CPT2DI
MCID: CRN296
MIFTS: 64

Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile (CPT2DI)

Categories: Genetic diseases, Metabolic diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile

MalaCards integrated aliases for Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile:

Name: Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile 57 29 6 39 71
Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency 12 74 25 43 58 36 29 54 6 15
Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Late-Onset 6 39 71
Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency with Hypoketotic Hypoglycemia 57 73
Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Hepatocardiomuscular 57 73
Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Deficiency Type 2 20 58
Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase 2 Deficiency 44 71
Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 2 Deficiency 20 43
Cpt Ii Deficiency, Hepatic 57 73
Cpt2 Deficiency, Infantile 57 73
Cpt Ii Deficiency 25 43
Cpt2 20 58
Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase Deficiency Type 2, Hepatocardiomuscular Form 58
Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase Ii Deficiency, Hepatocardiomuscular Form 58
Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase Deficiency Type 2, Severe Infantile Form 58
Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase Ii Deficiency, Severe Infantile Form 58
Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Lethal Neonatal 71
Lethal Neonatal Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency 12
Late-Onset Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency 12
Infantile Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency 12
Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 2 Deficiency, Infantile 73
Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency 20
Cptii, Hepatocardiomuscular Form 58
Cpt Deficiency, Hepatic, Type Ii 13
Cpt2, Hepatocardiomuscular Form 58
Cpt Ii Deficiency, Infantile 57
Cptii, Severe Infantile Form 58
Cpt2, Severe Infantile Form 58
Cpt2 Deficiency 43
Cpt-Ii 12
Cpt2di 73
Cptii 58

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
carnitine palmitoyltransferase ii deficiency
Inheritance: Autosomal recessive; Prevalence: 1-9/1000000 (United States),1-9/100000 (Europe); Age of onset: All ages;
carnitine palmitoyl transferase ii deficiency, severe infantile form
Inheritance: Autosomal recessive; Prevalence: <1/1000000 (Worldwide); Age of onset: Infancy,Neonatal; Age of death: early childhood;

OMIM®:

57 (Updated 05-Mar-2021)
Inheritance:
autosomal recessive

Miscellaneous:
onset in infancy (3 months on)
precipitated by febrile illness and fasting
see also lethal neonatal and adult forms


HPO:

31
carnitine palmitoyltransferase ii deficiency, infantile:
Inheritance autosomal recessive inheritance
Onset and clinical course infantile onset


Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare neurological diseases
Inborn errors of metabolism


Summaries for Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile

MedlinePlus Genetics : 43 Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is a condition that prevents the body from using certain fats for energy, particularly during periods without food (fasting). There are three main types of CPT II deficiency: a lethal neonatal form, a severe infantile hepatocardiomuscular form, and a myopathic form.The lethal neonatal form of CPT II deficiency becomes apparent soon after birth. Infants with this form of the disorder develop respiratory failure, seizures, liver failure, a weakened heart muscle (cardiomyopathy), and an irregular heart beat (arrhythmia). Affected individuals also have low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and a low level of ketones, which are produced during the breakdown of fats and used for energy. Together these signs are called hypoketotic hypoglycemia. In many cases, the brain and kidneys are also structurally abnormal. Infants with the lethal neonatal form of CPT II deficiency usually live for a few days to a few months.The severe infantile hepatocardiomuscular form of CPT II deficiency affects the liver, heart, and muscles. Signs and symptoms usually appear within the first year of life. This form involves recurring episodes of hypoketotic hypoglycemia, seizures, an enlarged liver (hepatomegaly), cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmia. Problems related to this form of CPT II deficiency can be triggered by periods of fasting or by illnesses such as viral infections. Individuals with the severe infantile hepatocardiomuscular form of CPT II deficiency are at risk for liver failure, nervous system damage, coma, and sudden death.The myopathic form is the least severe type of CPT II deficiency. This form is characterized by recurrent episodes of muscle pain (myalgia) and weakness and is associated with the breakdown of muscle tissue (rhabdomyolysis). The destruction of muscle tissue releases a protein called myoglobin, which is processed by the kidneys and released in the urine (myoglobinuria). Myoglobin causes the urine to be red or brown. This protein can also damage the kidneys, in some cases leading to life-threatening kidney failure. Episodes of myalgia and rhabdomyolysis may be triggered by exercise, stress, exposure to extreme temperatures, infections, or fasting. The first episode usually occurs during childhood or adolescence. Most people with the myopathic form of CPT II deficiency have no signs or symptoms of the disorder between episodes.

MalaCards based summary : Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile, also known as carnitine palmitoyltransferase ii deficiency, is related to encephalopathy, progressive, early-onset, with episodic rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria, and has symptoms including seizures, vomiting and myalgia. An important gene associated with Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile is CPT2 (Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Fatty acid degradation and Fatty acid metabolism. The drugs Bezafibrate and carnitine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include liver, heart and kidney, and related phenotypes are muscle weakness and reduced carnitine o-palmitoyltransferase level

Disease Ontology : 12 A lipid metabolism disorder characterized by an enzymatic defect that prevents long-chain fatty acids from being transported into the mitochondria.

GARD : 20 Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2) deficiency is a condition that prevents the body from using certain fats for energy, particularly during periods without food (fasting). There are three main types of CPT2 deficiency: a lethal neonatal form, a severe infantile hepatocardiomuscular form, and a myopathic form. The neonatal and infantile forms are severe multisystemic diseases characterized by liver failure with hypoketotic hypoglycemia (extremely low levels of ketones (substances produced when fat cells break down in the blood) and low blood sugar), cardiomyopathy, seizures, and early death. The myopathic form is characterized by exercise-induced muscle pain and weakness and occasional myoglobinuria (rust-colored urine indicating breakdown of muscle tissue). Mutations in the CPT2 gene cause CPT2 deficiency. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Treatment is based on avoidance of prolonged fasting and a low-fat and high-carbohydrate diet.

OMIM® : 57 Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency is an inherited disorder of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation. The infantile form usually presents between 6 and 24 months of age with recurrent attacks of hypoketotic hypoglycemia causing loss of consciousness and seizures, liver failure, and transient hepatomegaly. Some children also have heart involvement with cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia. Episodes are triggered by infections, fever, or fasting. Laboratory studies usually indicate hyperammonemia, metabolic acidosis, and hypoketotic hypoglycemia with elevated levels of creatine kinase (summary by Longo et al., 2006). See also the lethal neonatal (608836) and adult-onset (255110) forms of the disorder, which are also caused by mutation in the CPT2 gene. (600649) (Updated 05-Mar-2021)

KEGG : 36 Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT2) deficiency is an inherited disorder of mitochondrial long-chain fatty-acid oxidation. Three distinct clinical manifestations of CPT2 deficiency have been defined including a mild adult onset myopathy, a severe infantile disorder and a lethal neonatal form.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 73 Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 deficiency, infantile: An autosomal recessive disorder of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, characterized by hepatic or hepato-cardio-muscular manifestations with onset in infancy. Clinical features include hypoketotic hypoglycemia, lethargy, seizures, hepatomegaly, liver dysfunction, cardiomegaly and dilated cardiomyopathy.

Wikipedia : 74 Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited genetic metabolic... more...

GeneReviews: NBK1253

Related Diseases for Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile

Diseases related to Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 114)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 encephalopathy, progressive, early-onset, with episodic rhabdomyolysis 31.5 CPT2 ACADVL
2 myoglobinuria 31.1 HADH CPT2 AMPD1 ACADVL
3 myoglobinuria, recurrent 31.1 CPT2 ACADVL
4 propionic acidemia 31.0 SLC22A5 HADHA CPT2 ACADVL ACADM
5 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 30.6 SLC27A1 PPARA GOT2 CPT2 CPT1B CPT1A
6 mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency 30.5 SLC25A20 HADHA HADH ETFDH CPT2 ACADVL
7 dilated cardiomyopathy 30.5 SLC27A1 SLC22A5 PPARA HADHA GOT2 CPT2
8 acyl-coa dehydrogenase, short-chain, deficiency of 30.5 SLC22A5 HADHA HADH ETFDH CPT2 ACADVL
9 carnitine palmitoyltransferase i deficiency 30.3 HADHA CRAT CPT2 CPT1C CPT1B CPT1A
10 respiratory failure 30.1 PPARA HADHA CPT2 ACADVL
11 metabolic myopathy 30.1 SLC25A20 AMPD1
12 carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency 29.9 SLC25A20 HADHA ETFDH CPT2 CPT1A ACADVL
13 multiple acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency 29.9 SLC25A20 SLC22A5 HADHA HADH ETFDH CPT2
14 myopathy 29.8 SLC22A5 PPARA HADHA ETFDH CRAT CPT2
15 acyl-coa dehydrogenase, medium-chain, deficiency of 29.8 SLC25A20 SLC22A5 HADHA HADH ETFDH CPT2
16 hypoglycemia 29.7 SLC25A20 SLC22A5 HADHA HADH CPT2 CPT1A
17 reye syndrome 29.7 SLC22A5 ETFDH CPT2 ACADM
18 carnitine deficiency, systemic primary 29.7 SLC25A20 SLC22A5 HADHA HADH ETFDH CPT2
19 acyl-coa dehydrogenase, very long-chain, deficiency of 29.5 SLC25A20 SLC22A5 MLYCD HADHA HADH ETFDH
20 atrial standstill 1 29.3 SLC25A20 SLC22A5 MLYCD HADHA ACADVL
21 carnitine palmitoyltransferase ii deficiency, lethal neonatal 12.0
22 carnitine palmitoyltransferase ii deficiency, myopathic, stress-induced 12.0
23 type 2 diabetes mellitus 11.0
24 vertical talus, congenital 11.0
25 abetalipoproteinemia 11.0
26 glycogen storage disease v 11.0
27 glycogen storage disease 11.0
28 glycogen storage disease iv 10.8
29 immunodeficiency 34 10.8
30 isolated elevated serum creatine phosphokinase levels 10.8
31 pancytopenia 10.8
32 acute hemorrhagic encephalitis 10.8
33 arthritis 10.8
34 nervous system disease 10.8
35 chronic pain 10.8
36 dysautonomia 10.8
37 autosomal recessive disease 10.6
38 acute kidney failure 10.5
39 hydrocephalus 10.3
40 kidney disease 10.3
41 hypotonia 10.3
42 renal dysplasia 10.3
43 acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency 10.2 ETFDH ACADVL ACADM
44 visceral steatosis 10.1 SLC22A5 CPT1B CPT1A
45 citrullinemia, classic 10.1 HADHA ETFDH ACADVL
46 dandy-walker syndrome 10.1
47 carbonic anhydrase va deficiency, hyperammonemia due to 10.1
48 polymicrogyria with or without vascular-type ehlers-danlos syndrome 10.1
49 west syndrome 10.1
50 metabolic acidosis 10.1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile:



Diseases related to Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile

Human phenotypes related to Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile:

58 31 (show top 50) (show all 57)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 muscle weakness 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%),Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001324
2 reduced carnitine o-palmitoyltransferase level 31 hallmark (90%) HP:0012380
3 myopathy 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%),Frequent (79-30%) HP:0003198
4 elevated serum creatine kinase 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%),Frequent (79-30%) HP:0003236
5 hyperlipidemia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0003077
6 headache 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%),Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002315
7 intermittent painful muscle spasms 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%),Frequent (79-30%) HP:0011964
8 episodic abdominal pain 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%),Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002574
9 exercise-induced myalgia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%),Frequent (79-30%) HP:0003738
10 exercise intolerance 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%),Frequent (79-30%) HP:0003546
11 myoglobinuria 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%),Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002913
12 exercise-induced muscle cramps 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%),Frequent (79-30%) HP:0003710
13 decreased plasma total carnitine 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%),Frequent (79-30%) HP:0011936
14 red-brown urine 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%),Frequent (79-30%) HP:0040320
15 cold-induced muscle cramps 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%),Frequent (79-30%) HP:0003449
16 decreased plasma free carnitine 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%),Frequent (79-30%) HP:0008315
17 elevated circulating acylcarnitine concentration 31 frequent (33%) HP:0045045
18 hepatomegaly 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%),Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002240
19 hepatic steatosis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001397
20 elevated hepatic transaminase 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002910
21 arrhythmia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%),Occasional (29-5%) HP:0011675
22 dandy-walker malformation 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001305
23 hepatic failure 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%),Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001399
24 cardiomyopathy 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%),Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001638
25 tubulointerstitial nephritis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001970
26 stage 5 chronic kidney disease 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0003774
27 hypoketotic hypoglycemia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%),Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001985
28 ventricular hypertrophy 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001714
29 rhabdomyolysis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%),Occasional (29-5%) HP:0003201
30 hypoglycemic encephalopathy 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0006929
31 renal tubular epithelial necrosis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0008682
32 seizure 31 occasional (7.5%) HP:0001250
33 agenesis of corpus callosum 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001274
34 cerebral calcification 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0002514
35 hydrocephalus 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000238
36 neonatal respiratory distress 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0002643
37 polycystic kidney dysplasia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000113
38 polymicrogyria 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0002126
39 pachygyria 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001302
40 coma 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001259
41 cerebellar vermis hypoplasia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001320
42 abnormality of the basal ganglia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0002134
43 cystic renal dysplasia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000800
44 hepatic calcification 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0006559
45 seizures 58 Occasional (29-5%),Occasional (29-5%)
46 vomiting 31 HP:0002013
47 cardiomegaly 31 HP:0001640
48 dilated cardiomyopathy 31 HP:0001644
49 myalgia 58 Very frequent (99-80%),Frequent (79-30%)
50 hyperammonemia 31 HP:0001987

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 05-Mar-2021)
Neurologic Central Nervous System:
seizures
lethargy

Abdomen Gastrointestinal:
vomiting

Laboratory Abnormalities:
hyperammonemia
increased creatine kinase
decreased carnitine palmitoyltransferase ii (cpt2) activity
decreased levels of cpt2 protein
decreased palmitate oxidation
more
Respiratory:
respiratory arrest

Abdomen Liver:
hepatomegaly
macrovesicular steatosis

Cardiovascular Heart:
cardiomegaly
dilated cardiomyopathy

Metabolic Features:
hypoketotic hypoglycemia

Clinical features from OMIM®:

600649 (Updated 05-Mar-2021)

UMLS symptoms related to Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile:


seizures, vomiting, myalgia, apnea, lethargy, respiratory distress, muscle cramp, muscular stiffness

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability GR00221-A-1 9.72 PPARA
2 Decreased viability GR00221-A-2 9.72 CPT2 PPARA
3 Decreased viability GR00221-A-3 9.72 PPARA
4 Decreased viability GR00221-A-4 9.72 CPT2 PPARA
5 Decreased viability GR00249-S 9.72 ACADM ACOX1 AMPD1 CRAT HADH SLC22A5
6 Decreased viability GR00301-A 9.72 PPARA
7 Decreased viability GR00381-A-1 9.72 GOT2 MLYCD PPARA
8 Decreased viability GR00386-A-1 9.72 ACADL ACADM HADHA SLC27A1
9 Decreased viability GR00402-S-2 9.72 ACADL ACADM ACADVL CPT2 SLC22A5

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.21 ACADL ACADM ACADVL ACOX1 AMPD1 CPT1A
2 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.2 ACADL ACADM ACADVL AMPD1 CPT1A CPT1C
3 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.85 ACADL ACADM ACADVL ACOX1 AMPD1 CPT1C
4 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.77 ACADL ACADM ACADVL AMPD1 CPT1A CPT1B
5 muscle MP:0005369 9.23 ACADM ACADVL AMPD1 CPT1C CRAT HADHA

Drugs & Therapeutics for Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile

Drugs for Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):


# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Bezafibrate Approved, Investigational Phase 2 41859-67-0 39042
2 carnitine Phase 2
3 Antimetabolites Phase 2
4 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 2
5 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Clinical Trial on the Effect of Bezafibrate in the Muscular Form of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 2 Deficiency Unknown status NCT00336167 Phase 3 bezafibrate (drug)
2 Evaluation of the Effect of Bezafibrate on Muscle Metabolism During Exercise in Patients With CPTII and VLCAD Deficiency Completed NCT00983788 Phase 2 Bezafibrate
3 An Open-label Long-Term Safety and Efficacy Extension Study in Subjects With Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders (LC-FAOD) Previously Enrolled in UX007 or Triheptanoin Studies Completed NCT02214160 Phase 2 UX007
4 Role of Circadian and Homeostatic Systems in the Regulation of Wakefulness in Adult Patients With Attention Deficit Disorder With or Without Hyperactivity Completed NCT02217371
5 Pre-Clinical White Matter Changes and Associated Connectivity Effects in Fabry Disease Recruiting NCT03678324
6 Relationships Between Sleep Spindle and Cognitive Process in Healthy Adults Not yet recruiting NCT04596449

Search NIH Clinical Center for Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile

Cochrane evidence based reviews: carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2 deficiency

Genetic Tests for Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile

Genetic tests related to Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency 29 CPT2
2 Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile 29 CPT2

Anatomical Context for Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile:

40
Liver, Heart, Kidney, Skeletal Muscle, Brain, Whole Blood

Publications for Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile

Articles related to Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile:

(show top 50) (show all 153)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
CPT2 gene mutations resulting in lethal neonatal or severe infantile carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. 61 25 6 57 54
18550408 2008
2
Lethal neonatal and severe late infantile forms of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency associated with compound heterozygosity for different protein truncation mutations. 25 57 6 54 61
12410208 2002
3
Two novel gene mutations (Glu174-->Lys, Phe383-->Tyr) causing the "hepatic" form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. 61 54 6 57
8682496 1996
4
Molecular analysis of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency with hepatocardiomuscular expression. 57 6 61 54
8651281 1996
5
Molecular characterization of inherited carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. 54 61 57 6
1528846 1992
6
Infantile form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency with hepatomuscular symptoms and sudden death. Physiopathological approach to carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiencies. 54 61 57 6
1999498 1991
7
Antenatal presentation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. 61 54 25 6
11477613 2001
8
Novel mutations associated with carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. 25 6 61 54
10090476 1999
9
Fuel utilization in subjects with carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 gene mutations. 6 25
15622536 2005
10
A variable myopathy associated with heterozygosity for the R503C mutation in the carnitine palmitoyltransferase II gene. 25 6
10873395 2000
11
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency: structure of the gene and characterization of two novel disease-causing mutations. 54 6 61
7711730 1995
12
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency: successful anaplerotic diet therapy. 61 25 54
18645163 2008
13
No carnitine palmitoyltransferase deficiency in skeletal muscle in 18 malignant hyperthermia susceptible individuals. 54 25 61
18430572 2008
14
Identification of 16 new disease-causing mutations in the CPT2 gene resulting in carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. 25 61 54
16996287 2006
15
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency due to a novel gene variant in a patient with rhabdomyolysis and ARF. 54 61 25
15754283 2005
16
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency: a clinical, biochemical, and molecular review. 25 54 61
14615409 2003
17
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency: molecular and biochemical analysis of 32 patients. 61 54 25
12707442 2003
18
Phenotypic variability among first-degree relatives with carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. 54 61 25
12362414 2002
19
Screening for carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency by tandem mass spectrometry. 61 54 25
11999976 2002
20
Fatal carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency in a newborn: new phenotypic features. 25 54 61
9924637 1999
21
Two CPT2 mutations in three Japanese patients with carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency: functional analysis and association with polymorphic haplotypes and two clinical phenotypes. 54 61 25
9600456 1998
22
Clinically symptomatic heterozygous carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency. 6
23184072 2012
23
[Myopathy in the course of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency]. 61 25
23319229 2012
24
Neonatal carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency associated with Dandy-Walker syndrome and sudden death. 61 25
21641254 2011
25
Carnitine-palmitoyltransferase 2 deficiency: novel mutations and relevance of newborn screening. 57
18925671 2008
26
Autopsy case of the neonatal form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II deficiency triggered by a novel disease-causing mutation del1737C. 61 25
18577113 2008
27
A Japanese adult form of CPT II deficiency associated with a homozygous F383Y mutation. 6
17709715 2007
28
Disorders of carnitine transport and the carnitine cycle. 57
16602102 2006
29
Muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency: clinical and molecular genetic features and diagnostic aspects. 61 25
15642848 2005
30
Lethal neonatal carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency: an unusual presentation of a rare disorder. 61 25
12638078 2003
31
Detection of neonatal carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency by expanded newborn screening with tandem mass spectrometry. 61 25
11389301 2001
32
Molecular analysis in Spanish patients with muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase deficiency. 6
10398215 1999
33
Inheritance of the S113L mutation within an inbred family with carnitine palmitoyltransferase enzyme deficiency. 6
8786066 1996
34
Identification of a common mutation in the carnitine palmitoyltransferase II gene in familial recurrent myoglobinuria patients. 6
8358442 1993
35
Muscle carnitine palmityltransferase deficiency: a case with enzyme deficiency in cultured fibroblasts. 6
736528 1978
36
Diagnostic pitfall in antenatal manifestations of CPT II deficiency. 25
25827434 2016
37
Malony-CoA inhibits the S113L variant of carnitine-palmitoyltransferase II. 25
26477380 2016
38
Should the beneficial impact of bezafibrate on fatty acid oxidation disorders be questioned? 25
25310995 2015
39
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 gene polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for sudden unexpected death in infancy. 25
23969168 2014
40
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency: genotype-phenotype analysis of 50 patients. 25
24398345 2014
41
Bezafibrate in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation disorders: a randomized clinical trial. 25
24453079 2014
42
Three novel mutations in the carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) gene in patients with CACT deficiency and in healthy individuals. 25
24088670 2013
43
Differences between acylcarnitine profiles in plasma and bloodspots. 25
23639448 2013
44
Expanding mutation spectrum in CPT II gene: identification of four novel mutations. 25
23475205 2013
45
Allelic and phenotypic heterogeneity in 49 Italian patients with the muscle form of CPT-II deficiency. 25
21913903 2012
46
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase II polymorphism is associated with multiple syndromes of acute encephalopathy with various infectious diseases. 25
20934285 2011
47
Genotype-phenotype correlations in a large series of patients with muscle type CPT II deficiency. 25
20810031 2011
48
Post-mortem MRI reveals CPT2 deficiency after sudden infant death. 25
20661589 2010
49
Long-term follow-up of bezafibrate treatment in patients with the myopathic form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 deficiency. 25
20505667 2010
50
Severe infantile carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency in 19-week fetal sibs. 54 61
19335026 2009

Variations for Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile:

6 (show top 50) (show all 375)
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1657G>A (p.Asp553Asn) SNV Pathogenic 8955 rs28936376 1:53678947-53678947 1:53213275-53213275
2 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1360G>T (p.Glu454Ter) SNV Pathogenic 8966 rs74315299 1:53676706-53676706 1:53211034-53211034
3 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.638A>G (p.Asp213Gly) SNV Pathogenic 8967 rs74315300 1:53675984-53675984 1:53210312-53210312
4 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1925_1937del (p.Lys642fs) Deletion Pathogenic 130892 rs515726179 1:53679212-53679224 1:53213540-53213552
5 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1767_1777delinsT (p.Ser590fs) Indel Pathogenic 529858 rs1553169975 1:53679057-53679067 1:53213385-53213395
6 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.723_724AC[1] (p.His242fs) Microsatellite Pathogenic 529859 rs1238901632 1:53676069-53676070 1:53210397-53210398
7 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1511C>T (p.Pro504Leu) SNV Pathogenic 203663 rs368311455 1:53676857-53676857 1:53211185-53211185
8 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1784del (p.Pro595fs) Deletion Pathogenic 577198 rs760255368 1:53679072-53679072 1:53213400-53213400
9 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1345delinsTA (p.Gln449Ter) Indel Pathogenic 371775 rs1057517525 1:53676691-53676691 1:53211019-53211019
10 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1666_1667del (p.Leu556fs) Deletion Pathogenic 653761 rs1557719455 1:53678956-53678957 1:53213284-53213285
11 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1369A>T (p.Lys457Ter) SNV Pathogenic 188753 rs756931329 1:53676715-53676715 1:53211043-53211043
12 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1567_1568CA[1] (p.His523fs) Microsatellite Pathogenic 633182 rs1572385947 1:53676913-53676914 1:53211241-53211242
13 CPT2 NC_000001.11:g.(?_53196934)_(53197105_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 831734 1:53662606-53662777
14 CPT2 NC_000001.11:g.(?_53200709)_(53202439_?)del Deletion Pathogenic 832209 1:53666381-53668111
15 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1932dup (p.Glu645fs) Duplication Pathogenic 837370 1:53679221-53679222 1:53213549-53213550
16 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1444_1645+364del Deletion Pathogenic 840887 1:53676790-53677355 1:53211118-53211683
17 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.254_255AG[1] (p.Ser86fs) Microsatellite Pathogenic 856230 1:53668015-53668016 1:53202343-53202344
18 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.896G>A (p.Trp299Ter) SNV Pathogenic 862629 1:53676242-53676242 1:53210570-53210570
19 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.664_668AACTC[1] (p.Thr224fs) Microsatellite Pathogenic 863777 1:53676008-53676012 1:53210336-53210340
20 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.204del (p.Lys69fs) Deletion Pathogenic 863864 1:53666442-53666442 1:53200770-53200770
21 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1152_1153insSVAelement Insertion Pathogenic 870227 1:53676498-53676499 1:53210826-53210827
22 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.852del (p.Glu285fs) Deletion Pathogenic 372351 rs1057517729 1:53676194-53676194 1:53210522-53210522
23 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.989dup (p.Ile332fs) Duplication Pathogenic 558056 rs1553169716 1:53676333-53676334 1:53210661-53210662
24 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1725_1726del (p.Asp576fs) Deletion Pathogenic 948492 1:53679015-53679016 1:53213343-53213344
25 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.808C>T (p.Gln270Ter) SNV Pathogenic 953726 1:53676154-53676154 1:53210482-53210482
26 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1244_1245del (p.Leu415fs) Deletion Pathogenic 955252 1:53676589-53676590 1:53210917-53210918
27 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1052G>A (p.Trp351Ter) SNV Pathogenic 962889 1:53676398-53676398 1:53210726-53210726
28 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1891C>T (p.Arg631Cys) SNV Pathogenic 8952 rs74315293 1:53679181-53679181 1:53213509-53213509
29 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.338C>T (p.Ser113Leu) SNV Pathogenic 8953 rs74315294 1:53668099-53668099 1:53202427-53202427
30 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.149C>A (p.Pro50His) SNV Pathogenic 8954 rs28936375 1:53662764-53662764 1:53197092-53197092
31 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.149C>A (p.Pro50His) SNV Pathogenic 8954 rs28936375 1:53662764-53662764 1:53197092-53197092
32 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1608dup (p.Lys537fs) Duplication Pathogenic 553793 rs1553169813 1:53676952-53676953 1:53211280-53211281
33 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.836_839del (p.Asp279fs) Deletion Pathogenic 945061 1:53676179-53676182 1:53210507-53210510
34 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.585del (p.Pro196fs) Deletion Pathogenic 956433 1:53675931-53675931 1:53210259-53210259
35 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1507C>T (p.Arg503Cys) SNV Pathogenic 8959 rs74315296 1:53676853-53676853 1:53211181-53211181
36 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1342T>C (p.Phe448Leu) SNV Pathogenic 60702 rs74315297 1:53676688-53676688 1:53211016-53211016
37 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.520G>A (p.Glu174Lys) SNV Pathogenic 8957 rs28936674 1:53675866-53675866 1:53210194-53210194
38 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.149C>A (p.Pro50His) SNV Pathogenic 8954 rs28936375 1:53662764-53662764 1:53197092-53197092
39 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1883A>C (p.Tyr628Ser) SNV Pathogenic 8956 rs28936673 1:53679173-53679173 1:53213501-53213501
40 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1148T>A (p.Phe383Tyr) SNV Pathogenic 8958 rs74315295 1:53676494-53676494 1:53210822-53210822
41 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.680C>T (p.Pro227Leu) SNV Pathogenic 8964 rs74315298 1:53676026-53676026 1:53210354-53210354
42 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1891C>T (p.Arg631Cys) SNV Pathogenic 8952 rs74315293 1:53679181-53679181 1:53213509-53213509
43 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.534_558delinsT (p.Leu178_Ile186delinsPhe) Indel Pathogenic 130885 rs515726173 1:53675880-53675904 1:53210208-53210232
44 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.983A>G (p.Asp328Gly) SNV Pathogenic 130887 rs515726175 1:53676329-53676329 1:53210657-53210657
45 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1145G>A (p.Arg382Lys) SNV Pathogenic 130888 rs515726176 1:53676491-53676491 1:53210819-53210819
46 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.641T>C (p.Met214Thr) SNV Pathogenic 130886 rs515726174 1:53675987-53675987 1:53210315-53210315
47 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.359A>G (p.Tyr120Cys) SNV Pathogenic 8968 rs121918528 1:53675705-53675705 1:53210033-53210033
48 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.1342T>C (p.Phe448Leu) SNV Pathogenic 60702 rs74315297 1:53676688-53676688 1:53211016-53211016
49 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.452G>A (p.Arg151Gln) SNV Pathogenic 130889 rs515726177 1:53675798-53675798 1:53210126-53210126
50 CPT2 NM_000098.3(CPT2):c.370C>T (p.Arg124Ter) SNV Pathogenic 203659 rs201065226 1:53675716-53675716 1:53210044-53210044

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile:

73
# Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID
1 CPT2 p.Tyr628Ser VAR_001398 rs28936673
2 CPT2 p.Arg631Cys VAR_001399 rs74315293

Expression for Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile.

Pathways for Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile

Pathways related to Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile according to KEGG:

36
# Name Kegg Source Accession
1 Fatty acid degradation hsa00071
2 Fatty acid metabolism hsa01212

Pathways related to Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 26)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.95 SLC27A1 SLC25A20 PPARA MLYCD HADHA HADH
2
Show member pathways
13.19 SLC25A20 PPARA ETFDH CPT2 CPT1C CPT1B
3
Show member pathways
12.71 SLC27A1 SLC25A20 PPARA HADHA HADH CPT2
4
Show member pathways
12.41 HADHA HADH CPT2 CPT1C CPT1B CPT1A
5
Show member pathways
12.37 MLYCD CPT1C CPT1B CPT1A
6
Show member pathways
12.19 MLYCD CRAT CPT2 CPT1C CPT1B CPT1A
7 12.01 HADHA CPT1A ACADM
8
Show member pathways
11.88 SLC27A1 PPARA CPT1B CPT1A
9
Show member pathways
11.87 HADHA HADH ACADM
10 11.85 PPARA CPT1C CPT1B CPT1A
11
Show member pathways
11.78 HADHA HADH ACOX1
12 11.73 HADH GOT2 ACADM
13 11.68 MLYCD CRAT ACOX1
14
Show member pathways
11.67 HADHA HADH ACADVL ACADM ACADL
15 11.65 PPARA CPT1C CPT1B CPT1A
16 11.49 SLC27A1 PPARA CPT2 CPT1C CPT1B CPT1A
17
Show member pathways
11.48 MLYCD CRAT ACOX1
18
Show member pathways
11.47 HADH ACOX1 ACADL
19 11.44 HADH CPT1C CPT1B CPT1A ACADVL ACADM
20 11.27 MLYCD HADHA ACOX1
21
Show member pathways
11.24 MLYCD HADHA ACOX1
22 11.22 SLC27A1 PPARA CPT2 CPT1A ACADM
23
Show member pathways
11.05 SLC25A20 HADHA HADH CRAT CPT2 CPT1B
24 10.78 SLC25A20 CPT2 CPT1B CPT1A
25 10.72 PPARA ACOX1
26
Show member pathways
10.67 HADHA HADH ACADM

GO Terms for Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile

Cellular components related to Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 mitochondrial matrix GO:0005759 9.7 MLYCD HADH GOT2 ETFDH ACADVL ACADM
2 mitochondrial membrane GO:0031966 9.56 ETFDH ACADVL ACADM ACADL
3 mitochondrial inner membrane GO:0005743 9.56 SLC27A1 SLC25A20 HADHA GOT2 ETFDH CRAT
4 peroxisome GO:0005777 9.54 MLYCD CRAT ACOX1
5 peroxisomal matrix GO:0005782 9.5 MLYCD CRAT ACOX1
6 mitochondrion GO:0005739 9.47 SLC25A20 MLYCD HADHA HADH GOT2 ETFDH

Biological processes related to Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 31)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 oxidation-reduction process GO:0055114 10.02 HADHA HADH ETFDH ACOX1 ACADVL ACADM
2 fatty acid beta-oxidation GO:0006635 9.85 HADHA HADH CPT2 CPT1C CPT1B CPT1A
3 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.82 PPARA GOT2 CPT1A
4 regulation of lipid metabolic process GO:0019216 9.8 SLC27A1 PPARA CPT2 CPT1A ACOX1 ACADM
5 positive regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis GO:0120162 9.78 HADH CPT2 ACADL
6 lipid metabolic process GO:0006629 9.77 SLC27A1 MLYCD HADHA HADH CRAT CPT2
7 protein targeting to peroxisome GO:0006625 9.76 MLYCD CRAT ACOX1
8 response to insulin GO:0032868 9.76 SLC27A1 PPARA HADH GOT2
9 carnitine shuttle GO:0006853 9.71 SLC25A20 CPT2 CPT1B CPT1A
10 response to cold GO:0009409 9.69 SLC27A1 ACADVL ACADM
11 long-chain fatty acid metabolic process GO:0001676 9.67 SLC27A1 CPT2 CPT1A
12 fatty acid beta-oxidation using acyl-CoA dehydrogenase GO:0033539 9.67 ETFDH ACADVL ACADM ACADL
13 temperature homeostasis GO:0001659 9.65 ACADVL ACADL
14 carnitine metabolic process GO:0009437 9.65 CPT2 CPT1C CPT1B CPT1A ACADM
15 negative regulation of fatty acid biosynthetic process GO:0045717 9.64 ACADVL ACADL
16 fatty acid oxidation GO:0019395 9.64 MLYCD ACOX1
17 long-chain fatty acid transport GO:0015909 9.63 SLC27A1 CPT1B
18 fatty acid beta-oxidation using acyl-CoA oxidase GO:0033540 9.63 CRAT ACOX1
19 fatty acid transport GO:0015908 9.62 SLC27A1 GOT2
20 fatty acid catabolic process GO:0009062 9.62 ACOX1 ACADVL
21 regulation of cholesterol metabolic process GO:0090181 9.61 ACADVL ACADL
22 carnitine metabolic process, CoA-linked GO:0019254 9.61 CRAT ACADM ACADL
23 positive regulation of fatty acid beta-oxidation GO:0032000 9.6 PPARA CPT1A
24 regulation of lipid storage GO:0010883 9.59 PPARA CPT1A
25 negative regulation of fatty acid oxidation GO:0046322 9.58 ACADVL ACADL
26 positive regulation of fatty acid oxidation GO:0046321 9.57 PPARA MLYCD
27 medium-chain fatty acid metabolic process GO:0051791 9.56 CRAT ACADM
28 regulation of fatty acid oxidation GO:0046320 9.55 MLYCD CPT1A
29 carnitine transmembrane transport GO:1902603 9.54 SLC25A20 SLC22A5
30 lipid localization GO:0010876 9.52 PPARA CPT1A
31 fatty acid metabolic process GO:0006631 9.47 SLC27A1 PPARA MLYCD HADHA HADH CRAT

Molecular functions related to Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 13)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 transferase activity GO:0016740 10.13 HADHA HADH GOT2 CRAT CPT2 CPT1C
2 identical protein binding GO:0042802 10.1 MLYCD HADH GOT2 CPT1A AMPD1 ACADVL
3 oxidoreductase activity GO:0016491 9.91 HADHA HADH ETFDH ACOX1 ACADVL ACADM
4 transferase activity, transferring acyl groups GO:0016746 9.72 CRAT CPT2 CPT1C CPT1B CPT1A
5 fatty-acyl-CoA binding GO:0000062 9.58 HADHA ACADVL ACADL
6 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity GO:0003857 9.51 HADHA HADH
7 acyl-CoA oxidase activity GO:0003997 9.48 CRAT ACOX1
8 palmitoyl-CoA oxidase activity GO:0016401 9.46 ACOX1 ACADL
9 oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-CH group of donors GO:0016627 9.46 ACOX1 ACADVL ACADM ACADL
10 long-chain-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity GO:0004466 9.43 ACADVL ACADL
11 acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity GO:0003995 9.43 ACADVL ACADM ACADL
12 flavin adenine dinucleotide binding GO:0050660 9.35 ETFDH ACOX1 ACADVL ACADM ACADL
13 carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase activity GO:0004095 8.92 CPT2 CPT1C CPT1B CPT1A

Sources for Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Ii Deficiency, Infantile

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Mar-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....