MCID: CNT017
MIFTS: 38

Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Categories: Ear diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

MalaCards integrated aliases for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo:

Name: Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo 12 15 72
Vertigo of Central Origin 12 33
Central Vestibular Vertigo 12
Vertigo 44

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:2479
ICD9CM 35 386.2
MeSH 44 D014717
SNOMED-CT 68 20425006 38403006
ICD10 33 H81.4 H81.49
UMLS 72 C0155503

Summaries for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Disease Ontology : 12 A brain disease that is characterized by vertigo caused by hemorrhagic insult, ischemic insult or mass lesion of the cerebellum, the vestibular nuclei, and the brainstem, has symptom dizziness, has symptom nausea, has symptom vomiting and has symptom difficulty walking.

MalaCards based summary : Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo, also known as vertigo of central origin, is related to vertigo, benign recurrent and peripheral vertigo, and has symptoms including vomiting, difficulty walking and nausea. An important gene associated with Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo is SCN2A (Sodium Voltage-Gated Channel Alpha Subunit 2). The drugs Propranolol and Norepinephrine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, testes and cerebellum.

Wikipedia : 75 Vertigo is a symptom where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving when they are... more...

Related Diseases for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Diseases related to Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 490)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 vertigo, benign recurrent 12.6
2 peripheral vertigo 12.6
3 benign paroxysmal positional nystagmus 12.4
4 vertigo, benign recurrent, 2 12.4
5 meniere disease 12.3
6 viral labyrinthitis 12.2
7 episodic ataxia, type 3 12.0
8 motion sickness 11.9
9 vestibular neuronitis 11.7
10 geniculate herpes zoster 11.7
11 migraine with or without aura 1 11.6
12 vestibular disease 11.6
13 episodic ataxia 11.5
14 superior semicircular canal dehiscence 11.5
15 cogan syndrome 11.5
16 acoustic neuroma 11.4
17 sudden sensorineural hearing loss 11.4
18 otitis media 11.4
19 otosclerosis 11.4
20 myoclonus and ataxia 11.4
21 migraine with brainstem aura 11.4
22 medulloblastoma 11.4
23 deafness, autosomal dominant 9 11.4
24 episodic ataxia, type 4 11.4
25 patulous eustachian tube 11.4
26 brain stem infarction 11.4
27 fibromuscular dysplasia 11.2
28 deafness, autosomal dominant 6 11.2
29 episodic ataxia, type 5 11.2
30 arachnoid cysts 11.2
31 autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features 11.2
32 camurati-engelmann disease 11.0
33 migraine, familial hemiplegic, 1 11.0
34 sneddon syndrome 11.0
35 basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic, 1 11.0
36 migraine, familial hemiplegic, 2 11.0
37 kanzaki disease 11.0
38 migraine, familial hemiplegic, 3 11.0
39 migraine with or without aura 13 11.0
40 autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy 11.0
41 lateral medullary syndrome 11.0
42 clcn2-related leukoencephalopathy 11.0
43 primary familial brain calcification 11.0
44 paraneoplastic neurologic disorders 11.0
45 subacute cerebellar degeneration 11.0
46 intracranial cysts 11.0
47 paraneoplastic syndromes 11.0
48 ataxia, combined cerebellar and peripheral, with hearing loss and diabetes mellitus 10.9
49 sensorineural hearing loss 10.8
50 branchiootic syndrome 1 10.7

Comorbidity relations with Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Hypertension, Essential

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo:



Diseases related to Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Symptoms:

12
  • vomiting
  • difficulty walking
  • nausea
  • dizziness

UMLS symptoms related to Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo:


vertigo

Drugs & Therapeutics for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

DrugBank drugs 16 :

# Drug Name Indication DrugBank ID
1 Meclizine Indicated for the symptomatic treatment of nausea, vomiting, and dizziness associated with motion sickness,[L6772] and management of vertigo due to various causes, including radiation sickness, Meniere’s syndrome, labyrinthitis and other vestibular disturbances.[L6766] DB00737

Drugs for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 294)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 525-66-6 4946
2
Norepinephrine Approved Phase 4 51-41-2 439260
3
Calcium carbonate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 471-34-1
4
Dimenhydrinate Approved Phase 4 523-87-5 441281
5
Metoclopramide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 364-62-5 4168
6
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1406-66-2, 54-28-4 14986
7
Nicotinamide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 98-92-0 936
8
Caffeine Approved Phase 4 58-08-2 2519
9
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
10
Glycerol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56-81-5 753
11
Phenol Approved, Experimental Phase 4 108-95-2 996
12
Thymol Approved Phase 4 89-83-8 6989
13
Haloperidol Approved Phase 4 52-86-8 3559
14
Flunarizine Approved Phase 4 52468-60-7 941361
15
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68-04-2
16
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
17
Morphine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 57-27-2 5288826
18
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 437-38-7 3345
19
Sotalol Approved Phase 4 959-24-0, 3930-20-9 5253
20
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 5743
21
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 1177-87-3
22
Ciprofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 85721-33-1 2764
23
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 616-91-1 12035
24
Vitamin D3 Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 67-97-0 6221 5280795
25
Ergocalciferol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-14-6 5280793
26
Vitamin D Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 1406-16-2
27
Calcium Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 7440-70-2 271
28
Vitamin E Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-02-9 14985
29
Folic acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-30-3 6037
30
Niacin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 59-67-6 938
31
Citric acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 77-92-9 311
32 Tocotrienol Investigational Phase 4 6829-55-6
33 Ginkgo Phase 4
34 Gastrodia Phase 4
35 Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives Phase 4
36 Plasma Substitutes Phase 4
37 Blood Substitutes Phase 4
38 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
39 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4
40 Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation Phase 4
41 Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors Phase 4
42 Venlafaxine Hydrochloride Phase 4
43 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 4
44 Vitamin D2 Phase 4
45 Vitamins Phase 4
46 Ergocalciferols Phase 4
47 Calciferol Phase 4
48 Calcium, Dietary Phase 4
49 Calcium Supplement Phase 4
50 Bone Density Conservation Agents Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 252)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Effects of Caffeine on Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials in Healthy Unknown status NCT01693809 Phase 4 Caffeine
2 Gastrodin Prevents Cognitive Decline Related to Cardiopulmonary Bypass Unknown status NCT00297245 Phase 4 cognitive function
3 Effects on the Diagnostic Accuracy of Magnetic Imaging Angiographies of the Supra-Aortic Vessels by Three Different Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agents in Patients With Headache and Dizziness or Epilepsy and Clinical Indication for an Angiography by Magnetic Imaging Unknown status NCT00132223 Phase 4 Contrast agent
4 Colloid Preload Versus Colloid Coload in Preventing Spinal Anesthesia-Induced Hypotension During Cesarean Section Deliveries: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Comparative Study Unknown status NCT02393196 Phase 4 hydroxyethyl starch (% 6 HES 130/0.4) (Voluven®);hydroxyethyl starch (%6 HES 130/0.4) (Voluven®)
5 Study Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Endothelial Cell Function and Genetic Effects on the Response to Ginkgo Biloba Extract in Diabetic Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease Unknown status NCT01038050 Phase 4 Ginkgo Biloba Extract (GBE)
6 Effectivity of Propranolol and Venlafaxine in Treatment of Vestibular Migraine: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Completed NCT02350985 Phase 4 Propranolol;Venlafaxine
7 Efficacy of Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation on the Prevention of Recurrences in Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: A Prospective Multicenter Randomized Trial Completed NCT02031692 Phase 4 400IU cholecalciferol and 500mg of elemental calcium as calcium carbonate
8 Comparison of Efficacy Between Piracetam and Dimenhydrinate in Patients With Peripheral Vertigo: A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial Completed NCT01890538 Phase 4 Administration of 100 mg dimenhydrinate intravenous;2 g piracetam intravenous
9 Comparison of Efficacy Dimenhydrinate and Metoclopramide in the Treatment of Nausea Due to Vertigo Completed NCT02253524 Phase 4 Dimenhydrinate;Metoclopramide
10 Effect of Stellate Ganglion Block on Meniere's Disease Completed NCT01574313 Phase 4 0.25mg, fludiazine;25mg cephadol@ (diphenidol);200mg kentons@ (tocopherol nicotinate).
11 Phase 3 Study of Efficacy of Local Overpressure Treatment for Meniere's Disease Completed NCT00831688 Phase 4
12 Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Evaluation of Chlorobutanol, Potassium Carbonate, and Irrigation in Cerumen Removal Completed NCT00765635 Phase 4 drops intilation (Taponoto ® );drops intilation (Otocerum®);drops intilation (Placebo)
13 Is Flunarizine a Cheap, Well-Tolerated and Long-Acting Atypical Antipsychotic? A Randomized Double-Blind Flexible-Dose Clinical Trial Versus Haloperidol for the Treatment of Schizophrenia Completed NCT00740259 Phase 4 Flunarizine
14 A Multicentre, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Study Of The Efficacy and Safety Of Sildenafil Given For The Acute Treatment Of Meniere's Disease Completed NCT00145483 Phase 4 Sildenafil
15 Impact of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Endothelial Function in Type 2 Diabetes Completed NCT02001753 Phase 4
16 Pamukkale University Medical School,Dept. of Emergency Medicine Completed NCT01422291 Phase 4 paracetamol;morphine;Dexketoprofen;Paracetamole
17 A Randomized Double-blind Trial Comparing the Effect of Oral Dimenhydrinate Versus Placebo in Children With Moderate Vomiting Due to Acute Gastroenteritis Completed NCT00124787 Phase 4 Dimenhydrinate;Placebo
18 Effect of Caffeine Intake in Vestibular Function: A Randomized Triple-Blind Controlled Trial Completed NCT02825199 Phase 4
19 A Prospective, Randomized, Double Blind Study Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Fentanyl Nasal Spray to Placebo as an Analgesic, in Patients Undergoing Outpatient Cystoscopic Procedures Completed NCT01708122 Phase 4 Fentanyl;saline
20 Intravenous Paracetamol or Morphine for the Treatment of Acute Flank Pain : a Randomized, Double Blind, Controlled Clinical Trial Completed NCT01318187 Phase 4 paracetamol;morphine;Paracetamol;Paracetamol;Morphine
21 Robust Antibody and Cytokine Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine Among Not-in-treatment Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C:An Open-label Control Study in China Completed NCT02898922 Phase 4
22 Evaluating Immunogenicity and Safety Effect on Combined Immune Effect of EV71 Inactivated Vaccine and HepB、MPSV-A、MR、JE-L:A Multi-center Randomized Controlled Trial Recruiting NCT03519568 Phase 4
23 A Pilot and Feasibility Study to Determine if a Common Atrial Fibrillation Risk Locus Modulates Differential Response to Antiarrhythmic Drugs Recruiting NCT02347111 Phase 4 Flecainide;Sotalol
24 Effects of Perampanel on Neurophysiology Test Perimeters Recruiting NCT03653741 Phase 4 Perampanel 6 MG
25 N-Acetylcysteine as an Adjunct for Refractory Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media Not yet recruiting NCT00956748 Phase 4 Ciprodex;Ciprodex and 2% NAC
26 Gentamicin Treatment Prior to Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery in Patients With Definite Remaining Vestibular Function Suspended NCT02379754 Phase 4 Gentamicins
27 Gentamicin Treatment Prior to Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery in Patients With no Measurable Remaining Vestibular Function Suspended NCT02415257 Phase 4 Gentamicin
28 A Multicenter, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study To Evaluate The Efficacy And Safety Of Betahistine Mesilate In The Treatment Of Patients With Vertigo Caused By Cerebral Infarction In Posterior Circulation Withdrawn NCT00474409 Phase 4 Merislon
29 " National, Phase III, Radomized, Double-Blind, Double -Dummy, Controlled, Parallel to Evaluate Non Inferiority of Meclin® (Meclizine Chlorhydrate) Versus Dramin® (Dimenhydrinate) Soft Gel Capsules in the Control of Acute Vertigo Symphtoms From Peripheral Origin" Unknown status NCT02112578 Phase 3 Meclizine;Dimenhydrinate
30 Assessment of Acyclovir Efficacy Versus Placebo in Controlling Vertigo Attacks of Patients With Meniere's Disease Visited in Amiralam Hospital Unknown status NCT01729767 Phase 2, Phase 3 Acyclovir;Placebo
31 Phase III Open Study, Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized, Comparative to the Positive Control for Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of Auris-Sedina in the Symptomatic Control of Otalgy in Patients With or Without Acute External Otitis. Unknown status NCT00967317 Phase 3 Auris-Sedina;Otosynalar®
32 Minocycline Treatment in Patients With Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Being Treated With Standard of Care Therapy- a Pilot Study Unknown status NCT00203697 Phase 3 minocycline
33 Evaluation of the Effect of Intravenous Lidocaine on Pain Relief and Plasma Concentrations of Interleukins (IL-1 and IL-6) and Substance P in Patients With Fibromyalgia Unknown status NCT01391598 Phase 3 Lidocaine;lidocaine
34 Promethazine vs. Lorazepam for Treatment of Vertigo in the Emergency Department: A Randomized Clinical Trial Completed NCT01827293 Phase 3 Promethazine;Lorazepam
35 Treatment of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo With the Canalith Repositioning Procedure in Family Practice: A Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT00182273 Phase 3
36 Randomized Multicenter Study of Treatment of Horizontal Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Completed NCT00810641 Phase 3
37 The Effectiveness Comparison of Three Different Methods for the Treatment of Posterior Semicircular Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: Prospective, Double Blinded, Randomized, Multicenter Clinical Trial Completed NCT02029508 Phase 3
38 Treatment of Geotropic Horizontal Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo; Randomized Controlled Trial of Barbeque Rotation and Gufoni Maneuver Completed NCT01366430 Phase 3
39 A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Multicenter, Phase 3 Study of OTO-104 Given as a Single Intratympanic Injection in Subjects With Unilateral Meniere's Disease Completed NCT02612337 Phase 3 OTO-104;Placebo
40 Lamotrigine for Ménière's Disease: a Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Pilot Study Completed NCT02158585 Phase 3 Lamotrigine;Placebo
41 Effectiveness of Transtympanic Steroids in Unilateral Ménière's Disease: a Randomised Controlled Double-Blind Trial Completed NCT00802529 Phase 2, Phase 3 Methylprednisolone;Gentamicin
42 The Efficacy of Steroid Therapy in Vestibular Neuritis Confirmed by Head Impulse Test: Prospective Randomized Controlled Study Completed NCT02098330 Phase 3 Ginkgo biloba & Methylprednisolone;Ginkgo biloba
43 Effects of Vertical Prism on the Symptoms of Dizziness, Headache and Anxiety as Caused by Vertical Heterophoria: A Randomized, Double-blinded, Placebo-controlled, Cross-over Study Completed NCT00785135 Phase 3
44 Drotaverine Hydrochloride Versus Hyoscine-N-butylbromide for Duodenal Antimotility During ERCP: a Prospective, Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT00731198 Phase 3 Drotaverine hydrochloride;Hyoscine-N-butylbromide
45 Conventional Versus Virtual Reality Based Vestibular Rehabilitation; Effect on Dizziness, Gait and Balance Completed NCT01442623 Phase 2, Phase 3
46 The Effect of Xolair ® (Omalizumab) in Mastocytosis Patients Prospective Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Multicentre Study, XOLMA-Study Completed NCT01333293 Phase 2, Phase 3 injections
47 Randomized Controlled Double-blind Vs. Placebo Multicentre Study on the Safety and Effectiveness of Thalidomide in the Treatment of Refractory Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis. Completed NCT00720538 Phase 3 Thalidomide;placebo
48 Randomized Trial of Epoetin Alfa in Men With Hormone-refractory Prostate Cancer and Anemia. Completed NCT00364455 Phase 3 Epoetin alfa
49 Therapeutic Use of Piracetam for Treatment of Patients Suffering From Tardive Dyskinesia: a Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study Completed NCT00190008 Phase 3 piracetam
50 A Randomized Clinical Trial to Measure the Impact of Retreatment With an Artemisinin-based Combination on Malaria Incidence and Its Potential Selection of Resistant Strains Completed NCT01374581 Phase 3 Artemether/Lumefantrine;Artesunate/Amodiaquine;Quinine + Clindamycin

Search NIH Clinical Center for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 72 / NDF-RT 51 :


Meclizine

Cochrane evidence based reviews: vertigo

Genetic Tests for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Anatomical Context for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo:

41
Brain, Testes, Cerebellum, Bone, Liver, Endothelial, Kidney

Publications for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Articles related to Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo:

(show all 25)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Description of a new type of benign recurrent vertigo of central origin. 38
29792304 2018
2
Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and video head impulse test in patients with vertigo, dizziness and imbalance. 38
28242131 2017
3
[Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo]. 38
27070476 2016
4
[Vestibular neuritis: treatment and prognosis]. 38
24187751 2013
5
Infratentorial hygroma secondary to decompressive craniectomy after cerebellar infarction. 38
19830371 2009
6
[Causes and diagnostics of dizziness of central origin in children]. 38
20297643 2009
7
Clinical investigation on hypotensive patients with vertigo. 38
16816934 2006
8
[Results of transcranial Doppler examination of cerebral blood flow in children with vertigo]. 38
17348419 2006
9
Differentiation between cerebellopontine angle tumors in cancer patients. 38
12438865 2002
10
Intravenous Lorazepam versus dimenhydrinate for treatment of vertigo in the emergency department: a randomized clinical trial. 38
11020677 2000
11
[Vertigo of central origin in a hypertensive patient]. 38
10730449 2000
12
The effectiveness of piracetam in vertigo. 38
10338110 1999
13
Prochlorperazine versus cinnarizine in cases of vertigo. 38
23119469 1998
14
Smooth pursuit neck torsion test: a specific test for cervical dizziness. 38
9455954 1998
15
Approach to the dizzy patient. 38
7874402 1994
16
Dyscalculia in patients with vertigo. 38
1670135 1990
17
Sudden vertigo of central origin. 38
3261109 1988
18
Flunarizine. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use. 38
6141044 1984
19
Velocity of rapid eye movements and vertigo of central origin. 38
7224516 1981
20
The efficacy of piracetam in vertigo. A double-blind study in patients with vertigo of central origin. 38
7006617 1980
21
[Vertigo of central origin]. 38
4411493 1974
22
Vertigo of Central Origin. 38
19994159 1962
23
Vertigo of central origin. 38
13648026 1959
24
[Vertigo of central origin]. 38
14396083 1955
25
Case of Vertigo of Central Origin. 38
19983920 1924

Variations for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo:

6
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 SCN2A NM_001040142.2(SCN2A): c.2960G> T (p.Ser987Ile) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs796053124 2:166210742-166210742 2:165354232-165354232
2 CLCN1 NM_000083.3(CLCN1): c.568_569delinsTC (p.Gly190Ser) indel Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs797045032 7:143018813-143018814 7:143321720-143321721
3 SLC25A4 NM_001151.4(SLC25A4): c.368C> A (p.Ala123Asp) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs121912683 4:186066174-186066174 4:185145020-185145020
4 TNC NM_002160.4(TNC): c.890A> G (p.Asn297Ser) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs1554717312 9:117849120-117849120 9:115086841-115086841
5 DYNC1H1 NM_001376.5(DYNC1H1): c.13298A> C (p.Asp4433Ala) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs1555412625 14:102514932-102514932 14:102048595-102048595
6 MT-ND6 NC_012920.1: m.14477A> G single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs1556424448 MT:14477-14477 MT:14477-14477

Expression for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo.

Pathways for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

GO Terms for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

Sources for Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 TGDB
71 Tocris
72 UMLS
73 UMLS via Orphanet
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