MCID: CNN001
MIFTS: 42

Cannabis Dependence

Categories: Mental diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Cannabis Dependence

MalaCards integrated aliases for Cannabis Dependence:

Name: Cannabis Dependence 12 76 55 15 73
Marijuana Abuse 44 73

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:1849
ICD10 33 F12.2
ICD9CM 35 304.3
MeSH 44 D002189
NCIt 50 C34445
SNOMED-CT 68 85005007

Summaries for Cannabis Dependence

Disease Ontology : 12 A drug dependence that involves the continued use of cannabis despite problems related to use of the substance.

MalaCards based summary : Cannabis Dependence, also known as marijuana abuse, is related to alcohol dependence and major depressive disorder. An important gene associated with Cannabis Dependence is CNR1 (Cannabinoid Receptor 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Neuroscience and GABAergic synapse. The drugs Dopamine and Risperidone have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, brain and amygdala, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and homeostasis/metabolism

Wikipedia : 76 Cannabis use disorder (CUD), also known as cannabis addiction or marijuana addiction, is defined in the... more...

Related Diseases for Cannabis Dependence

Diseases related to Cannabis Dependence via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 40)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 alcohol dependence 29.9 CNR1 COMT FAAH
2 major depressive disorder 29.2 ABCB1 COMT HCRT
3 cannabis abuse 11.9
4 depression 10.2
5 pain agnosia 10.1 CNR1 FAAH
6 agnosia 10.1 CNR1 FAAH
7 schizophrenia 10.1
8 drug dependence 10.1 CNR1 PENK
9 schizophreniform disorder 10.0 COMT NRG1
10 somatoform disorder 10.0 COMT FAAH
11 bone cancer 10.0 CNR1 PENK
12 alcohol abuse 10.0 CNR1 FAAH
13 anxiety 10.0
14 eating disorder 10.0 CNR1 COMT
15 hallucinogen dependence 10.0 CNR1 FAAH PENK
16 bipolar i disorder 10.0 COMT NRG1
17 kleine-levin hibernation syndrome 10.0 COMT HCRT
18 polysubstance abuse 10.0 CNR1 COMT FAAH
19 post-traumatic stress disorder 10.0 CNR1 COMT FAAH
20 specific developmental disorder 9.9 CNR1 COMT
21 cocaine dependence 9.9
22 autoimmune encephalitis 9.9 CNR1 FAAH HCRT
23 opioid addiction 9.9 ABCB1 COMT
24 myocardial infarction 9.9
25 membranous nephropathy 9.9
26 acute myocardial infarction 9.9
27 glomerulonephritis 9.9
28 atrial fibrillation 9.9
29 epilepsy 9.9
30 human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease 9.9
31 cerebrovascular disease 9.9
32 migraine with or without aura 1 9.9 CNR1 COMT HCRT
33 parkinson disease, late-onset 9.8 CNR1 COMT HCRT
34 cognitive function 1, social 9.8
35 borderline personality disorder 9.8
36 personality disorder 9.8
37 psychotic disorder 9.8
38 opiate dependence 9.8
39 disease of mental health 9.7 CNR1 COMT HCRT NRG1
40 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 9.7 CNR1 FAAH HCRT

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Cannabis Dependence:



Diseases related to Cannabis Dependence

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Cannabis Dependence

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Cannabis Dependence:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.5 ABCB1 CNR1 COMT FAAH HCRT MGLL
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.17 ABCB1 CNR1 COMT FAAH HCRT MGLL

Drugs & Therapeutics for Cannabis Dependence

Drugs for Cannabis Dependence (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 137)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Dopamine Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
2
Risperidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Not Applicable 106266-06-2 5073
3
Ethanol Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable 64-17-5 702
4
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 616-91-1 12035
5
Buspirone Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2 36505-84-7 2477
6
Clozapine Approved Phase 4 5786-21-0 2818
7
Nicotine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 54-11-5 942 89594
8
Fluoxetine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2 54910-89-3 3386
9 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1
10 Serotonin Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
11 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1
12 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
13 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
14 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
15 Serotonin Antagonists Phase 4,Not Applicable
16 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 4,Not Applicable
17 Dopamine Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
18 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
19 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
20 Autonomic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
21 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1
22 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
23 Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
24 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
25 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
26 Antiviral Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
27 Antioxidants Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
28 Expectorants Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
29 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
30 Protective Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
31 N-monoacetylcystine Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
32 Free Radical Scavengers Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
33 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
34 Antidotes Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
35 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
36 Quetiapine Fumarate Phase 4,Phase 2 111974-72-2
37 GABA Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1
38 Nicotinic Agonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
39 Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2
40 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2
41
Serotonin Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable 50-67-9 5202
42
Dronabinol Approved, Illicit Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1 1972-08-3 16078
43
Nabilone Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3 51022-71-0 5284592
44
Clonidine Approved Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3 4205-90-7 2803
45
Lofexidine Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 31036-80-3 30668
46
Ketamine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 6740-88-1 3821
47 Anti-Infective Agents, Local Phase 2, Phase 3,Not Applicable
48 Narcotic Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
49 Narcotics Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable
50 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 97)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Buspirone Treatment for Marijuana Dependence Completed NCT00875836 Phase 4 Buspirone;Placebo
2 Improving Substance Use and Clinical Outcomes in Heavy Cannabis Users With Quetiapine Completed NCT01153490 Phase 4
3 Clozapine for Cannabis Use in Schizophrenia Completed NCT01639872 Phase 4 Clozapine;Risperidone
4 Nicotine Patch for Marijuana Withdrawal Completed NCT01400243 Phase 4 Nicotine;Placebo Patch
5 Treatment of Schizophrenia and Comorbid Cannabis Use Disorder: Comparing Clozapine to Treatment-as-Usual Completed NCT00498550 Phase 4 Clozapine;Treatment as usual
6 Substance Dependent Teens - Impact of Treating Depression Study 1 - 1 Completed NCT00061113 Phase 4 Fluoxetine + outpatient cognitive behavioral therapy;fluoxetine;placebo + CBT
7 N-acetylcysteine for the Treatment of Cannabis Dependence: Working Mechanisms Recruiting NCT03221231 Phase 4 N-acetylcysteine;Placebo Oral Tablet
8 A Comparison of Adolescent Group Therapy and Transitional Family Therapy for Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Abusers Unknown status NCT00484367 Phase 2, Phase 3
9 Nabilone for Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study Completed NCT01347762 Phase 2, Phase 3 Nabilone;Placebo
10 Combined Pharmacotherapy for Cannabis Dependency Completed NCT01020019 Phase 2, Phase 3 Dronabinol;Placebo;Lofexidine
11 Facilitating the Behavioral Treatment of Cannabis Use Disorder Completed NCT02946489 Phase 2, Phase 3 CI-581a
12 Achieving Cannabis Cessation-Evaluating N-Acetylcysteine Treatment Completed NCT01675661 Phase 3 N-Acetylcysteine;Placebo
13 Nabilone & Marijuana Addiction Completed NCT01025700 Phase 2, Phase 3 Cesemat
14 Vaping THC From Electronic Cigarettes Not yet recruiting NCT02955329 Phase 3 Nicotine only;THC only;Nicotine and THC
15 Combination of Dronabinol and Clonidine for Cannabis Dependence in Patients With Schizophrenia Terminated NCT01598896 Phase 2, Phase 3 Dronabinol;Clonidine;Placebo
16 Efficacy and Safety of the Hcoil Deep TMS for the Treatment of Cannabis Addiction Unknown status NCT00543036 Phase 1, Phase 2
17 Clinical Trial of N-acetylcysteine Versus Placebo Efficacy in the Cannabis Withdrawal Unknown status NCT01439828 Phase 2 N-acetylcystein
18 Quetiapine Pharmacotherapy for Cannabis Dependence Completed NCT01697709 Phase 2 Quetiapine;Placebo
19 Study of Long-Acting Injectable Naltrexone to Treat Cannabis Dependence Completed NCT02088177 Phase 1, Phase 2 Long-acting injectable naltrexone
20 Sativex and Behavioral-relapse Prevention Strategy in Cannabis Dependence Completed NCT01747850 Phase 2 Sativex;Placebo spray
21 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Nicotine Transdermal Patch for Cannabis Dependence and Nicotine Dependence Completed NCT01292642 Phase 2 Nicotine Replacement Therapy
22 Study of Quetiapine Treatment for Cannabis Dependence Completed NCT00954681 Phase 2 quetiapine
23 Gabapentin Treatment of Cannabis Dependence Completed NCT00974376 Phase 2 gabapentin 1200mg/day;Placebo
24 Atomoxetine for the Treatment of Cannabis Dependence Completed NCT00167297 Phase 2 Atomoxetine
25 Clinical and Neurobiological Effects of Cannabis Dependence in Young Adults Completed NCT00656487 Phase 2 rimonabant;placebo
26 Gabapentin Treatment of Cannabis Dependence Completed NCT00395044 Phase 2 Placebo;Gabapentin
27 Vilazodone Treatment for Marijuana Dependence Completed NCT01574183 Phase 2 Vilazodone;Placebo
28 Baclofen Effects on Marijuana Dependence Completed NCT02011516 Phase 2 Baclofen;Placebo
29 Dronabinol Treatment for Marijuana Addiction Completed NCT00217971 Phase 2 Dronabinol;Placebo
30 Free Venlafaxine Treatment for Marijuana Addiction and Depression - 1 Completed NCT00131456 Phase 2 Venlafaxine;Placebo
31 Cannabidiol: a Novel Intervention for Cannabis Use Problems? Completed NCT02044809 Phase 2 Cannabidiol;Placebo
32 Effectiveness of Buspirone and Motivational Enhancement Therapy for the Treatment of Marijuana Dependence - 1 Completed NCT00149617 Phase 2 Buspirone
33 Treatment for Cannabis Withdrawal and Dependence Completed NCT01611948 Phase 2 Aprepitant;Placebo
34 Atomoxetine Treatment for ADHD and Marijuana Dependence Completed NCT00360269 Phase 2 Atomoxetine;Placebo
35 Effectiveness of Selegiline in Treating Marijuana Dependent Individuals - 1 Completed NCT00218517 Phase 2 Selegiline hydrochloride;Placebo
36 Pregnenolone and Marijuana Dependence Completed NCT02439814 Phase 2 Pregnenolone
37 A Placebo-Controlled Trial of Buspirone for Treatment of Marijuana Dependence Completed NCT00360191 Phase 2 Buspirone
38 A Trial of N-Acetylcysteine (an Over-the-Counter Medicine) in Adolescents Who Smoke Marijuana Completed NCT01005810 Phase 2 N-Acetylcysteine;placebo
39 Effectiveness of Fluoxetine in Young People for the Treatment of Major Depression and Marijuana Dependence Completed NCT00149643 Phase 2 Fluoxetine
40 An Open-Label Trial of N-Acetylcysteine in Cannabis Dependent Adolescents Completed NCT00542750 Phase 1, Phase 2 N-Acetylcysteine
41 Effect of Baclofen on Marijuana Withdrawal and Relapse Completed NCT00373295 Phase 2 Baclofen;Marijuana;Placebo
42 Effects of Citicoline on Brain Function and Behavior in Marijuana-Dependent Individuals Completed NCT00158249 Phase 2 citicoline;placebo
43 Pharmacological Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol and Marijuana Withdrawal and Dependence Completed NCT02210195 Phase 2 aprepitant;Placebo
44 Biobehavioral Effects of Topiramate on Cannabis-Related Outcomes in Adolescents Completed NCT01110434 Phase 2 Topiramate;Placebo
45 Lithium Cannabis Withdrawal Study Completed NCT00114439 Phase 2 Lithium carbonate
46 The Teen Marijuana Check-Up Completed NCT00350285 Phase 2
47 Effectiveness Study of Dronabinol and BRENDA for the Treatment of Cannabis Withdrawal Completed NCT00480441 Phase 2 Dronabinol;Placebo
48 Comparison Between Marijuana Smoked in Cigarette Paper Versus Cigar Paper Completed NCT00374127 Phase 2 Marijuana blunt;marijuana cigarette
49 Effect of Lofexidine and Oral THC on Marijuana Withdrawal and Relapse Completed NCT00373503 Phase 2 Lofexidine;dronabinol;Marijuana
50 Maximizing the Efficacy of Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Contingency Management Completed NCT00350649 Phase 2

Search NIH Clinical Center for Cannabis Dependence

Cochrane evidence based reviews: marijuana abuse

Genetic Tests for Cannabis Dependence

Anatomical Context for Cannabis Dependence

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Cannabis Dependence:

41
Testes, Brain, Amygdala, Bone, Temporal Lobe

Publications for Cannabis Dependence

Articles related to Cannabis Dependence:

(show top 50) (show all 182)
# Title Authors Year
1
Open-label pilot study of injectable naltrexone for cannabis dependence. ( 29420073 )
2018
2
Nabiximols combined with motivational enhancement/cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of cannabis dependence: A pilot randomized clinical trial. ( 29385147 )
2018
3
Subcortical Local Functional Hyperconnectivity in Cannabis Dependence. ( 29486870 )
2018
4
The Wrong Kind of Connections: Cannabis Dependence and Subcortical Hyperconnectivity. ( 29486861 )
2018
5
Alteration to hippocampal volume and shape confined to cannabis dependence: a multi-site study. ( 30022573 )
2018
6
Synergistic effects of marijuana abuse and HIV infection on neural activation during a cognitive interference task. ( 30239074 )
2018
7
Whole genome sequence study of cannabis dependence in two independent cohorts. ( 28111843 )
2017
8
Nabilone pharmacotherapy for cannabis dependence: A randomized, controlled pilot study. ( 28921814 )
2017
9
Genome-wide association study identifies a novel locus for cannabis dependence. ( 29112194 )
2017
10
Association between increased EEG signal complexity and cannabis dependence. ( 29132831 )
2017
11
S100A10 identified in a genome-wide gene A9 cannabis dependence interaction analysis of risky sexual behaviours. ( 28418321 )
2017
12
Social cognitive predictors of treatment outcome in cannabis dependence. ( 27883947 )
2017
13
Decisional balance and processes of change in community-recruited with moderate-high versus mild severity of cannabis dependence. ( 29206230 )
2017
14
Treatment seeking in cannabis dependence: The role of social cognition. ( 27894043 )
2017
15
Greater Prevalence of Proposed ICD-11 Alcohol and Cannabis Dependence Compared to ICD-10, DSM-IV, and DSM-5 in Treated Adolescents. ( 28667763 )
2017
16
Sativex Associated With Behavioral-Relapse Prevention Strategy as Treatment for Cannabis Dependence: A Case Series. ( 27261670 )
2016
17
Anxiety Sensitivity and Distress Intolerance as Predictors of Cannabis Dependence Symptoms, Problems, and Craving: The Mediating Role of Coping Motives. ( 27797690 )
2016
18
Differential effects of cannabis dependence on cortical inhibition in patients with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls. ( 27964871 )
2016
19
Genome-wide Association Study of Cannabis Dependence Severity, Novel Risk Variants, and Shared Genetic Risks. ( 27028160 )
2016
20
Vilazodone for cannabis dependence: A randomized, controlled pilot trial. ( 26685701 )
2016
21
Genome-wide Significant Associations for Cannabis Dependence Severity: Relevance to Psychiatric Disorders. ( 27027914 )
2016
22
Deficits in striatal dopamine release in cannabis dependence. ( 27001613 )
2016
23
Persistent cannabis dependence and alcohol dependence represent risks for midlife economic and social problems: A longitudinal cohort study. ( 28008372 )
2016
24
Marijuana Abuse in Singapore. ( 27922141 )
2016
25
Acute myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke coexistence due to marijuana abuse in an adolescent. ( 27389155 )
2016
26
Small Molecule Detection in Saliva Facilitates Portable Tests of Marijuana Abuse. ( 27434697 )
2016
27
Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGLL) polymorphism rs604300 interacts with childhood adversity to predict cannabis dependence symptoms and amygdala habituation: Evidence from an endocannabinoid system-level analysis. ( 26595473 )
2015
28
Concordance of Direct and Indirect Measures of Medication Adherence in A Treatment Trial for Cannabis Dependence. ( 26028133 )
2015
29
Maintenance Check-ups Following Treatment for Cannabis Dependence. ( 25922136 )
2015
30
Impact of age at onset of cannabis use on cannabis dependence and driving under the influence in the United States. ( 25543035 )
2015
31
Psychosocial Determinants of Cannabis Dependence: A Systematic Review of the Literature. ( 26551358 )
2015
32
Three-Year Course of Cannabis Dependence and Prediction of Persistence. ( 26044258 )
2015
33
Associations between cigarette smoking and cannabis dependence: a longitudinal study of young cannabis users in the United Kingdom. ( 25622777 )
2015
34
Buspirone treatment of cannabis dependence: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. ( 26386827 )
2015
35
Risk-taking in schizophrenia and controls with and without cannabis dependence. ( 25467541 )
2015
36
Examining the profile of high-potency cannabis and its association with severity of cannabis dependence. ( 26213314 )
2015
37
The impacts of marijuana dispensary density and neighborhood ecology on marijuana abuse and dependence. ( 26154479 )
2015
38
Cortical thinness and volume differences associated with marijuana abuse in emerging adults. ( 26249265 )
2015
39
Treatment of cannabis dependence using escitalopram in combination with cognitive-behavior therapy: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. ( 24359507 )
2014
40
Pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. ( 25515775 )
2014
41
Potential use of Magnolia officinalis bark polyphenols in the treatment of cannabis dependence. ( 25459131 )
2014
42
Different dopaminergic abnormalities underlie cannabis dependence and cannabis-induced psychosis. ( 24560431 )
2014
43
Imaging dopamine transmission parameters in cannabis dependence. ( 24513022 )
2014
44
Pretreatment measures of brain structure and reward-processing brain function in cannabis dependence: an exploratory study of relationships with abstinence during behavioral treatment. ( 24793365 )
2014
45
Open-label pilot study of quetiapine treatment for cannabis dependence. ( 24963729 )
2014
46
Baclofen in the management of cannabis dependence syndrome. ( 24490032 )
2014
47
Reliability and validity of the Marijuana Motives Measure among young adult frequent cannabis users and associations with cannabis dependence. ( 25240105 )
2014
48
Cross-sectional and prospective relation of cannabis potency, dosing and smoking behaviour with cannabis dependence: an ecological study. ( 24628797 )
2014
49
The Moderating Role of Experiential Avoidance in the Relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Severity and Cannabis Dependence. ( 25478317 )
2014
50
Late onset epilepsy associated with marijuana abuse: a case report with MRI findings. ( 25120871 )
2014

Variations for Cannabis Dependence

Expression for Cannabis Dependence

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Cannabis Dependence.

Pathways for Cannabis Dependence

GO Terms for Cannabis Dependence

Cellular components related to Cannabis Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 GABA-ergic synapse GO:0098982 8.96 CNR1 NRG1
2 axon GO:0030424 8.92 CNR1 COMT NRG1 PENK

Biological processes related to Cannabis Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 regulation of signaling receptor activity GO:0010469 9.58 HCRT NRG1 PENK
2 locomotory behavior GO:0007626 9.43 NRG1 PENK
3 sensory perception of pain GO:0019233 9.37 CNR1 PENK
4 response to nicotine GO:0035094 9.32 CNR1 PENK
5 regulation of sensory perception of pain GO:0051930 9.26 COMT MGLL
6 response to morphine GO:0043278 9.16 CNR1 PENK
7 arachidonic acid metabolic process GO:0019369 8.96 FAAH MGLL
8 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 8.8 CNR1 COMT PENK

Molecular functions related to Cannabis Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neuropeptide hormone activity GO:0005184 8.96 HCRT PENK
2 acylglycerol lipase activity GO:0047372 8.62 FAAH MGLL

Sources for Cannabis Dependence

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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