteriorly rotated ears 31 HP:0000358
71 ulnar deviation of finger 31 HP:0009465
72 postaxial hand polydactyly 31 HP:0001162
73 postaxial foot polydactyly 31 HP:0001830
74 radial deviation of finger 31 HP:0009466
75 renal cortical cysts 31 HP:0000803
76 limb undergrowth 31 HP:0009826
77 cutis laxa 31 HP:0000973
78 clitoral hypertrophy 31 HP:0008665
79 psychomotor retardation 31 HP:0025356
80 thick anterior alveolar ridges 31 HP:0009100
81 fused sternal ossification centers 31 HP:0006643

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

56
Head And Neck Ears:
low-set ears
posteriorly rotated ears

Neurologic Central Nervous System:
seizures
psychomotor retardation
hypotonia

Skeletal Spine:
scoliosis

Skeletal:
delayed skeletal maturation

Growth Height:
short stature

Head And Neck Face:
micrognathia

Head And Neck Head:
microcephaly
trigonocephaly

Cardiovascular Vascular:
patent ductus arteriosus

Abdomen External Features:
omphalocele

Genitourinary Kidneys:
renal cortical cysts

Chest Ribs Sternum Clavicles And Scapulae:
fused sternal ossification centers
pectus deformities
anomalous ribs

Genitourinary External Genitalia Female:
prominent clitoris

Skeletal Hands:
clinodactyly
postaxial polydactyly
ulnar deviation of the fingers
terminal transverse limb reduction
metacarpal hypoplasia

Growth Other:
failure to thrive

Abdomen Liver:
hepatomegaly

Head And Neck Nose:
short nose
anteverted nares
broad nasal bridge

Genitourinary Internal Genitalia Male:
cryptorchidism

Cardiovascular Heart:
ventricular septal defect

Head And Neck Eyes:
strabismus
epicanthal folds
upward slanting palpebral fissures

Skeletal Pelvis:
hip dislocation

Skeletal Feet:
syndactyly
postaxial polydactyly
terminal transverse limb reduction

Head And Neck Mouth:
thick anterior alveolar ridges
high-arched palate
macrostomia
oral frenula

Skeletal Limbs:
radial head dislocation
short limbs

Skin Nails Hair Skin:
skin laxity

Clinical features from OMIM:

211750

UMLS symptoms related to C Syndrome:


seizures

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to C Syndrome:

45 (showing 4, show less)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.56 CD96 FGFR1 HGSNAT IFT140
2 immune system MP:0005387 9.46 CD96 FGFR1 HGSNAT IFT140
3 limbs/digits/tail MP:0005371 9.13 FGFR1 HGSNAT IFT140
4 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 8.8 FGFR1 HGSNAT IFT140

Drugs & Therapeutics for C Syndrome

Interventional clinical trials:

(showing 3, show less)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Quantifying the Attentive Behaviors of Older Adults During Over-the-counter Drug Selection Completed NCT02188134
2 Treatment of Persistent Urinary Incontinence in Children Completed NCT00124046
3 Comparison of Supportive Therapies for Symptom Relief From Pediatric Upper Respiratory Infections (URIs) Withdrawn NCT01814293

Search NIH Clinical Center for C Syndrome

Cochrane evidence based reviews: opitz trigonocephaly syndrome

Genetic Tests for C Syndrome

Genetic tests related to C Syndrome:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 C Syndrome 29 CD96
2 Trigonocephaly 29

Anatomical Context for C Syndrome

MalaCards organs/tissues related to C Syndrome:

40
Skin, Eye, Bone, Kidney, Heart, Prostate, Brain

Publications for C Syndrome

Articles related to C Syndrome:

(showing 73, show less)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Mutations in CD96, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, cause a form of the C (Opitz trigonocephaly) syndrome. 61 56 6
17847009 2007
2
Opitz trigonocephaly C syndrome in a boy with a de novo balanced reciprocal translocation t(3;18)(q13.13;q12.1). 61 56
16835930 2006
3
Trisomy of 3pter in a patient with apparent C (trigonocephaly) syndrome. 61 56
11038445 2000
4
Severe end of Opitz trigonocephaly (C) syndrome or new syndrome? 61 56
10405439 1999
5
Probable Opitz trigonocephaly C syndrome with medulloblastoma. 61 56
9098489 1997
6
Opitz-C syndrome: on the nosology of mental retardation and trigonocephaly. 61 56
1472356 1992
7
Opitz trigonocephaly syndrome. 61 56
1746609 1991
8
Opitz C syndrome and pseudohypoaldosteronism. 61 56
2175542 1990
9
"C" trigonocephaly syndrome: clinical variability and possibility of surgical treatment. 61 56
2260586 1990
10
C syndrome with apparently normal development. 61 56
2260587 1990
11
Trigonocephaly and the Opitz C syndrome. 61 56
3981579 1985
12
Optiz trigonocephaly syndrome: report of two cases. 61 56
6698065 1984
13
Further delineation of the C (trigonocephaly) syndrome. 61 56
7258228 1981
14
The Opitz trigonocephaly syndrome. A case report. 61 56
1190170 1975
15
A Japanese boy with apparent Bohring-Opitz or "C-like" syndrome. 56
16528754 2006
16
"C" trigonocephaly syndrome: report of a child with agenesis of the corpus callosum and tetralogy of Fallot, and review. 56
7625448 1995
17
"C" trigonocephaly syndrome with diaphragmnatic hernia. 56
7546453 1995
18
"C" trigonocephaly syndrome: two additional cases. 56
2260588 1990
19
Generation of two compound heterozygous HGSNAT-mutated lines from healthy induced pluripotent stem cells using CRISPR/Cas9 to model Sanfilippo C syndrome. 61
31731183 2019
20
A De Novo FOXP1 Truncating Mutation in a Patient Originally Diagnosed as C Syndrome. 61
29330474 2018
21
Bohring-opitz syndrome - A case of a rare genetic disorder. 61
28889139 2017
22
Compound heterozygous mutations in the IFT140 gene cause Opitz trigonocephaly C syndrome in a patient with typical features of a ciliopathy. 61
27874174 2017
23
A De Novo Nonsense Mutation in MAGEL2 in a Patient Initially Diagnosed as Opitz-C: Similarities Between Schaaf-Yang and Opitz-C Syndromes. 61
28281571 2017
24
Screening of CD96 and ASXL1 in 11 patients with Opitz C or Bohring-Opitz syndromes. 61
26768331 2016
25
Activity and High-Order Effective Connectivity Alterations in Sanfilippo C Patient-Specific Neuronal Networks. 61
26411903 2015
26
EXTL2 and EXTL3 inhibition with siRNAs as a promising substrate reduction therapy for Sanfilippo C syndrome. 61
26347037 2015
27
Genes associated with low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. 61
24916532 2014
28
The first Korean case of mucopolysaccharidosis IIIC (Sanfilippo syndrome type C) confirmed by biochemical and molecular investigation. 61
23301227 2013
29
Radiographic characterization of the hands in Ritscher-Schinzel/3-C syndrome. 61
24255872 2013
30
Opitz trigonocephaly syndrome presenting with sudden unexplained death in the operating room: a case report. 61
21689463 2011
31
Functional analysis of the HGSNAT gene in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IIIC (Sanfilippo C Syndrome). 61
20583299 2010
32
Atrioventricular block and diastolic dysfunction in a patient with Sanfilippo C. 61
21048366 2010
33
"Opitz C syndrome and pseudohypoaldosteronism" is caused by a chromosome 4q deletion. 61
19449408 2009
34
Cardiac arrest secondary to long QT(C )in a child with propionic acidemia. 61
18058159 2008
35
Clinical and genetic spectrum of Sanfilippo type C (MPS IIIC) disease in The Netherlands. 61
18024218 2008
36
Syndromes and disorders associated with omphalocele (III): single gene disorders, neural tube defects, diaphragmatic defects and others. 61
17638618 2007
37
Mutational analysis of the HGSNAT gene in Italian patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IIIC (Sanfilippo C syndrome). Mutation in brief #959. Online. 61
17397050 2007
38
Interdisciplinary rehabilitation of a patient with Opitz C-syndrome and extensive craniofacial malformation. 61
17414277 2007
39
Mutations in TMEM76* cause mucopolysaccharidosis IIIC (Sanfilippo C syndrome). 61
17033958 2006
40
Mortality and pathological findings in C (Opitz trigonocephaly) syndrome. 61
17162528 2006
41
Mutational screening of FGFR1, CER1, and CDON in a large cohort of trigonocephalic patients. 54
16526918 2006
42
A case of Kabuki (Niikawa-Kuroki) syndrome associated with manifestations resembling C-trigonocephaly syndrome. 61
15389716 2004
43
Partial trisomy 13 with features similar to C syndrome. 61
15235171 2004
44
Opitz trigonocephaly C syndrome associated with hearing loss. 61
14651551 2003
45
Managing occupational risks for hepatitis C transmission in the health care setting. 61
12857782 2003
46
[C syndrome]. 61
11462451 2001
47
Severe end of Opitz trigonocephaly C syndrome. 61
10861669 2000
48
The tetraspanin CD63/lamp3 cycles between endocytic and secretory compartments in human endothelial cells. 61
10793155 2000
49
[Retinitis pigmentosa, terminal renal insufficiency and Caroli syndrome: new associations with Opitz trigonocephaly syndrome]. 61
10719681 2000
50
An unusual FGFR1 mutation (fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 mutation) in a girl with non-syndromic trigonocephaly. 54
11173846 2000
51
[Cytarabine-induced pericarditis]. 61
9866424 1998
52
Opitz C trigonocephaly syndrome and midline brain anomalies. 61
9415479 1997
53
Another Arab patient with overlap of Váradi-Papp/Opitz trigonocephaly syndromes? 61
8986276 1997
54
Differences in the nonreducing ends of heparan sulfates excreted by patients with mucopolysaccharidoses revealed by bacterial heparitinases: a new tool for structural studies and differential diagnosis of Sanfilippo's and Hunter's syndromes. 61
8973472 1996
55
[Treacher-Collin's syndrome and translaryngeal guided intubation--case report]. 61
7921870 1994
56
FISH diagnosis of partial trisomy 13 and tetrasomy 13 in a patient with severe trigonocephaly (C) phenotype. 61
7977471 1994
57
Váradi syndrome (OFD VI) or Opitz trigonocephaly syndrome: overlapping manifestations in two cousins. 61
8256802 1993
58
C syndrome and omphalocele: another example. 61
1362631 1992
59
[Opitz-trigonocephaly syndrome--a characteristic dysmorphia-retardation syndrome of unclear origin]. 61
1614184 1992
60
[Opitz' trigonocephaly syndrome]. 61
1758140 1991
61
Familial type C syndrome of insulin resistance and short stature with possible autosomal dominant transmission. 61
2684618 1989
62
Ara-C syndrome during low-dose continuous infusion therapy. 61
3784982 1986
63
Opitz trigonocephaly syndrome and terminal transverse limb reduction defects. 61
3830973 1985
64
Sanfilippo type C syndrome in two sisters. 61
3920864 1985
65
The first case of the Sanfilippo type C syndrome in Scandinavia. 61
6404127 1983
66
Sanfilippo syndrome type C: assay for acetyl-CoA: alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase in leukocytes for detection of homozygous and heterozygous individuals. 61
6794963 1981
67
The diagnosis of the Sanfilippo C syndrome, using monosaccharide and oligosaccharide substrates to assay acetyl-CoA: 2-amino-2-deoxy-alpha-glucoside N-acetyltransferase activity. 61
6786804 1981
68
The cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) syndrome. 61
6941069 1981
69
A 3H-labelled trisaccharide from heparin as substrate for acetyl-CoA: 2-amino-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucoside N-acetyltransferase. 61
6766355 1980
70
Brachydactyly C, short stature, and hip dysplasia. 61
391043 1979
71
[Rudiger (E. E. C.) syndrome: report of a case associated with atopic dermatitis (author's transl)]. 61
677688 1978
72
Persistent fetal circulation: an evolving clinical and radiographic concept of pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. 61
896354 1977
73
The C syndrome. 61
1227575 1975

Variations for C Syndrome

ClinVar genetic disease variations for C Syndrome:

6 (showing 83, show less) ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 CD96 CD96, EXONIC BREAKPOINTundetermined variant Pathogenic 4639
2 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.791C>T (p.Thr264Met)SNV Pathogenic 4640 rs119477056 3:111304209-111304209 3:111585362-111585362
3 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.54dup (p.Val19fs)duplication Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity 225311 rs200703204 3:111261145-111261146 3:111542298-111542299
4 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.935A>G (p.Asp312Gly)SNV Uncertain significance 342533 rs886057765 3:111319609-111319609 3:111600762-111600762
5 CD96 NM_198196.2(CD96):c.-115G>ASNV Uncertain significance 342516 rs886057763 3:111260981-111260981 3:111542134-111542134
6 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.1244C>T (p.Pro415Leu)SNV Uncertain significance 342539 rs886057766 3:111342664-111342664 3:111623817-111623817
7 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*143C>ASNV Uncertain significance 342550 rs886057769 3:111368796-111368796 3:111649949-111649949
8 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*172G>TSNV Uncertain significance 342552 rs886057770 3:111368825-111368825 3:111649978-111649978
9 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*841G>CSNV Uncertain significance 342564 rs886057775 3:111369494-111369494 3:111650647-111650647
10 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*1155C>ASNV Uncertain significance 342568 rs886057778 3:111369808-111369808 3:111650961-111650961
11 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*1437A>GSNV Uncertain significance 342572 rs886057780 3:111370090-111370090 3:111651243-111651243
12 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*1843G>ASNV Uncertain significance 342580 rs886057781 3:111370496-111370496 3:111651649-111651649
13 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*2090A>GSNV Uncertain significance 342588 rs868287764 3:111370743-111370743 3:111651896-111651896
14 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*2092_*2093insGAAAGAAinsertion Uncertain significance 342587 rs557338377 3:111370743-111370744 3:111651896-111651897
15 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*2269G>TSNV Uncertain significance 342590 rs532593762 3:111370922-111370922 3:111652075-111652075
16 CD96 NM_198196.2(CD96):c.-117G>ASNV Uncertain significance 342515 rs886057762 3:111260979-111260979 3:111542132-111542132
17 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.1337C>T (p.Pro446Leu)SNV Uncertain significance 342542 rs886057767 3:111356058-111356058 3:111637211-111637211
18 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.1456A>C (p.Thr486Pro)SNV Uncertain significance 342546 rs886057768 3:111356994-111356994 3:111638147-111638147
19 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.544-1485G>ASNV Uncertain significance 342524 rs774695561 3:111296389-111296389 3:111577542-111577542
20 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*844A>GSNV Uncertain significance 342565 rs886057776 3:111369497-111369497 3:111650650-111650650
21 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*1183T>ASNV Uncertain significance 342569 rs886057779 3:111369836-111369836 3:111650989-111650989
22 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*1196G>CSNV Uncertain significance 342570 rs534012574 3:111369849-111369849 3:111651002-111651002
23 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*1364G>ASNV Uncertain significance 342571 rs368097665 3:111370017-111370017 3:111651170-111651170
24 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*1801G>ASNV Uncertain significance 342576 rs750171040 3:111370454-111370454 3:111651607-111651607
25 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*1815G>TSNV Uncertain significance 342579 rs146712540 3:111370468-111370468 3:111651621-111651621
26 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*2064C>TSNV Uncertain significance 342582 rs369682226 3:111370717-111370717 3:111651870-111651870
27 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*2094deldeletion Uncertain significance 342589 rs886057786 3:111370747-111370747 3:111651900-111651900
28 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*2380C>ASNV Uncertain significance 342591 rs80033730 3:111371033-111371033 3:111652186-111652186
29 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.854T>C (p.Ile285Thr)SNV Uncertain significance 342531 rs781311611 3:111317013-111317013 3:111598166-111598166
30 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.891A>G (p.Glu297=)SNV Uncertain significance 342532 rs886057764 3:111317050-111317050 3:111598203-111598203
31 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.1216G>T (p.Val406Leu)SNV Uncertain significance 342538 rs200767318 3:111342636-111342636 3:111623789-111623789
32 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.1622T>G (p.Phe541Cys)SNV Uncertain significance 342547 rs760873204 3:111368565-111368565 3:111649718-111649718
33 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*807A>GSNV Uncertain significance 342560 rs886057773 3:111369460-111369460 3:111650613-111650613
34 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*910A>TSNV Uncertain significance 342567 rs886057777 3:111369563-111369563 3:111650716-111650716
35 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.270T>C (p.Thr90=)SNV Uncertain significance 342521 rs751624723 3:111264101-111264101 3:111545254-111545254
36 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.419-13T>CSNV Uncertain significance 342522 rs772265929 3:111286357-111286357 3:111567510-111567510
37 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*2076deldeletion Uncertain significance 342583 rs886057782 3:111370729-111370729 3:111651882-111651882
38 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*2514T>GSNV Uncertain significance 342593 rs886057787 3:111371167-111371167 3:111652320-111652320
39 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*191G>ASNV Uncertain significance 342553 rs886057771 3:111368844-111368844 3:111649997-111649997
40 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*680C>GSNV Uncertain significance 342558 rs886057772 3:111369333-111369333 3:111650486-111650486
41 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*824A>TSNV Uncertain significance 342563 rs886057774 3:111369477-111369477 3:111650630-111650630
42 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*2092_*2093insGAAinsertion Uncertain significance 342586 rs557338377 3:111370743-111370744 3:111651896-111651897
43 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*2093_*2097deldeletion Uncertain significance 342585 rs771511889 3:111370743-111370747 3:111651896-111651900
44 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.1371A>G (p.Ala457=)SNV Likely benign 342544 rs34636484 3:111356092-111356092 3:111637245-111637245
45 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*1803G>ASNV Likely benign 342577 rs184317872 3:111370456-111370456 3:111651609-111651609
46 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*869G>CSNV Likely benign 342566 rs566078679 3:111369522-111369522 3:111650675-111650675
47 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*713C>TSNV Likely benign 342559 rs550055490 3:111369366-111369366 3:111650519-111650519
48 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*396C>TSNV Likely benign 342554 rs543716163 3:111369049-111369049 3:111650202-111650202
49 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*531A>GSNV Likely benign 342556 rs35846778 3:111369184-111369184 3:111650337-111650337
50 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*671T>CSNV Likely benign 342557 rs533117549 3:111369324-111369324 3:111650477-111650477
51 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.680G>A (p.Arg227Gln)SNV Likely benign 342527 rs143049331 3:111298010-111298010 3:111579163-111579163
52 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.792G>A (p.Thr264=)SNV Likely benign 342528 rs139540088 3:111304210-111304210 3:111585363-111585363
53 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.970G>A (p.Val324Ile)SNV Likely benign 342535 rs149013704 3:111319644-111319644 3:111600797-111600797
54 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.181G>A (p.Val61Ile)SNV Likely benign 342520 rs150450686 3:111264012-111264012 3:111545165-111545165
55 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.853A>G (p.Ile285Val)SNV Likely benign 342530 rs770945585 3:111317012-111317012 3:111598165-111598165
56 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*1799G>ASNV Likely benign 342575 rs535247425 3:111370452-111370452 3:111651605-111651605
57 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*1873G>ASNV Likely benign 342581 rs182012014 3:111370526-111370526 3:111651679-111651679
58 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*125G>ASNV Likely benign 342549 rs116117825 3:111368778-111368778 3:111649931-111649931
59 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.177C>A (p.Ser59=)SNV Likely benign 342519 rs145133367 3:111264008-111264008 3:111545161-111545161
60 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.807+14A>CSNV Likely benign 342529 rs144245769 3:111304239-111304239 3:111585392-111585392
61 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*1815G>ASNV Likely benign 342578 rs146712540 3:111370468-111370468 3:111651621-111651621
62 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*819C>TSNV Likely benign 342561 rs570063384 3:111369472-111369472 3:111650625-111650625
63 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.-51A>GSNV Likely benign 342517 rs370450188 3:111261045-111261045 3:111542198-111542198
64 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.160G>A (p.Val54Met)SNV Likely benign 342518 rs149258762 3:111263991-111263991 3:111545144-111545144
65 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.586C>T (p.Leu196Phe)SNV Likely benign 342526 rs149101142 3:111297916-111297916 3:111579069-111579069
66 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.1451C>T (p.Thr484Met)SNV Likely benign 342545 rs140955483 3:111356989-111356989 3:111638142-111638142
67 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.1247A>T (p.Gln416Leu)SNV Likely benign 342540 rs148659928 3:111342667-111342667 3:111623820-111623820
68 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.1166G>A (p.Ser389Asn)SNV Likely benign 342536 rs138396447 3:111325625-111325625 3:111606778-111606778
69 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.1181-1G>ASNV Benign/Likely benign 342537 rs77738677 3:111342600-111342600 3:111623753-111623753
70 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.578A>C (p.Gln193Pro)SNV Benign/Likely benign 342525 rs61733706 3:111297908-111297908 3:111579061-111579061
71 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.1671C>T (p.Asn557=)SNV Benign/Likely benign 342548 rs148525569 3:111368614-111368614 3:111649767-111649767
72 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.1251C>A (p.Pro417=)SNV Benign/Likely benign 342541 rs76343124 3:111343181-111343181 3:111624334-111624334
73 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*820A>GSNV Benign 342562 rs6437999 3:111369473-111369473 3:111650626-111650626
74 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*1553C>TSNV Benign 342574 rs6763154 3:111370206-111370206 3:111651359-111651359
75 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*160C>TSNV Benign 342551 rs3733176 3:111368813-111368813 3:111649966-111649966
76 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*435C>TSNV Benign 342555 rs73230153 3:111369088-111369088 3:111650241-111650241
77 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*2380C>TSNV Benign 342592 rs80033730 3:111371033-111371033 3:111652186-111652186
78 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.966A>G (p.Thr322=)SNV Benign 342534 rs145863419 3:111319640-111319640 3:111600793-111600793
79 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.424G>C (p.Ala142Pro)SNV Benign 342523 rs2276872 3:111286375-111286375 3:111567528-111567528
80 CD96 NM_198196.2(CD96):c.-121C>TSNV Benign 342514 rs2276873 3:111260975-111260975 3:111542128-111542128
81 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.1362G>C (p.Pro454=)SNV Benign 342543 rs1533270 3:111356083-111356083 3:111637236-111637236
82 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*1539G>TSNV Benign 342573 rs6763322 3:111370192-111370192 3:111651345-111651345
83 CD96 NM_005816.5(CD96):c.*2093deldeletion Benign 342584 rs200341777 3:111370731-111370731 3:111651884-111651884

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for C Syndrome:

73 (showing 1, show less)
# Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID
1 CD96 p.Thr280Met VAR_037578 rs119477056

Expression for C Syndrome

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for C Syndrome.

Pathways for C Syndrome

Pathways related to C Syndrome according to KEGG:

36 (showing 3, show less)
# Name Kegg Source Accession
1 MAPK signaling pathway hsa04010
2 Adherens junction hsa04520
3 Regulation of actin cytoskeleton hsa04810

GO Terms for C Syndrome

Biological processes related to C Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(showing 1, show less)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 skeletal system morphogenesis GO:0048705 8.62 IFT140 FGFR1

Sources for C Syndrome

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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